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3 1833 01080 9132 


Historical Society Papers . 





Secretary Southern Historical Society. 







Defence of Mobile in 1865, by General D. 
H. Maury 1 

Detailed Minutije of Soldier Life, by Carl- 
ton McCarthy 13 

Defence of Fort Gregg, by General James 
H.Lane 19 

Address on the Character of Gen. R. B. 
Lee, by Capt. John Hampden Chamber- 
layne •» 

Defence of Fort Morgan— Reports of Gen- 
eral R. L. Page 3T 

Diary of Captain R. E. Park 43 

Editorial Paragraphs 4T 


General R. H. Anderson's Report of the 
Battle of Gettysburg 49 

Diary of Captain R. K. Park 55 

Battle of Atchafalaya River— Letter from 
General Thomas Green 62 

Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee's Report of 
the Tennessee Campaign 64 

General J. E. B. Stuart's Report of his Ex- 
pedition into Pennsylvania 72 

Letters on the Treatment and Exchange 

of Prisoners 7T 

The Defence of Fort Gregg 82 

Dahlgren's Ride into Fredericksburg 8T 

Editorial Paragraphs 91 


Resources of the Confederacy in 1865— 
Report of Gen. L M. St. John, Commis- 
sary General 9T 

General Early's Valley Campaign, by Gen- 
eral A. L. Long 112 

Diary of Captain R. B. Park 123 

Letter from General A. S. Johnston 128 

Maryland Troops In the Confederate Ser- 
vice, by Lamar Hollyday 130 

Comments on the First Volume of Count 
of Paris' Civil War in America, by Gen- 
eral J. A. Early 140 

The Last Confederate Surrender, by Lleu- 
tenant-General Richard Taylor 155 

Editorial Paragraphs 169 


Report of Major-General Carter L. Steven- 
son of the Tennessee Campaign 161 

The Peace Commission of 1865, by Hon. 
R. M. T. Hunter 168 

Cavalry Operations in May, 1863— Report 
of General J. E. B. Stuart ITT 

Diary of Captain R. E. Park 183 

Field Letters from Stuart's Headquarters, 190 

Zagonyi's Charge with Fremont's Body- 
Guard, by Col. Wm. Preston Johnston. . 195 

The Nation on our Discussion of the Pri- 
son Question WT 

Garnett'a Brigade at Gettysburg 215 

Part taken by the Ninth Virginia Cavalry 
in Repelling the Dahlgren Raid 219 • 

Editorial Paragraphs 222 


Dalton- Atlanta Campaign— Report of Ma- 
jor-General C. L. Stevenson 225 

Battle of Chancellorsville— Report of Gen- 
eral R. E. Lee 230 

Diary of Captain R. E. Park 244 

Torpedoes, by General G. J. Rains, Chief 
of the Confederate Torpedo Service — 255 

Report of Major-General Samuel Jones of 
Operations at Charleston, S. C 261 

Sketch of the Late General 8. Cooper, by 
General Fitz. Lee 269 

Battle of Seven Pines— Report of General 

James Loiigstreet 2T7 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland 

Campaign— Report of General J. K. B. 

Stuart 281 

Field Telegrams *»» 

Editorial Paragraphs 301 

Colonel Charles C. Jones' Confederate 

Roster 306 

siiiEi imim sMEii mm. 

Yol. III. 

Kichniond, Ya., January, 1877. 


The Defence of Mobile in 1865. 

By General Dabney H. Maury. 

[We deem it a valuable service to tlie cause of historic truth to be able to 
present from time to time careful reviews of books about tiie war. And our 
readers will consider us fortunate in liaviiig secured the following review of 
General Andrews' book from the pen of tiie able soldier who made the gal- 
lant defence of Mobile against such overwlielming odds.] 

History of the Campaign of Mobile. 
trand, Publisher, &c. 

By Brevet Major-General C. C. Andrews. D. Van Nos- 

This is an octavo volume of more than 250 pages, prepared in 
1865-6, and entirely devoted to the campaign of Mobile. 

The author manifests extreme pride in the success accomplished 
by the Federal army, in which he held high command. He has 
avowedly endeavored to set forth fairly the facts of the history he 
has undertaken to record, but has shown how difficult was the task 
when the passions of the recent strife were so fresh, j 

The first and second chapters are devoted to the capture by 
Farragut of Forts Morgan and Gaines and Powell. Though they 
are not very accurate, we let them pass. 

Chapter four is very short, but it contains as many errors as can 
well be found in any other chapter not longer. 

It vindicates, as the author thinks, Canby's selection of his base 
of operations, which was made upon the eastern shore of Mobile 
bay, and from which he operated against detached outworks of 
comparatively little importance. 

We were infinitely relieved when we found the attack would be 
there — but never knew why ; and until General Andrews told us 
in this chapter why General Steele's column moved from Pensacola 
up to Pollard, we had been at a loss to account for that movement. 
He says it was to prevent us from escaping Canby's army on the 
eastern shore and making our way to Montgomery ! Such a route 
of escape had never been contemplated by us. We always feared 

2 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

lest he might intercept us on the Mobile and Ohio railroad, by 
which we ultimately moved away unmolested. 

Had Canby landed on Dog river, west of Mobile, and invested 
the city, he would hf»,ve found his work shorter and easier, and 
might have captured my whole army. The city was level and ex- 
posed thr.ughout the whole extent to fire from any direction. 
There were near 40,000 non-combatants within its lines of defence, 
whose sufferings under a seige would soon have paralyzed the de- 
fence by a garrison so small as ours was; and the early evacuation 
would have been inevitable, while it would have been exceedingly 
difficult of accomplishment. Had Canby not made the indefen- 
sible blunder of landing his army at Fish river to attack Mobile, 
the sending of Steele's corps towards Pollard would not have been 
a blunder, for then I might have been forced to try to bring out 
my garrison on that side, and to lead it to Mongomery, and have 
had to drive Steele from my path or surrender to him. 

On page 41 we have an illustration of the Puritan origin of our 
author, in the following: 

"Such of the soldiers as were disposed aesembled in religious 
meetings when circumstances permitted. One pleasant evening, 
in Gilbert's brigade 1,000 men were assembled and * * * 
* * * poured forth their fervent prayers and joined their 
voices in sacred hymns. Nor will those who remember such heroes 
as Havelock deny that piety is a help to valor." 

A little reflection on its illogical results would, perhaps, have 
caused General Andrews to spare us this appeal to the cant loving 
community for whom he writes, and adopt the more simple style 
becoming a military historian of his opportunities. 

Canby was moving with 60,000 soldiers and Farragut's fleet to 
attack 8,000 ill-appointed Confederates, and to capture them. And 
after our little army had withstood his great armament and armada 
for three weeks, and had then bravely made good its retreat. Gen. 
Andrews calls upon his readers to admire the great valor, supple- 
mented by the piety^, of the attacking army, because one pleasant 
night they had prayers and sang hymns in their bivouac in the 
piney woods. 

He tells us Canby's base on Fish river was only twenty miles 
below Spanish Fort; that he occupied nine days in marching that 
distance; that his wing entrenched itself every night — all in a 
strain of grandiloquence conformable with his illustration of its 
piety, and rendered especially absurd to us, who knew that there 

Defence of Mobile. 3 

was no force in Canby's front except about five hundred cavalry 
under Colonel Spence. 

It is true, Spence handled his men with excellent skill and cour- 
age, and no doubt had even praying in a quiet way every night- 
for he made 40,000 Federals move very circumspectly every day', 
and entrench themselves every night against him; and herel will 
say Colonel Spence was one -of the most efficient and comfortable 
out-post commanders I ever had to deal with. He always took what 
was given him and made the most of it. He was devoted, active, 
brave and modest, and did his whole duty to the very last day of 
our existence as an army. 

In my comments on the allusion of General Andrews to praying 
in his camp, I do not mean to dissent from the well understood 
fact that valor and piety often go together, and we do not, above 
all things, wish to incur the suspicion of irreverence. The simple 
unpretending piety which prevailed in the Confederate camps has 
always been the subject of our genuine respect. There has never 
been in any army of modern times a soldiery so sober, so continent, 
so religious or so reliant, as was to be found in the armies of the 
Southern Confederacy ; from our great commander down to the 
youngest privates in the ranks, in all might have been observed 
one high purpose — to stand by the right — and to maintain that 
the support and aid of the God of Battles was daily invoked; and 
that it was not invoked in vain, let the unsurpassed achievements 
of the Confederate troops bear witness. There was never a day 
from the beginning to the end of the war that the chaplains of our 
regiments did not discharge their duty, and as a class there were 
none in our armies who held and who still retain more of the con- 
fidence, the respect and the affection of the Confederate soldiers 
than the Confederate chaplains. No matter what was his sect — 
whether Roman Catholic or Protestant — every soldier knew he had 
in his chaplain a friend, and for many weary weeks after the time 
General Andrews commemorates, he might, had he been with us, 
have daily attended mass performed by the brave priests in the 
camps of our Louisianians, or joined in the simpler devotions 
which were led by the devoted ministers ol the regiments of Ector's 
fierce Texans. 

The piety and the valor which went hand in hand through 
our armies, were not working for naught — and it may yet be, 
even in the lifetime of General Andrews, that Providence, who 
works in a misterious way, may manifest how surely the right will 

4 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

triumph in the end — and that he will live to see and understand 
that the principles we fought to uphold are essential to civil liberty 
in its highest perfection, and the time seems near at hand when 
all the world will know it. 

Page 44, the statement of the strength of the garrison of Mobile 
is very inaccurate. Including 1,500 cavalry and all the available 
fighting men for defence of Mobile, and all its outposts, batteries 
and dependencies, my force did not exceed 9,000 men of all arms! 

The cavalry constituted no part of the defensive force of the 
places attacked, and all of our infantry and a large part of our 
artillery was sent away from Mobile to Spanish Fort and Blakely. 
During the fighting on the eastern shore, the city of Mobile and 
all the works and forts immediately around it were garrisoned by 
scarce 3,000 artillerists ! And by a bold dash, the place could have 
been carried any night during the operations against Spanish Fort. 

Page 48, the author is mistaken in saying we had Parrott guns 
in Spanish Fort. The only Parrott gun we had at that time 
about Mobile was a thirty-pounder Parrott, named " Lady Richard- 
son." We had captured her at Corinth in October, 1862, my Divi- 
sion Chief of Artillery, Colonel William E. Burnett, brought her 
off, and added her to our park of field artillery, and we had kept 
her ever since. 

But we had some cannon better than any Parrott had ever made. 
They were the Brooke guns, made at Selma in the Confederate, 
naval works, of the iron from Briarsfield, Alabama — the best iron 
for making cannon in the world. 

Our Brooke guns at Mobile were rifles, of 11-inch, 10-inch, 7- 
inch and 6/^-inch callibres. They out-ranged the Parrotts, and, 
though subjected to extraordinary service, not one of them was 
ever bursted or even strained. 

The mistakes into which General Andrews has fallen are natu- 
ral and almost inevitable. His real desire to write fairly is evinced 
by the handsome compliments he pays to Confederate officers on 
several occasions, as in case of Lieutenant Sibley, who, with six 
men, boldly attacked the wagon train of Canby's army, brought 
off his spoils, and created a little flutter of alarm all throughout 
the post. 

General Andrews persists in his mistake as to the numbers of 
the garrisons of the respective places, and he counts the same forces 
twice in the same place. Thus, when the "boy brigade" was re- 
lieved in Spanish Fort by the Alabama brigade, the boys were sent 

Defence of Mobile. 5 

away to Blakely: but the author continues to count them as if 
still forming part of Spanish Fort garrison. 

But despite the defects of the work, some of which we have en- 
deavored to illustrate, it is a valuable addition to the history of 
the times, and will probably be the accepted authority on that side 
about the essential history of the last great battle of the war be- 
tween the States, as it is not probable that anybody else will have 
the painstaken industry and, at the same time, the direct personal 
interest in the subject to embody in a form so permanent the events 
of a campaign so brief and so bootless— a campaign which was 
begun when scarce a hope was left of that independence for which 
we had fought four years and was ended after Lee's surrender at 
Appomattox had enshrowed in the pall of utter despair every 
heart that could feel a patriot's glow throughout all our stricken 

Because it was my honor to command that Confederate army at 
Mobile, and my privilege to share its fortunes to the very end, it 
is my duty to record its story. T cannot do so more briefly than 
in the narrative I now reproduce, which was originally written by 
me soon after Mr. Davis, our late honored President, was released 
from arrest on account of his participation in the war of secession. 

He had entrusted me with the command of the Department ot 
the Gulf and the defence of Mobile. I felt a soldier's natural de. 
sire to inform him how that trust had been executed. 

General Andrews' book and excellent maps, in connection with 
the report and comments herein given, will afford to the military 
reader all that is essential to a proper understanding of the last 
great battle which has yet been fought to uphold the rights of the 
States against the encroachments of the Federal power. 

Dabney H. Maury, 

Mojor-General late Confederate Army. 

New Orleans, Louisiana, December 25, 1871. 

To Hon. Jeffeeson Davis. 

Late President Southern Confederacy : 

My dear sir— I avail myself of your permission to narrate 
to you the history of the last great military operation between tlie 
troops of the Confederate States and the troops of the Lniled 

Immediately after the battle of Nasliville, preparations were 
commenced for the reduction of Mobile. Two corps which had 

6 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

been sent to reinforce Thomas at Nashville were promptly returned 
to Canby in New Orleans, and the collection of material and trans- 
portation for a regular siege of Mobile commenced. General Taylor 
agreed with me in the opinion that ten thousand men in Mobile 
would compel a siege by regular approaches, would occupy the 
Federal troops in the Southwest for a long time, and would be as 
much as the Confederacy could spare for such objects. He thought 
he could send me such a force ; and believed that the cavalry under 
Forrest would be able to defeat Wilson and succor me, and prevent 
the successful siege of the place if I could hold out for seven days. 
The general orders given me by General Beauregard and General 
Taylor were to save my garrison, after having defended my position 
as long as was consistent with the ultimate safet}^ of my troops 
and to burn all the cotton in the city, except that which had been 
guaranteed protection against such burning by the Confederate 

Canby organized his forces in Mobile bay and at Pensacola. 
Two army corps rendezvoused on Fish river under the immediate 
command of Canby ; another army corps asseniblt-d at Pensacola 
under General Steele. The whole expeditionary force against 
Mobile consisted of fifty thousand infantry, seven thousand cavalry, 
a very large train of field and siege ariillery, a fleet of more than 
twenty men-of-war, and about fifty transports, mostly steamers. 
The preparations having commenced in December, the attack 
began on the 25th of March. 

My total effective force was seven thousand seven hundred ex- 
cellent infantry and artillery, fifteen hundred cavalry, and about 
three hundred field and siege guns. A naval force of four small 
gunboats co-operated with my troops. 

The column under Canby marched from Fish river against the 
position of Spanish Fort. On March 25th information received 
through the advanced cavalry induced me to believe that the 
column from Fish river was not more than twelve thousand strong; 
and expecting it would march by the river road with its left covered 
by the fleet, I origanized a force of four thousand five hundred in- 
fantry and ten guns, and resolved to give battle to Canby at the 
crossing of D'Olive creek, about two miles distant i'rom the works 
of Spanish Fort. The troops ordered for this service were the 
Missouri brigade of Cockrell, Gibson's Louisiana brigade, Ector's 
Texas and North Carolina brigade, and Thomas' brigade of Ala- 
bama boy-reserves, the third Missouri battery and Culpeper's 
battery, I felt confident then, and the light of experience justifies 
the confidence, that had Canby marched upon us with only twelve 
thousand troops, we should have beaten him in the field; but lie 
moved by a road which turned our position far to the lelt, and his 
force was near forty thousand men. I therefore moved the troops 
into Spanish Fort and Blakely, and awaited his attack in them. I' 
assigned General St. John Liddell to tlie immediate command of 
Blakely, and General Randall Gibson to the immediate command 

Defence of Mobile. 7 

of Spanish Fort. They were both gentlemen of birth and breeding, 
soldiers of good education and experience, and entirely devoted to 
their duty. Spanish Fort was garrisoned by Gibson's Louisiana 
brigade, the brigade of Alabama boy-reserves, part of the twenty- 
second Louisiana regiment (heavy artillerists), Slocomb's battery 
of light artillery, Massenberg's (Georgia) light artillery company, 
and a few others not now remembered. 

The works of Spanish Fort consisted of a heavy battery of six 
guns on a blufi" of the left bank of the Apalachie river, three 
thousand yards below Battery Huger. This was strongly enclosed 
in the rear. On commanding eminences five hundred to six 
hundred yards to its rear were erected three other redoubts, which 
were connected by light rifle-pits with each other. The wl)ole crest 
of the line of defence was about two thousand five hundred yards, 
and swept around old Spanish Fort as a centre, with the right flank 
resting on Apalachie river, the left flank resting on Bayou Minette. 
At first the garrison consisted of about two thousand five hundred 
efl'ectives, but I reduced its numbers by transferring the brigade of 
boy-reserves to Bhikely, and replacing it by veterans of Ector's 
brigade and Holtzelaw's Alabama brigade. After this change was 
made (about the fourth day of the siege) the position wtis held by 
fifteen hundred muskets and less than three hundred artillerists 

On the twenty-sixth of March, Canby invested tlie position with 
a force of one corps and two divisions of infantry, and a large siege 
train; another division of infantry invested Blakely on the same 
day. The siege of Spanish Fort was at once commenced by regular 
approaches, and was prosecuted with great industry and caution. 
The defence was active, bold and defiant. The garrison fought all 
day and worked all night, until the night of April 8th, when the 
enemy eff"ected a lodgment on the left flank which threatened to 
close the route of evacuation for the garrison. I had caused a 
plank road or bridge about one mile long to be made on trestles 
from the left flank of the lines of Spanish Fort, over the Bayou 
'Minette and the marshes, to a. point opposite Battery Huger; and 
General Gibson's orders were to save his garrison, when tlie siege 
had been protracted as long as possible without losing his troops, 
by marching out over this bridge. On the eighth of April 1 ordered 
Gibson to commence the evacuation that nigiit, by sending over to 
Mobile all surplus stores, etc., for which ])urpose I sent him some 
of the blockade steamers. They arrived in good time to save his 
garrison, for at 10 P. M. Gibson, finding the enemy too firmly estab- 
lished on his left to be dislodged, in obedience to his orders inarched 
his garrison out on the plank road, and abandoned the position of 
Spanish Fort and its material to the enemy. He lost some 
pickets and about thirty-five cannon and mortars. I moved the 
troops to Mobile, anticipating an early attack on the city. I con- 
sider the defence of Spanish Fort by General Gibson and the 
gentlemen of his command one of tlie most spirited defences ot 
the war. 

g Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Blakely was atta<;ked by regular siege on the 1st of April, Steele's 
corps came down from the direction of Pollard, and with the divi- 
sions that had been lying before Blakely since the 26th, broke 
ground very cautiously against the place. The position of Blakely 
was better for defence than that of Spanish Fort. The works con- 
sisted of nine lunettes connected by good rifle-pits, and covered in 
front by a double line of abatis, and of an advanced line of rifle- 
pits. The crest was about three thousand yards long. Both flanks 
rested on Apalachie river, on the marsh. No part of the line was 
exposed to enfilade fire. Thtf garrison was the noble brigade of 
Missourians, Elisha Gates commanding, the survivors of more than 
twenty battles, and the finest troops I have ever seen; the Alabama 
boy-reserve brigade under General Thomas, part of Holtzelaw's 
brigade, Barry's Mississippi brigade, the First Mississippi light 
artillery armed as infantry, several light batteries with about thirty 
five pieces of field and siege artillery, besides Cohorn and siege 
mortars. The whole eff"ective force was about 2,700 men under 
General St. John Liddell. The gallant General Cockrell of Mis- 
souri was next in command. 

During Sunday, the day after the evacuation of Spanish Fort, 
the enemy was continually moving troops from below towards 
Blakely, and Sunday evening about five o'clock he assaulted the 
centre of the line with a heavy column of eleven brigades (about 
22,000 men in three lines of battle) and carried the position, 
capturing all of the material and of the troops, except about 150 
men, who escaped over the marshes and river by swimming. On 
the loss of Blakely I resolved to evacuate Mobile. My effective 
force was now reduced to less than 5,000 men, and the supply of 
ammunition had been nearly exhausted in the siege of the two 
position which the enemy had taken from me. Mobile contained 
nearly forty thousand non-combatants. The city and its population 
were entirely exposed to the fire which would be directed against 
its defences. With the means now left me an obstinate or pro- 
tracted defence would have been impossible, while the consequences 
of its being stormed by a combined force of Federal and negro 
troops would have been shocking — my orders were to save my 
troops, after having made as much time as possible — therefore I 
decided to evacuate Mobile at once. BlakeJy was carried on Sunday 
evening at 5 o'clock; I completed the evacuation of Mobile on 
Wednesday morning, having dismantled the works, removed the 
stores best suited for troops in the field, transferred the commissary 
stores to the Mayor for the use of the people, and marched out 
with 4,500 infantry and artillery, twenty-seven light cannon, and 
brought off all the land and water transportation. 

During the night of Tuesday I remained in the city with the 
rear guard of 300 Louisiana infantry, commanded by Colonel Robert 
Lindsey, and marched out on Wednesday morning with them at 
sunrise. I left General Gibson to see to the withdrawrl of the 
cavalry pickets and the burning of the cotton. At 11 o'clock, 

Defence of Mobile. ' $ 

the whole business of evacuation being completed, General Gibson 
sent a white flag to the fleet to inform the enemy that he might 
take quiet possession of Mobile, since there was" no Confederate 
force to oppose him. Soon after midday Canby marched in. Six 
thousand cavalry had been sent up the country from Pensacola to 
prevent my escape; but they could not get across the Alabama 
and Tombigbee rivers, which with their bottoms were flooded, and 
I reached Meridian with my army unopposed. No active pursuit 
was made. By General Taylor's orders I moved the troops to Cuba 
station, refitted the transportation and field batteries, and made 
ready to march across and join General Joseph E. Johnston in 
Carolina. The tidings of Lee's surrender soon came, then of the 
capture of the President of the Confederacy. But under all these 
sad and depressing trials, the little army of Mobile remained 
steadfastly together, and in perfect order and discipline awaited 
the final issue of events. 

On the 8th of May we marched back to Meridian to surrender, 
and on the 13th of May we had completed the turning in of arms 
(to our own ordnance officers), and the last of us departed for his 
home a paroled prisoner of war. 

Nothing in the history of those anxious days appears to me 
more touching and devoted than the conduct of the garrison of 
Mobile. Representatives of every State in the Southern Confede- 
racy, veterans of every army and of scores of battles, they resisted 
an army of ten-fold their numbers, until near half their force was 
destroyed, and then made good their retreat in good order. After 
reaching their encampment near Cuba, they preserved the dignity 
of brave and devoted men who had staked all and lost all save 
honor. Every night they assembled around the camp-fires of their 
generals and called for tidings from the army of the Conl'ederacy 
and from their President. After receiving ail of the information 
we could impart, they would give us "three cheers'' and return to 
their bivouacs. I think there was no day on which they would 
not have attacked and beaten a superior force of the enemy. 

During the fourteen days of siege of Spanish Fort, the daily loss 
of the garrison in killed and wounded ranged from fifteen to twenty. 
During the eight days of the siege of Blakely, the losses were from 
twenty to twenty-five daily. The only officer of rank killed was 
my Chief of Artillery, Colonel W. E. Burnett, son of the venerable 
ex-President of Texas. He was a man of rare attainments, of 
extraordinary military capacity, of unshrinking courage, and pure 
character. On the morning of April 4th I took him with me to 
Spanish Fort to establish a new battery: a sharpshooter shot him 
in the forehead, and he died in a few hours. 

There were many instances of fine conduct during these opera- 
tions. You may remember there were two little batteries con- 
structed on the right bank of the Apalachie river, several miles 
below Blakely, called "Huger"and "Tracey"; they were to defend 
that river, they had but little over two hundred rounds ot am- 


10 Southern Histcrlcal Society Papers. 

munition to each gun; therefore I made them hold their fire during 
the whole siege. The garrisons of these batteries were 300 men of 
the Twenty-second Louisiana, under the command of Colonel 
Patton, of Virginia. Early in the action the enemy opened some 
Parrott batteries on these forts, and for more than ten days they 
silently received the fire which they might not reply to. After 
Blakely fell, these two little outposts remained close to the centre 
of the army of the enemy (50,000 men), who were continually 
opening new guns upon them and incrensing their fire; still they 
replied not. On their right lay the great Federal fleet; ten miles 
to their rear was their nearest support — in Mobile — and a waste of 
marshes and water lay between. At last came to them the long 
looked for order: "Open all your guns upon the enemy, keep up 
an active fire, and hold your position until you receive orders to 
retire." And so they did, until late on Tuesday night I sent Major 
Cummins, of my staff, to inform them the evacuation of Mobile 
was complete, their whole duty was performed, and they might 
retire. The first steamer I sent for them grounded, and I had 
(about 2 A. M.) to dispatch another. Every man was brought 
safely off, with his small arms and ammunition — they dismantled 
their batteries before they abandoned them — and it was nine o'clock 
Wednesday morning before they left the wharf of Mobile for 

These garrisons fired the last cannon in the last great battle of 
the war for the freedom of the Southern States. I believe the 
enemy's loss during all these operations was not less than 7,000 
killed and wounded. Two of his ironclads were sunk on Apalachie 
bar by torpedoes; four other armed vessels and five transports were 
sunk during and after the siege — making, with the Tecumseh, twelve 
hostile vessels destroyed in Mobile bay by the torpedoes. 

Our own little fleet did all they could to aid the defence, but 
there Avas little opportunity for them. On the morning of the 
evacuation, the two floating batteries were sunk in the river by 
their own crews. The other vessels were moved up the Tombigbee 
river to Demopolis, in convoy of the fleet of transports. 

I reflect with satisfaction that it was my privilege to command 
Confederate troops in our last great battle, and that those troops 
behaved to the last with so much courage and dignity. 
With highest respect, I remain truly yours, 

Dabney H. Maury, 

Major-General late Confer! er ate Army^ 
Frisoner of War on Parole. 

Remarks, Etc. 

During the siege of Spanish Fort the expenditure of small-arm 
ammunition was very great. The garrison at first fired 36,000 
rounds per day ; the young reserves spent it freely. The old Texans 
and veterans from North Carolina and Alabama, who replaced the 

Defence of Mobile. H 

brigade of boys, were more deliberate and careful of their ammu- 
nition, and we reduced its expenditure to 12,000 rounds per day. 

Tiie torpedoes were the most striking and effective of the new 
contrivance for defence which were used during these operations. 
Every avenue of approach to the outwnrl<s or to the city of Mobile 
was guarded by submarine torpedoes, so that it was impossible for 
any vessel draAving three feet of water to get within effective cannon 
range of any part of our defences. Two ironclads attempted to get 
near enough to Spanish Fort to take part in the bombardment. 
They both suddenly struck the bottom on Apalachie bar, and 
thenceforward the fleet made no further attempt to encounter the 
almost certain destruction which they saw awaited any vessel which 
might attempt to enter our torpedo-guarded waters. But many 
were sunk when least expecting it. Some went down long after 
the Confederate forces had evacuated Mobile. The Tecumseh was 
probably sunk on her own torpedo. While steaming in lead of 
Farragut's fleet she carried a torpedo affixed to a spar which pro- 
jected some twenty feet from her bows; she proposed to use this 
torpedo against the Tennessee, our only formidable ship; but while 
passing Fort Morgan a shot from that fort cut away the stays by 
which the lecuwseK's torpedo was secured; it then doubled under 
her, and exploding fair]}'- under the bottom of the ill-fated ship, 
she careened and sunk instantly in ten fathoms of water. Only 
six or eight of her crew of one hundred and fifty officers and men 
were saved — the others still lie in their iron coffin at the bottom of 
the bay. Besides the Tecumseh, eleven other Federal vessels, men- 
of-war and transports, were sunk by torpedoes in Mobile bay; and 
their effectiveness as a means of defence of harbors was clearly 
established by the results of this siege. Had we understood their 
power in the beginning of the war as we came to do before its end, 
we could have effectually defended every harbor, channel or river 
throughout the Confederate States against all sorts of naval attacks. 
It is noteworthy that the Confederate ironclad Virginia, by her 
fearful destruction of the Federal war-ships in Hampton Roads 
early in the war, caused all the maritime powers of the world to 
remodel their navies and build ironclads at enormous expense, 
only to learn by the Confederate lessons of Mobile that ironclads 
cannot avail against torpedoes; for, as the Federal naval captain 
who had been engaged in clearing Mobile bay of the torpedoes and 
of the wrecks they had made, after the close of the war remarked 
to the writer: "It makes no difference whether a ship is of wood, 
or is tin clad, or is iron-clad, if she gets over a torpedo it blows the 
same size hole in the bottom of all alike, which I found on an 
average to be just twelve feet by eight square." He furthermore 
stated that he- had ascertained that in every instance but one of 
the wrecks in Mobile bay, the vessel had been sunk while backmg— 
only one exploded a torpedo while going ahead. 

During the fight in Spanish Fort our cannoniers found effectual 
protection from the extraordinarily heavy fire of sharpshooters m 

12 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

mantlets or screens, made by plates of steel about two feet by three 
square, and about half-inch thick; they were so secured to the 
inner faces of the embrasures that thoy were quickly lowered and 
raised as the gun ran into battery or recoiled. General Beauregard, 
before the battle began, gave me the model of a capital sort of 
wooden embrasure, to be used by our own sharpshooters; they were 
to be covered over by sand-bags as soon as the rifleman should 
establish himself in his pit. The old veterans of the Army of 
Tennessee at once acknowledged their superiority over " head logs,*' 
or any other contrivance for covering sharpshooters, and the demand 
for them was soon greater than I could supply. 

The Brooke guns, of which I had a large number, of calibres 
ranging from six and four-tenths up to eleven inches, were more 
formidable and serviceable than any which the Federals used 
against me. These guns were cast at Selma of the iron about 
Briarfield in North Alabama. It must be the best gun-metal in 
the world. Some of our Brooke guns were subjected to extraordi- 
narily severe tests, yet not one of them burst or was in any degree 
injured: nt the same time they outranged the enemy's best and 
heaviest Parrotts, which not unlrequently burst by overcharging 
and over-elevation. 

By a capital invention of Colonel William E. Burnett, of Texas, 
our gun-carriages were much simplified; we were enabled to dis- 
pense with eccentrics entirely, and our heaviest cannon could be 
run into battery with one hand. 

In every })art of this narrative I have been thinking of the staff 
officers who were with me throughout the whole of those trying 
tinjes — friends who have always been true and soldiers who were 
tried by every test. Whatever efficiency attended the operations en- 
trusted to my conduct throughout the war, was due to their intelli- 
gence, courage and devotion. Three of them sleep in their soldier's 
graves, and were in mercy spared the miseries of the subjugation 
against which they fought so nobly. John Maury, m}^ Aidede- 
Camp, gave up his young life at Vicksburg, in 1863; Columbus 
Jackson, Inspector General, soon followed him, and William E. 
Burnett, Chief of Artillery, fell in Spanish Fort, and was almost 
the last officer killed during the war. 

D. W. Flowewee, Adjutant-General ; John Gillespie, Ordnance 
Officer; Edmund Cummings, Inspector-General; Sylvester Nideleh, 
Surgeon; Dick Holland and John Mason, Aides-de-Camp, survived 
the dangers of those arduous campaigns, and are still manfully 
combatting the evils we fought togetlier to avert from our people. 
They were gallant soldiers in war, and have shown themselves 
good citizens in the "peace" vouchsafed to us. 

D. H. M. 

Detailed Minutise of Soldier Life. 13 

The following farewell order was published to the troops who 
remained with me after the battle of Mobile: 

Headquarteks Maury's Division, 
Camp six miles east of Meridian, Mississippi, May 7, 1865. 

Soldiers— Our last march is almost ended. To-morrow we shall 
lay down the arms we have borne for four years to defend our rights, 
to win our liberties. 

We know that we have borne them with honor; and we only 
now surrender to the overwhelming power of the enemy, which 
has rendered further resistance hopeless and mischievous lo our 
own people and cause. But we shall never forget the noble com- 
rades who have stood shoulder to shoulder with us until now; the 
noble dead who have been martyred; the noble Southern women 
who have been wronged and are unavenged; or the noble princi- 
ples for which we have fought. Conscious that we have phiyed 
our part like men, confident of the righteousness of our cause, 
without regret for our past action, and without despair of the 
future, let us to-morrow, with the dignity of the veterans who are 
the last to surrender, perform the sad duty which has been assigned 
to us. 

Your friend and comrade, 

Dabney H. Maury, 
Major-General Confederate Army. 

Detailed Minntiee of Soldier Life in the Army of Nortliern Tirgrinia. 

By Caklton McCarthy, 
Private Second Company Blchmond Howitzers, Cutshaw's Battalion. 

Paper No. 3 — On the March. 

It is a common mistake of those who write on subjects familiar 
to themselves, to omit that particularity of description and detailed 
mention which, to one not so conversant with the matters discussed, 
is necessary to a clear appreciation of the meaning of the writer. 
This mistake is all the more fatal when the writer lives and writes 
in one age and his readers live in another. 

And so a soldier, writing for the information of the citizen, should 
forget his familiarity with the every-day scenes of soldier life and 
strive to record even those things which seem to him too common 
to mention. Who does not know all about the marching of sol- 
diers? Those who have never marched with them and some who 
have. The varied experience of thousands would not tell the 
whole story of the march. Every man must be heard before the 

14 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

story is told, and even then the part of those who fell by the way 
is wanting. 

Orders to move! Where? when? what for? — are the eager ques- 
tions of the men as they begin their preparations to march. Gen- 
erally nobody can answer, and the journey is commenced in utter 
ignorance of where it is to end. But shrewd guesses are made, and 
scraps of information will be picked up on the way. The main 
thought must be to "get ready to move." The orderly sergeant is 
shouting "fall in," and there is no time to lose. The probability is 
that before you get your blanket rolled up, find your frying pan, 
haversack, axe, &c., and "fall in," the roll-call will be over, and 
some " extra duty " provided. 

No wonder there is bustle in the camp. Rapid decisions are to 
be made between the various conveniences which have accumu- 
lated, for some must be left. One fellow picks up the skillet, holds 
it awhile, mentally determining how much it weighs, and what 
will be the weight of it after carrying it five miles, and reluctantly, 
with a half-ashamed, sly look, drops it and takes his place in ranks. 
Another having added to his store of blankets too freely, now has 
to decide which of the two or three he will leave. The old water- 
bucket looks large and heavy, but one stout-hearted, strong-armed 
man has taken it affectionately to his care. 

This is the time to say farewell to the bread-tray, farewell to the 
little piles of clean straw laid between two logs, where it was so 
easy to sleep; farewell to those piles of wood, cut with so much 
labor; farewell to the girls in the neighborhood; farewell to the 
spring, farewell to "our tree" and "our fire," good-bye to the fel- 
lows who are not going, and a general good-bye to the very hills 
and valleys. 

Soldiers commonly threw away the most valuable articles they 
possessed. Bhmkets, overcoats, shoes, bread and meat, — all gave 
way to the necessities of the march; and what one man threw away 
would frequently be the very article another wanted and would 
immediately pick up. So there was not much lost after all. 

The first hour or so of the march was generally quite orderly — 
the men preserving their places in ranks and marching with a good 
show of order; but soon some lively fellow whistles an air, some- 
body else starts a song, the whole column breaks out with roars of 
laughter, ''route step" takes the place of order, and the jolly sing- 
ing, laughing, talking and joking that follows none could describe. 

Now let any young officer dare to pass along who sports a new 

Detailed Minutiae of Soldier Life. 15 

hat, coat, saddle, or anything new, or odd, or fine, and how nicely 
he is attended to. 

The expressions of good-natured fun, or contempt, which one 
regiment of inftmtry was capable of uttering in a day for the bene- 
fit of passers by, would fill a volume. As one thing or another 
in the dress of the "subject" of their remarks attracted attention, 
they would shout, "Come out of that hat!! — you can't hide in 
thar!" "Come out of that coat, come out — there's a man in it!!" 
" Come out of them boots!!" The infantry seemed to know ex- 
actly what to say to torment cavalry and artillery. 

If any one on the roadside was simple enough to recognize and 
address by name a man in the ranks, the whole column would 
kindly respond, and add all sorts of pleasant remarks, such as, 
"Halloa, John, here's your brother!" "Bill!! oh Bill!!! hers's 
your ma ! " " Glad to see you ! — How's your grandma? " " How- 
dey do!" "Come out of that 'biled shirt'!" 

Troops on the march were generally so cheerful and gay that an 
outsider looking on them as they marched would hardly imagine 
how they suffered. In summer time, the dust, combined with the 
heat, caused great suffering. The nostrils of the men, filled with 
dust, became dry and feverish, and even the throat did not escape. 
The "grit" was felt between the teeth, and the eyes were rendered 
almost useless. There was dust in eyes, mouth, ears and hair. The 
shoes were full of sand, and penetrating the clothes, and getting in 
at the neck, wrists, and ankles, the dust, mixed with perspiration, 
produced an irritant almost as active as cantharides. The heat 
was at times. terrific, but the men become greatly accustomed to it, 
and endured it with wonderful ease. Their heavy woollen clothes 
were a great annoyance. Tough linen or cotton clothes would 
have been a great relief; indeed, there are many objections to 
woollen clothing for soldiers even in winter. The sun produced 
great changes in the appearance of the men. Their skins were 
tanned to a dark brown or red, their hands black almost, and, 
added to this the long, uncut beard and hair, they too burned to a 
strange color, made them barely recognizable to the homefolks. 

If the dust and the heat were not on hand to annoy, their very 
able substitutes were. Mud, cold, rain, snow, hail and wind took 
their places. Rain was the greatest discomfort a soldier could have. 
It was more uncomfortable than the severest cold with clear 
weather. Wet clothes, shoes and blankets; wet meat and bread ; 
wet feet and wet ground; wet wood to burn, or, rather, not to burn; 

16 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

wet arms and ammunition; wet ground to sleep on, mud to 
wade through, swollen creeks to ford, muddy springs, and a thou- 
sand other discomforts attended the rain. There was no comfort 
on a rainy day or night except in "bed"— that is, under your 
blanket and oilcloth. Cold winds, blowing the rain in the faces 
of the men, increased the discomfort. Mud was often so deep as 
to submerge the horses and mules, and at times it was necessary for 
one man or more to extricate another from the mud holes in the 

Marching at night, when very dark, was attended with additional 
discomforts and dangers, such as falling ofif bridges, stumbling into 
ditches, tearing the face and injuring the eyes against the bushes 
and projecting limbs of trees, and getting separated from your own 
company and hopelessly lost in the multitude. 

Of course, a man lost had no sympathy. If he dared to ask a 
question, every man in hearing would answer, each differently, and 
then the whole multitude would roar with laughter at the lost man, 
and ask him "if his mother knew he was out?" 

Very few men had comfortable or fitting shoes, and less had 
socks, and, as a consequence, the suffering from bruised and in- 
flamed feet was terrible. It was a common practice, on long 
marches, for the men to take ofif their shoes and carry them in 
their hands or swung over their shoulder. 

When large bodies of troops were moving on the same road 
the alternate "halt" and "forward" was very harassing. Every 
obstacle produced a halt and caused the men at once to sit and lie 
down on the road-side where shade or grass tempted them, and 
about the time they got fixed they would hear the word "for- 
ward!" and then have to move at increased speed to close up the 
gap in the column. 

Sitting down for a few minutes on a long march is pleasant, but 
it does not always pa3^ When the march is resumed the limbs 
are stiff and sore, and the man rather worsted by the rest. 

About noon on a hot day, some fellow with the water instinct 
would determine in his own mind that a well was not far ahead, 
and start ofif in a trot to reach it before the column. Of course 
another followed and another, till a stream of men were hurrying 
to the well, which was soon completely surrounded by a thirsty mob, 
yelling and pushing and pulling to get to the bucket as the wind- 
lass brought it again and again to the surface. Impatience and 
haste soon overturn the windlass, spatter the water all around the 

Detailed Minutix of Soldier Life. 17 

well till the whole crowd is wading in mud, and now the rope is 
broken and the bucket falls to the bottom. But there is a substi- 
tute for rope and bucket. The men hasten away and get long, 
slim poles, and on them tie, by their straps, a number of canteens, 
which they lower into the well and fill, and unless, as was fre- 
quently the case, the whole lot slipped off and fell to the bottom, 
drew them to the top and distributed them to their owners, who 
at once threw their heads back, inserted the nozzles in their mouths 
and drank the last drop, hastening at once to rejoin the marching 
column, leaving behind them a dismantled and dry well. It was 
in vain the officers tried to stop the stream making for the water, 
and equally vain to attempt to move the crowd while a drop re- 
mained accessible. Many who were thoughtful carried full can- 
teens to comrades in the column who had not been able to get to 
the well, and no one who has not had experience of it knows the 
thrill of gratification and delight which those fellows knew when 
the cool stream gurgled from the battered canteen down their 
parched throats. 

In very hot weather, when the necessities of the service allowed it, 
there was a halt about noon, of an hour or so, to rest the men and 
give them a chance to cool oflf and get the sand and gravel out of 
their shoes. This time was spent by some in absolute repose — 
but the lively "boys told many a yarn, cracked many a joke, and 
sung many a song between " halt " and " column forward ! " Some 
took the opportunity, if water was near, to bathe their feet, hands 
and face, and nothing could be more enjoyable. 

The passage of a cider cart (a barrel on wheels) was a rare and 
exciting occurrence. The rapidity with which a barrel of sweet 
cider was consumed would astonish any one who saw it for the first 
time, and generally the owner had cause to wonder at the small 
return in cash. Sometimes a desperately enterprising darkey would 
approach the column with a cart load of pies "so called." It 
would be impossible to describe accurately the taste or appearance 
of these pies. They were generally similar in appearance, size 
and thickness to a pale specimen of "Old Virginia" buckwheat 
cakes, and had a taste which resembled a combination of rancid 
lard and crab apples. It was generally supposed that they con- 
tained dried apples, and the sellers were careful to state that they 
had "sugar in 'em" and "was mighty nice." It was rarely the 
case that any "trace" of sugar was found, but they filled up a 
hungry man wonderfully. 

18 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Men of sense, and there were many such in the ranks, were neces- 
sarily desious of knowing where or how far they were to march, and 
suffered greatly from a feeling of helpless ignorance of where they 
were and whither bound — whether to battle or camp. Frequently, 
when anticipating the quiet and rest of an ideal camp, they were 
thrown, weary and exhausted, into the face of a waiting enemy; 
and at times, after anticipating a sharp fight, having formed line of 
battle and braced themselves for the coming danger, suffered all 
the apprehension and gotten themselves in good fighting trim^ 
they would be marched off in the dryest and prosiest sort of style 
and ordered into camp, where, in all probability, they had to "wait 
for the wagon," and for the bread and meat therein, until the pro- 
verb, "Patient waiting is no loss," lost all its force and beauty. 

Occasionally, when the column extended for a mile or more, and 
the road was one dense moving mass of men, a cheer would be 
heard away ahead and increasing in volume as it approached until 
there was one universal shout. Then some general favorite officer 
would dash by, followed by his staff, and explain the cause. 

At other times, the same cheering and enthusiasm would result 
from the passage down the column of some obscure and despised 
officer, who knew it was all a joke, and looked mean and sheepish 

The men would generally help each other in real distress, but 
their delight was to torment any one who was unfortunate in a 
ridiculous way. If, for instance, a piece of artillery was fast in the 
mud, the infantry and cavalry passing around the obstruction 
would rack their brains for words and phrases applicable to the 
situation and most calculated to worry the cannoniers who, waist 
deep in the mud, are tugging at the wheels. 

Brass bands, at first quite numerous and good, became very rare 
and the music very poor in the latter years of the war. It was a 
fine thing to see the fellows trying to keep the music going as they 
waded through the mud. But poor as the music was, it helped the 
footsore and weary to make another mile, and encouraged a cheer 
and a brisker step from the lagging and tired column. 

As the men became tired, there was less and less talking, until 
the whole mass became quiet and serious. Each man was occupied 
with his own thoughts. For miles nothing could be heard but the 
steady tramp of the men, the rattling and jingling of canteens and 
accoutrements, and the occasional "close up, men, — close up!" of 
the officers. 

Defence of Fort Gregg. jg 

As evening came on, questioning of the officers was in order, and 
for an hour it would be, "Captain, when are we going into camp?" 

"I say, lieutenant! are we going to or to blank?" "Seen 

anything of our wagon?" "How long are we to stay here?"— 
"Where's the spring?" Sometimes these questions were meant 
simply to tease, but generally they betrayed anxiety of some sort, 
and a close observer would easily detect the seriousness of the man 
who asked after "our wagon," because bespoke feelingly as one 
who wanted his supper and was in doubt as to whether' or not he 
would get it. 

Many a poor fellow dropped in the road and breathed his last in 
the corner of a fence, with no one to hear his last fond mention of 
his loved ones. And many whose ambition it was to share every 
danger 'and discomfort with their comradrs, overcome by the heat 
or worn out with disease, were compelled to leave the ranks, and 
while friend and brother marched to battle, drag their weak and 
staggering frames to the rear, perhaps to die, pitiably alone, in 
some hospital, and be buried as one more "Unknown." 

An accomplished straggler could assume more misery, look more 
horribly emaciated, tell more dismal stories of distress, eat more 
and march further (to the rear), than any ten ordinary men 
Most stragglers were real sufferers, but many of them were inge- 
nious liars, energetic foragers, plunder hunters and gormandizers. * 
Thousands who kept their place in ranks to the very end were 
equally as tired, as sick, as hungry and as hopeless as these scampp, 
but too proud to tell it or use it as a means of escape from hard- 

Defence of Fort Gregg. 

[The heroic defence of Fort Gregg showed the spirit of the remnant of onr 
grand old army, and illumines the sad page of its history which tells of the 
closing scenes of the '•'•Defence of Petersburg.'''' We have never seen in 
print ony official account of the brilliant aft'air, and are glad to be able to 
present the following from the original MS. report kindly furnislied us by 
General James H. Lane.] 


Appomattox Courthouse, April 10, 1865. 
Major : 

I have the honor to report that on the night of the 1st of 
April, four regiments of my brigade, with intervals between the 
men varying from six to ten paces, were stretched along the works 

20 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

between Battery Gregg and Hatchers' run, in the following order 
from right to left: Twenty-eighth, Thirty-seventh, Eighteenth, 
Thirty-third — the right of the Twenty-eighth resting near the brown 
house in front of General McRae's winterquarters, and the left of 
the Thirty-third on the branch near Mrs. Banks'. 

The enemy commenced shelling my line from several batteries 
about nine o'clock that night, and the picket lines in my front 
opened fire at a quarter to two o'clock the following morning. The 
skirmishers from McGowan's brigade, who covered the works held 
by my command, were driven in at a quarter to five o'clock, and 
my line was pierced by the enemy in strong force at the ravine in 
front of the right of the Thirty-seventh near General McGowan's 
headquarters. The Twenty-eighth, enfiladed on the left by this 
force, and on the right by the force that had previously broken the 
troops to our right, was forced to fall back to the Plank road. The 
enemy on its left took possession of this road and forced it to fall 
still further back to the Cox road, where it skirmished with the 
enemy and supported a battery of artillery, by order of Brigadier- 
General Pendleton. The other regiments fought the enemy between 
McGowan's winterquarters and these occupied by my brigade, and 
were driven back. They then made a stand in the winterquarters 
of the right regiment of my command, but were again broken, a 
part retreating along the works to the left, and the remainder going 
to the rear. These last, under Colonel Cowan, made a stand on 
the hill to the right of Mrs. Banks ', but were forced back to the 
Plank road, along which they skirmished for some time, and then 
fell back to the Cox' road, where they supported a battery of 
artillery, by order of Lieutenant- General Longstreet. That portion 
of my command which retreated along the works to the left, made 
two more unsuccessful attempts to resist the enemy, the last stand 
being made in the Church road leading to the Jones House. It 
then fell back to Battery Gregg and the battery to its left; but 
udder Major Wooten, and assisted by a part of Thomas' brigade, 
it soon after charged the enemy, by order of Major-General Wilcox, 
and cleared the works as far as the branch on which the left of the 
Thirty-third rested the night previous. Here we were rejoined by 
Colonel Cowan, and we deployed as skirmishes to the left of the 
Church road and perpendicular to the works, but did not hold this 
position long, as we were attacked by a strong line of skirmishers, 
supported by two strong lines of battle. A part of us retreated tq 

Defence of Fort Gregg. 21 

Battery Gregg, and the rest to the new line of works near the 
" Dam." Battery Gregg was subsequently attacked by an immense 
force, and fell after the most gallant and desperate defence. Our 
men bayonetted many of the enemy as they mounted the parapet. 
After the fall of this battery, the rest of my command along the 
new line was attacked in front and flank and driven back to the 
old line of works running northwest from Battery 45, where it 
remained until the evacuation of Petersburg. We were here re- 
joined by the Twenty-eighth, under Captain Linebarger. 

On the afternoon of the 3d, we crossed the Appomattox at 
Goode's bridge, bivouacked at Amelia Courthouse on the 4th, and 
on the 5th formed line of battle between Amelia Courthouse and 
Jetersville, where our sharpshooters, under Major Wooten, became 
engaged. Next day, while resting in Farmville, we were ordered 
back to a fortified hill to support our cavalry, which was hard 
pressed, but before reaching the hill the order was countermanded. 
We moved rapidly through Farmville, and sustained some loss 
from the artillery fire while crossing the river near that place. 
That afternoon we formed line of battle, facing to the rear, between 
one and two miles from Farmville, and my sharpshooters were 
attacked by the enemy. During the night we resumed our march, 
and on the 9th, while forming line of battle, we were ordered back 
and directed to stack our arms, as the Army of Northern Virginia 
had been surrendered. 

By officers and men behaved well throughout this trying cam- 
paign, and superiority of numbers alone enabled the enemy to 
drive us from the works near Petersburg. Colonel Cowan, though 
indisposed, was constantly with his command, and displayed his 
usual gallantry, while Major Woolen nobly sustained his enviable 
reputation as an officer. 

We have to mourn the loss of Captains Nicholson, Faine, 
McAulay and Long, and other gallant officers. 

Captain E. J. Hale, Jr., A. A. G., and First Lieutenant E. B. 
Meade, A. D. C, were constantly at their posts, displaying great 
bravery and giving additional evidence of their efficiency as staff" 

I am unable to give our exact loss at Petersburg. I surrendered 
at this point fifty-six (56) officers and four hundred and eighty- 
four (484) men— many of the latter being detailed, non-arms-bear- 
ing men, who were sent back to be surrendered with their brigade. 

22 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The Seventh, the other regiment of my command, is absent in 
North Carolina on detached service. 

I am. Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

James H. Lane, 

» Brigadier-General, 

Major Joseph A. Engelhard, 

A. A. General. 

Extract from a letter written hy General Lane to General Wilcox. 

Concord, X. C, May 20, 1867, 
Dear General : 

I received a letter from Major Engelhard not long since, in 
which be says you wish me to furnish you, as far as I can, the 
names of officers killed and wounded in my brigade, and the 
number of men killed and wounded in the different battles from 
the Wilderness to the surrender, as General Lee had desired a 
report of you. 

I beg also to call your special attention to the defence of Fort 
Gregg, as you may not be aware that Harris' brigade has been given 
in print all the credit of that gallant affair. Relative to that, I send 
you a letter recently received from Lieutenant George H. Snow, of 
the Thirty-third North Carolina regiment, who commanded the 
detachment from my brigade which was in the fort at the time of 
its fall. Harris' brigade formed on our right after Thomas and I 
had cleared the works of the enemy as far as Mrs. Banks ', and 
when we were driven back that brigade retired to the fort above 
Fort Gregg — I think it was called Fort Anderson — while mine re- 
tired along the new line of works to the " Dam," a sufficient number, 
however, being sent to Fort Gregg (with the supernumeraries of 
Walker's artillery armed as infantry) to man the entire work. You 
may perhaps recollect my calling your attention to this, and that 
after looking into the fort, you approved of my turning back other 
men of my command, though you had previously ordered my 
whole brigade into that fort. There were, I think, eight or nine 
commissioned officers of my command in the same fort. 

The honor of the gallant defence of Fort Gregg is due to my 
brigade, Chew's battery and Walker's supernumerary artillerists, 
armed as infantry, and not to Harris" brigade, which abandoned 
Fort Anderson and retired to the old or inner line of works before 
Fort Gregg was attacked in force. Unsupported, I saw our noble 

Defence of Fort Gregg. 23 

fellows repulse three assults in force in front and one from the 
rear; and the enemy did not succeed in mounting the work until 
the fire of the fort had ceased, which, as Lieutenant Snow says, 
was due to want of ammunition. The enemy, after crowding the 
parapet, amid the wildest cheering and waving of numerous flags, 
fired down upon our men inside the works. 

Chew's battery behaved splendidly; even before I left the work 
two or three men were shot down in rapid succession while at- 
tempting to discharge a single gun. My men were on the right and 
centre, the supernumerary artillerists on the left, and Chew's bat- 
tery was in the centre, so as to give the pieces the widest possible 
range of fire. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

James H. Lane. 

Letter from Lieutenant George H. Snow, Thirty-third North Carolina 


Raleigh, May 13th, 1867. 
General James H. Lane : 

Dear sir — Your letter I received some time ago, and would 
have answered it earlier, but was prevented by unforeseen circum- 

You desire to know the details of the fight at Fort Gregg. I 
think it due to the men of that noble old brigade, which stood the 
contest from Newberne to the surrender, that some true lover of 
patriotism and valor should espouse their cause, and place them 
second to none among the true defenders of that memorable fort. 
History does not reveal names more deserving of honor and praise 
than those of that detachment which I had the honor to command, 
and my mind painfully reverts to the agonizing adieu of each hero 
as he closed his eyes in death. 

I cannot speak positively when I attempt to give the number of 
men belonging to your brigade or the miscellaneous commands in 
the fort, but I speak confidently when I say that at least three- 
fourths were of your brigade. I think I had between seventy-five 
and eighty men all told, with Lieutenants Craige and Howard, and 
two or three other officers whose names I do not recollect. I saw 
only two officers of Harris' brigade in the fort fighting bravely, but 
the number of their command I cannot exactly give, but think 
that ten will cover the whole. The artillerists fought bravely, re- 
sorting to small arms after being unable to use their cannon, and 

24 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

appeared to me as if commanding themselves: they were of Cap- 
tain Chew's battery. Our stubborn resistance is due to your fore- 
sight in supplying the fort with cartridges. 

The enemy charged us three times, and after having expended 
all our ammunition, rocks were used successfully for over half an 
hour in resisting their repeated attempts to rush over us. While 
I would most willingly accord to each man within the fort his just 
and proper credit, yet I do not think that Harris' brigade should be 
mentioned in connection with its defence. I cannot point out a single 
instance where one of Lane's brigade failed to perform his duty on 
that day. The position we occupied (the right wing and centre) 
were the only parts attacked without one moment's interval of 
peace, and we repulsed with great loss an attack in the rear which 
would have otherwise necessitated our surrender. The credit of 
that bloody fight is dae to your men, and I sincerely hope you may 
correct so foul a statement as that which appears as history. 

With m}-- best wishes for your welfare and success, 

I remain as ever, yours most sincerely, 

George H. Snow, 

Letter from Lieutenant F. B. Oraige, Thirty-third North Crrolina 


WiLLIAMSPORT, TENNESSEE, Juiie 4th, 1867. 

General James H. Lane : 

Dear sir — Yours of the 27th ultimo was remailed to me at 
Salisbury, and received to-day. I am happy to know that you 
intend making an effort to give our old brigade some of the honor 
due her, which has more than once been given others to whom it 
does not belong. 

I will give you as correct an account of the defence of Fort Gregg 
as my recollection will permit. There were but two six-pound 
guns in the fort, conducted by a few Marylanders or Virginians 
under command of Captain Chew, and a few Louisianians from the 
Washington artillery, under Lieutenant Mackelroy. The whole 
number of artillerists did not exceed twenty-five. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Duncan and his adjutant, of Harris' brigade, both of whom 
were wounded in the head and acted with conspicuous gallantry, 
had with them not more than twenty men. The remainder of the 
troops in the fort belonged to your brigade, numbering between 
one hundred and fifty, and one hundred and seventy-five. The 

Defence of Fort Gregg. 25 

only other officer present of our brigade, whose name you did not 
mention in your letter, was Lieutenant Rigler, of the Thirty-seventh 
regiment. I do not know whether there were any of General 
Thomas' command with us or not. Captain Norwood, of Thomas' 
staff, was captured the same morning that I was, but I don't remember 
whether on the skirmish line or in the fort. We repulsed the 
enemy three times in front and once from the rear. After our 
ammunition was exhausted, the men used their bayonets and 
clubbed their guns until the whole wall was covered with blue- 
coats, who continued a heavy fire upon us for several moments after 
they had entered. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

F. B. Craige. 

Letter from Lieutenant A. B. TTowtrd, Thirty- third North Carolina 


Statesville, X. C Jane 3(1, 1SG7. 
General Lane : 

Dear Sir — Yours of the 27th instant is at hand, and contents 
duly noticed. I take pleasure in giving you all the information I 
can in reference to the gallant defence of Fort Gregg. I am fully 
confident that three-fourths of the men in the fort, if not more, 
were from your brigade. 

I am glad, indeed, to know that you will give a full and true state- 
ment of the affair to General Lee, and that the gallant men of the Old 
North State, and e-speciaUy those of Lane's brigade, may have all the 
honor and credit that they so nobly won. 

I fully concur with Lieutenant Snoiv in his statement concerning 
the number of men from Harris' brigade. I am pretty certain that 
there was only one ofiicer instead of two from that brigade: bis 
name was Duncan. He said he was lieutenant-colonel, but there 
were no stars or bars about him to designate his rank. 

The three pieces of artillery belonged to Chew's battery. He 
was captured and taken with us to Johnson's island. I am sorry 
that I am not able to recall the names of the officers from your 
command. I don't remember the name.'^ of any except those 
mentioned by yourself I know there were others besides from our 
brigade in the Thirty-seventh regiment, etc., but as I was not well 
acquainted with them, their names have escaped my recollection. 

We kept the enemy back for some time after our ammunition 

26 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

was exhausted with bayonets and brickbats. 'Tis true, that when 
they rushed into the fort upon us, they were yelling, cursing and 
shooting with all the frenzy and rage of a horde of merciless bar- 

I could give you a full account of the whole engagement from 
beginning to end, hut I suppose you have all the particulars from 
Captain Hale and Lieutenant Snow. 

I remain yours, very truly, &c., 


Letter from Lieutenant D. M. Rigler, Thirty-seventh North Carolina 


Charlotte, N. C, June 17tli, 1867. 
General James H. Lane : 

Dear Sir — Yours of the 14th instant is received, and I hasten 
to reply. You wish me to give all the information I can in regard 
to the defence of Fort Gregg. As it has been so long since it 
occurred, I do not know that I can give all the particulars, but as 
far as I can I will. 

After the enemy drove us from the works, a portion of the bri- 
gade fell back in rear of General Mahone's quarters, and was there 
until you ordered us to the fort. 'Tvvas near Mahone's quarters 
that General A. P. Hill was killed. When we came to the fort you 
were there with some of the brigade. You then ordered all of us 
to charge the enemy. We held the Jones road about fifteen min- 
utes. Harris' Mississippi brigade came up; the ^nemy fired on 
them, and they retreated. Captain Hale then ordered us up to the 
fort. General Wilcox and some of his staff were there: he re- 
mained there until they opened on the fort with artillery. Captain 
Hale called myself. Snow and Craige out in the rear of the fort 
and asked how many men we had of the brigade and how much 
ammunition. He then told us to send some reliable man after 
ammunition. By this time the Yanks had got the range of the 
fort, and were doing some damage. 

Captain Hale then asked who was the senior officer, and as Snow 
was, he put him in command and told him to hold the fort. We 
formed the men around, and had about fifty or sixty. Harris' men 
came in with a lieutenant-colonel, and about fifteen men more of 
our brigade came in, and made in all about seventy-five of our 

Defence of Fort Gregg. 27 

About ten o'clock the enemy commenced charging with four or 
five lines. We did not fire until they were within forty yards, and 
then we gave them one volley; they wavered, and the first line 
gave way; the second came forward, and came within thirty yards 
of the fort. We yelled and fired — they stood a few seconds and 
then broke. The third retreated also, but the fourth and fifth came 
to the ditch around the fort. While this fighting was in the front, 
one line came in the rear and almost got inside the fort through 
the door. About twenty men charged them, and drove them back. 
About eleven o'clock they scaled the walls of the fort, and for sev- 
eral minutes we had a hand to hand fight. We used the bayonet, 
and killed almost all of them that came on the top. 

About half-past eleven they attempted to scale the walls again. 
We met them with the bayonet, and for several minutes it was the 
most desperate struggle 1 ever witnessed; but it did not last long. 
Soon they were all killed or knocked back, and then a deafening 
shout arose from our boys. Near twelve, they tried to force their 
way through the door in rear of the fort, and succeeded in getting 
almost in, but we met them with the bayonet and drove them back. 
By this time the ammunition w^as almost out, and our men threw 
bats and rocks at them in the ditch. No ammunition could we 
get, and after a short struggle, they took the fort, and some few did 
fire on us after they got possession, but their officers tried to stop 

I think there were twenty -five of Harris' Mississippi brigade, 
with a lieutenant-colonel: do not think there were any more. The 
lieutenant-colonel was wounded. 

There were only two pieces of artillery, and I think they were 
six-pound rifle pieces, and they did not have more than twenty-five 
rounds of ammunition. Most of the men were wounded and killed 
while the enemy were charging. They fought bravely. I do not 
know whose battery it was. 

There were about seventy-five or eighty men of our brigade, and 
five officers, namely : Lieutenants Snow, Craige and Howard, of the 
Thirty-third North Carolina regiment: Orman and myself, of the 
Thirty-seventh regiment. There were about twenty of Thomas' 
Georgia brigade, with Thomas' adjutant-general, or a captain acting 
as such, and two lieutenants. 

I think there were in the fort, including all, about one hundred 
and fifty, or one hundred and seventy-five men— about seventy- 
five or eighty of our brigade, about twenty-five of Harris' and about 

28 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

twenty of Thomas', and twenty-five or thirty of the artillery. Out of 
that number at least one-half were killed and wounded. 

The adjutant-general or captain of Thomas' brigade was near 
me when the fighting commenced, and he said it was ten o'clock, 
and that it was twelve when they got the fort. 

The above. General, I think is nearly correct. It is certain our 
brigade did the most of the fighting, and I think they deserve the 
praise. I am glad that you are going to defend it. 

Wishing you success, I am very respectfully, yours. 

D. M. RiGLER. 

Extract from a letter from Colonel Cowan, of Thirty-third North Carolina 


Statesville, N. C, June 22, 1S76. 
Dear General: 

* * * * Lieutenant Howard has doubtless given 
you all the particulars more fully than I can, as most of my in- 
formation was obtained from him. 

Color Bearer James Atkinson made his escape from Fort Gregg 
after the enemy had entered it, and brought the colors away safely. 

With much respect, your friend, 

C. V. Cowan. 

I was an eye witness to the above. Atkinson ran from the fort 
when the enemy mounted the pMrnpet, and with the colors of the 
Thirty-third North Carolina regiment flying, he made his escape 
without being struck, though he was a marked tai"get for the enemy. 
His exploit was greeted with cheers upon cheers from the men in 
the main line of works. 

James H. Lane. 

Address on the Character of General R. E. Lee, 

Dkliveked in Richmond on Wednksdat, Januaky 19Tn,lS76, the Anniversary of General 
Lee'8 Birth, by Captain John Hampden Chamberlayne. 

[We were urged at the time of iti (Vliverj' by a number of gentlemen who 
heard it to publish this admmibla atl(lre>.<, and have always imrpose-l doing 
so. It may be well, however, that it lias been postponed, so as to appear on 
the eve of another anniversary of the birili of our great cliieftain.] 
Fellow Citizens : 

I shall not obtrude upon you apologies or explanations, as 
if I had the orator'g established fame to lose, or looked that future 

Address on the Character of General R. E. Lee. 29 

fame to win. You are not come to hear of my small hopes or fears. 
Yet, to you and to the gravity of the occasion, it is due to say 
that I appear before you on sudden order, to my sense of duty 
hardly less imperative than those famous commands under which 
we have so often marched at "early dawn." 

By telegraph, on last Saturday night, this duty was laid upon 
me, and I come with little of preparation, and less of ability, to 
attempt a theme that might task the powers of Bossuet or exhaust 
an Everett's rhetoric. 

It can scarcely be needful to rehearse before you the facts of our 
commander's life. They have become, from least to greatest, parts 
of history, and an ever-growing number of books record that he 
was born in 1807, at Stratford, in Westmoreland county, of a 
family ancient and honorable in the mother country, in the Old 
Dominion, and in the State of Virginia; that he was appointed a 
cadet at the United States Military Academy in 1825, and was 
graduated first in his class, and commissioned lieutenant of engi- 
neers; that he served upon the staff of General Scott through the 
brilliant campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, was 
thrice brevetted for gallant and meritorious conduct, and was de- 
clared by General Scott to have borne a chief part in the counsels 
and the battles which ended with the triumph of our arms; that 
he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of cavalry, and served for 
years upon the Southwestern frontier; that he was in 1861 called 
to Washington as one of the board to revise the army regulations, 
and that on the 20th day of April, 1861, four days after the with- 
drawal of Virginia from the Union, he resigned his commission in 
the United States army, and that he became commander-in-chief 
of Virginia's forces, and thereafter accepted the commission of 
General in the army of the Confederate States. 

Still more familiar to you than these facts are the events of which 
you and I had personal knowledge: how Lee organized, patiently and 
skilfully, the raw resources of Virginia; how he directed the coast 
defences of the South Atlantic States, and how he labored against 
a thousand difficulties in the mountains of West Virginia, serenely 
accepting without a murmur the popular verdict on what ignorant 
presumption adjudged a failure. In June of 1862 he was at length 
■placed in command to meet whose vast responsibility his life had 
been the preparation, and at once his name became forever linked 
with the Army of Northern Virginia which met and mastered 
army after army, baffled McClellan, and destroyed successively • 

30 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Pope, Burnside and Hooker; which twice invaded the enemy's 
country, and which, when at last against it was thrown all the re- 
sources of the United States, Grant in its front and Sherman in its 
rear, Europe for their recruiting ground, and a boundless credit 
for their military chest, still stood for eleven months defiantly at 
bay, concentrated on itself the whole resources of the United 
States, and surrendered at Appomattox eight thousand starving 
men to the combined force of two great armies whose chiefs had 
long despaired to conquer it by skill or daring, and had worn it 
away by weight of numbers and brutal exchange of many lives 
for one. We all know, too, how' the famous soldier sheathed his 
sword, and without a word of repining, without a look to show the 
grief that was breaking his heart and sapping the springs of his 
noble; life, accepted the duty that came to him, and bent to his new 
task, as guide and teacher of boys, the powers which had wielded 
the strength of armies and almost redressed the balances of 
unequal fate. 


Such are the leading facts, in barest outline, of the great life that 
began sixty-nine years ago to-day. Well known as they are, it is 
wise to recall them when we gather as we have gathered here. In 
these hurrying days men pass swiftly away from human sight, the 
multitude of smaller figures vanishing behind the curtain of for- 
getfulness, the few mighty ones soon wrapt in the hazy atmosphere 
of the heroic heights, enlarged, it may be, but oft-times dim and 
distorted, always afar ofif, unfamiliar, not human, but superhuman, 
demigods rather than men; our wonder and our despair, who 
should be our reverence and our inspiration. 

Thus has it always been with him who lies at Mount Vernon. 
Let it be our care, men of this generation, that it be not so in our 
day with him who lies at Lexington ; let it be our care to show him 
often to those who rise around us to take our place, to show him 
not only in his great deeds and his famous victories, but also as 
citizen and as man. 

The task is hard to divide what is essentially one, and Lee so 
bore himself in his great office as that the man was never lost in 
the soldier. Never of him could it be said that he was like the 
dyer's hand, subdued to what he worked in: always the sweet 
human quality tempered his stoic virtue, always beneath the 
soldier's breast beat the tender, loving heart. 

Address on the Character of General R. E. Lee. 31 

Most of us here have seen and known him, if not in his splendid 
youth, fit at once to charm the eye of the Athenian multitude and to 
awe a Roman Senate, yet in his maturer years, when time and care 
had worn his body but to show more glorious the lofty soul with- 
in. Amongst us and ours his life was led, so blameless as mio-ht 
become a Saint, so tender as might become a woman, so simple as 
might become the little children "of whom is the kingdom of 
Heaven." So consistent was that life, so devoted to duty, without 
a glance to right or left, so fixed on the golden rule, adopted once 
and forever, that his biographer, even now in a time of passion 
and distorted truth, hesitates what to choose for his highest praise — 
lingering in turn over Lee the son, Lee the husband, Lee the 
father, Lee the friend. Idle then it were for me to picture him in 
all the relations he bore to those around him, and worse than idle 
were I to follow what is much the fashion nowadays and make a 
study of Lee the Christian, pry with curious glance into the saured 
chamber wherein man kneels to his God, or dare to touch the awful 
veil whish fools are swift to rend. 

But, says the critic, private virtue is not for public use; a Tor- 
quemada may be gentle in his home, and a Stuart seek to enslave 
his people, yet lead a life of chastity. 

'Tis true, but still our great commander shines flawless and per- 
fect, at once in the quiet beams of the household heartli and in 
the fierce light that beats upon the throne of him born to be king 
of men. 

Let one great example show it. None but those who know the 
power of lofty ambition can tell what vast temptation beset our 
leaders; none can know the heroism of the decision in the dark 
days of 1861. He was the favorite soldier of all who followed 
Scott; he was the picked and chosen man for high command in 
the armies of the United States. He was besought almost with 
tears by him he reverenced as a second father; to him was tendered 
the baton of general-in-chief Who can tell what visions trooped 
upon his sight: of power, that dearest boon to the powerful, of 
fame world wide, of triumphs, not easy but certain. And who can 
tell but fairer dreams than these assailed him ; hope, nay almost be- 
lief, that he and he alone might play the noble part of^)acifi'ator 
and redintegrator patrix, that he might heal the wounds of civil 
strife, and be hailed by North and South as worthy of the oaktn 

He had been more or less than human, had not these thoughts, 

32 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

or such as these, arisen when he strove through days and bitter 
nights to find his diit}'. 

He, we must remember, was wedded to no theory; his mind 
grasped concrete truth rather than abstractions. His horizon was 
bounded by no lines of neighborhood or of States. He knew the 
men of the North, as well as of the South; he had maturely 
weighed the wealth of the one and the poverty of the other. Few 
knew so well as he, none better, the devotion we could offer to any 
cause, but he knew, likewise, the stubborn, deep-resting strength of 
the Northern will that we took for a passing whim. He had all 
his life obeyed and respected the organized, concentrated form of 
the Union, and he, the pupil of Scott, the follower of Washington, 
the son of Light Horse Harry, might and should and did jDause 
long. Paused long, to decide forever — to decide with never a look 
backward, with never a regret, even when the end had come, darker 
than his fears had pictured. 

Cast away all, to obey the voice of Virginia, his country; to de- 
fend Virginia, his mother. Scarcely twice since the world began 
has mortal man been called to make such choice. 

Will not history consent, will not mankind applaud when we 
still uphold our principles as right, our cause as just, our country 
to be honored, when those principles had for disciple, that cause 
for defender, that country for son, Robert Lee? 

The day has by no means come to fix with absolute precision 
the rank of Lee among the world's great soldiers. But the day 
will come, and it is ours to gather and preserve and certify the 
facts to be the record before the dread tribunal of time. 

Turning, then, to the soldiership of Lee; from first to last, we 
see his labor and exactness, giving always the power to gain from 
every means its utmost result. Thus, he so pursued the sciences 
which underlie the soldier's art, that he entered the army fully 
equipped with all that theory could teach, and whilst yet a subal-' 
tern was more than once entrusted with tasks of the engineers' 
bureau which had baffled the skill of men far older and more ex- 
perienced. The same qualities were shown when he first saw actual 
war. To us who look back across the field of a gigantic strife, of 
a struggle «vhere not brigades nor divisions but great armies were 
the units, where States were fortified camps and a continent the 
battle-ground; to us that march on Mexico seems as small as it is, 
in fact, far off in time and space. But small and great are relative, 
and the little army of Scott which gathered on the sands of Vera 

Address on the Character of General R. E. Lee. 33 

Cruz was little in much the same sense as that other arm,y, of 
Cortez, whose footsteps it followed, and whose prowess it rivaled. 
In that campaign 

lee's soldiership 

first found fit field. It was he whose skill gave us the quick foot- 
hold of Vera Cruz. At Cerro Gordo and Contreras his was no 
mean part of the plan and its accomplisliraent". At the City of 
Mexico it was his soldier's eye and soldier's heart which saw and 
dared what Cortez had seen and dared before, to turn the enemy's 
strongest position, and assault as well by the San Cosme as by the 
Belen gateway, a movement greatly hazardous, but, once executed, 
decisive. In the endless roll of wars that campaign of Mexico 
must always remain to the judicious critic masterly in conception 
and puperb in execution. But to us it is memorable chiefly as the 
training school whose pupils were to ])ly their art on a wider scale 
to ends more terrible, and Winfield Scott selected from them all 
Robert E. Lee as the chosen soldier. 

The time was soon to come when he should try conclusions with 
many of that brilliant band, and prove himself the master of each 
in turn, of McClellan, of Burnside, of Hooker, of Pope, of Meade, 
of Grant, of whomsoever could be found to lead them by the mil- 
lions he confronted. When the war of secession began, you all 
remember how for a time Lee held subordinate place, and how, 
when what seemed chance gave him command of the forces defend- 
ing Richmond from the hundred thousand men who could hear, if 
they would, the bells of our churches and almost the hum of our 
streets — you all remember how the home-staying critic found fault 
with him, how he was described as a closet-soldier and a handler 
of spade and mattock, rather than of gun and bayonet. Sudden 
and swilt was the surprise when the great plan disclosed itself, and 
the guns at the Meadow Bridges of the Chickahominy cleared the 
way for the first of those mighty blows which sent McClellan 
in hopeless rout to the shelter of his shipping, thence to hurry as 
he might to the rescue of Pope's bewildered divisions, and to 
organize home guards in the defences of Washington. That single 


is itself fame. To amuse an army outnumbering his own by fifty 
thousand; to watch with a large detachment lest that army should 
make a junction with the divisions at Fredericksburg; to bring 

34 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Jackson's skill and Jackson's devoted men to his aid; to cross a 
marshy and often impracticable stream; to attack McClellan on 
his flank and to roll up his army like a scroll, whilst, at each step 
gained, his enemy should be weaker and himself be stronger and 
in stronger position, yet at the same time to guard lest his enemy 
should break his centre as Napoleon pierced the Russians on 
Austerlitz field — such was the problem. You know, all the world 
knows, its execution. Despite the errors of subordinates; despite 
the skill of his opponent, a soldier truly great in defence; despite 
the rawness of many of his troops; despite the lack in the general 
officers of the skill necessary to movements so delicate, and despite 
the inferiority of his force, Lee succeeded fully in his main object, 
relieved Richmond, inflicted on his enemy losses materially im- 
mence and morally infinite; in seven days absolutely undid what 
McClellan took six months to do, and by a single combination 
threw back his enemy from the hills in sight of Richmond to a 
defensive line in Washington's suburbs. This campaign, for its 
audacity, its wide combination, its insight into the opponent's 
character, its self-reliance, its vigor of execution, and its astonishing 
results, may be safely compared with the best campaigns of the 
greatest masters in the art of war — with Frederick's Leuthen, to 
which it bears as much likeness as a campaign of days can bear 
to a battle of hours, or with that greater feat, the amazing concen- 
tration by Washington of contingents from New York and from 
North Carolina, of new levies from the Virginia Valley, and of a 
French fleet from the West Indies to besiege and to capture the 
army of Cornwallis. 

It is argued that Lee was strong only in defence, and was averse 
to taking the off'ensive. Nothing could be more false. He was to 
prove in the last year of the war his fertility of defensive resource 
and his unrivaled tenacity of resistance. But his genius was 
aggressive. Witness the bold transfer of his army from Richmond 
to the Rapidan, whilst McClellan's troops still rested on the James 
river. Witness the audacity of detaching Jackson from the Rap- 
pahannock line to seize Manassas Junction and the road to Wash- 
ington in Pope's rear. Witness the magnificent swoop on Harper's 
Ferry, of which accident gave to McClellan the knowledge and by 
which timidity forbade him to profit. Witness that crowning glory 
of his audacity, the change of front to attack Hooker, and that 
march around what Hooker called "the best position in America, 
held by the best army on the planet." Witness his invasion of 

Address on the Character of General R. E. Lee. 35 

Pennsylvania, a campaign whose only fault was the generous fault 
of over confidence in an army whose great deeds might, if any- 
thing, excuse it; an over confidence, as we ourselves know, felt by 
every man he led, and which made us reckless of all difficulties, 
ready to think that to us nothing was impossible. He was a com- 
mander who had met no equal; we were an army who saw in half 
the guns of our train the spoil of the enemy, who bore upon our 
flags the blazon of consistent victory. If he and we confided in 
our daring and trusted to downright fighting for what strategy 
might have safely won, who shall blame us and which shall blame 
the other? It was a fault, if fault there were, such as in a soldier 
leans to virtue's side; it was the fault of Marlbrook at Malplaquet 
of Great Frederic at Torgau, of Napoleon at Borodino. It is the 
famous fault of the column of Fontenoy, and the generous haste 
that led Hampden to his death. 1 i 32-3 3 5 

Lee chose no defensive of his own will. None knew better 
than he that axiom of the military art which finds the logical end 
of defence in surrender. None knew better than he that Fabius 
had never earned his fame by the policy some attribute to him, 
nor saved his country by retreats, however regular, or the skill, 
however great, to choose positions only to abandon them. The 
defensive was not his chosen field, but he was fated to conduct a 
defensive campaign rivaled by few, and surpassed by none in his- 
tory. Of that wonderful work the details are yet to be gathered, 
but the outlines are known the world over. The tremendous onset 
of Lee in the tangled wilderness upon an enemy three times his 
force, who fancied him retreating; the grim wrestle of Spotsylvania; 
the terrible repulse of Cold Harbor, from which the veteran com- 
manders of Grant shrank back aghast. These great actions will 
be known so long as war shall be studied, and future generations 
will read with admiration of that battlefield of seventy miles, 
where Lee with 51,000 men confronted Grant with his 190,000— 
attacked him wherever he showed uncovered front, killed, wounded 
and captured more men than his own army numbered, and in a 
campaign of thirty-five days, forced the most tenacious soldier of 
the Union armies to abandon utterly his line of attack, to take a 
new position always open to him but never chosen, and to ex- 
change the warfare of the open field for the slow and safe approach 
of the earthworks and the siege. 

They will read, too, that in the midst of this campaign, Lee was 
bold to spare from his little army force enough to take once more 

36 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the offensive, to traverse once more the familiar Valley, to break 
once more through the gate of the Potomac, and to insult with the 
fires of his bivouacs the capital city of his enemy. Reading these 
things, they will refuse to believe, what we know, that men were 
found here and now to call this marvelous campaign a retreat. 
The truth is that Lee took a real defensive, if at all, only in the 


was driven to that defensive not by one army nor by many armies 
in succession, but by the combined force of the armies in his front 
and in his rear. Vicksburg it was, not Cemetery Hill, which baffled 
the Army of Northern Virginia; at Nashville and Atlanta, not from 
the lines of Petersburg came the deadly blows; and the ragged 
remnant of Appomattox surrendered not to the valor or skill of 
the men they had so often met and overcome, but to the men they 
had never seen, and yielded neither to stubborn Grant nor braggart 
Sheridan, but to the triumphant hosts of Rosecrans, of Thomas 
and of Sherman. 

It is not hard, then, my friends, to see that history will hold Lee 
to be a great soldier, wise in counsel, patient in preparation, swift 
in decision, terrible in onset, tenacious of hold, sullen in retreat, a 
true son of that Berserker race that rushed from the bosom of 
Europe's darkest age, furious to fight, lovers of battle, destined to 
sweep away the old world and to mould the modern. 

Rightly to estimate his power as commander is not and may 
never be possible. There is no second term of comparison. He 
was in a position as novel as were the conditions of a war where 
the railroad existed, but the highway was not; where telegraphs 
conveyed orders, yet primeval forests still stood to conceal armies; 
where concentration was possible at a speed unknown to war 
before, but where concentration might easily starve itself before it 
could strike its enemy. 

Strange as the material, were the moral conditions of Lee's com- 
mand. He was hampered by political considerations; he was 
trammelled by the supreme importance of one city; and, above 
all, on him was complete responsibility, but never commensurate 
power. To the integrity of his army — to the morale of half his 
force — the successful defence of the South and Southwest was 
essential, and on operations in which he had no voice turned the 
issue of his campaigns. 

Of these things account will yet be taken, let us be sure of that; 

Defence of Fort Morgan, 37 

for though in barbarous ages conquered peoples write no histories, 
yet, as the world grows older, history grows more and more a judge, 
less and less a witness and advocate; more and more to every 
cause that appeal lies open, which Francis Bacon, of Verulam, 
made "to future ages and other countries." 

Fit is it that we trust to that great verdict, seeing that nothing 
less than the tribunal of mankind can judge this man, who was 
born not for a period, but for all time; not for a country, but for 
the world; not for a people, but for the human race. 

Not for him shall the Arch of Triumph rise; not for him 
Columns of Victory, telling through monumental bronze the hideous 
tale of tears and blood that grins from the skull pyramids of 
Dahomey. Not to his honor shall extorted tributes carve the shaft 
or mould the statue; but this day a grateful people give of their 
poverty gladly, that in pure marble, or time-defying bronze, future 
generations may see the counterfeit presentment of this man — the 
ideal and bright consummate flower of our civilization; not an 
Alexander, it may be; nor Napoleon, nor Timour, nor Churchill — 
greater far than they, thank heaven — the brother and the equal of 
Sidney and of Falkland, of Hampden and of Washington. 

Defence of Fort Morgan— Reports of General R. L. Page. 

[We arc glad to be able to present the following original MS. reports of 
General li. L. Page, which have never been in print, and whicli givu a clear 
statement of the galUint defence of Fort Morgan. Tliey wonld iiave appeared 
most appropriately in immediate connection witli General Maury'd report of 
the defence of Mobile, but as ihey were not received in lime for that, they 
are given here.] 

IIeadquakters Third Brioade. D. G., 

Fort MoRtiAN, August Cth, 1SG4. 

General D. II. Maury, Commanding^ Sfc, Mobile: 

General — I have the honor to report that at 6 o'clock yester- 
day morning the enemy's fleet, consisting of twenty-three men-of- 
war, of which four were irionitors, moved up in line to pass this 
fort— the monitors leading, the wooden vessels, lashed together in 
twos, following; the sloops of-war and larger craft on the inshore 
side protecting their consorts, which could convey them in should 
they be seriously damnged. 
The fir^it monitor, "Tecumseh," single turreted, was sunk under 

38 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

our guns, immediately abreast the fort. Slie went down rapidly ; 
only a few, who were picked up by a boat from the enemy, and 
four who swam ashore and are now in our hands, were saved from 
her crew. 

The wooden gunboat " Phillippi," attempting to pass the fort 
alone after the fleet, was sunk by the second shot, and being run 
ashore was deserted by her crew, and afterwards burnt by a boat 
from the Confederate States gunboat "Morgan." One man was 
found on her whose legs had been so shattered that he died while 
the officer was on board. He was thrown overboard. 

The spirit displayed by this garrison was fine, the guns admirably 
served, and all did their duty nobly; and though subjected to a 
fire which for the time was probably as severe as any known in 
the annals of this war, our casualties were slight. I enclose a list. 

Four of the enemy's fleet turned from the fire they would have 
to encounter in passing, and assisted other vessels in an enfilading 
fire from the Gulf side during the action. As to the damage in- 
flicted on those which succeeded in passing, I cannot speak defi- 
nitely; shot after shot was distinctly seen to enter the wooden 
ships, but, as was evident, their machinery being protected by 
chains no vital blow could be given them there. Their loss in 
men, I am assured, was very great. 

Four hundred and ninety-one projectiles were delivered from 
this fort during the passage of the fleet. 

Our naval forces under Admiral Buchanan fought most gallantly, 

against odds before unknown to history. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

R. L. Page, 
Brigadier^General Commanding. 

Kew Orleans, La., 30th August, 1864. 
Major-General D. H. Maury, Commanding Mobile^ Alabama : 

General — The report of the evacuation of Fort Powell and 
the surrender of Fort Gaines I had the honor of addressing you 
from Fort Morgan, on the 8th instant. It embraced the military 
operations to that date. 

After the reduction of Gaines, I felt confident that the whole 
naval and land force of the enemy would be brought against 
Morgan, and was assiduous in preparing my fort for as good a 
defence as possible. For the state of the work I beg leave to refer 

Defence of Fort Morgan. 39 

you to Chief Engineer Sheliha's letter to Headquarters' Department, 
of July 9th, from which time no material change or addition was 
made; and further to state, that it had been demonstrated by the 
fire from the enemy that the enceinte of the fort (in which was its 
main strength) protected the scarp of the main wall only about 
one-half its height from curbated shot; that it was now in the 
power of the enemy to open fire from every point of the compass, 
and consequently none of the casemates, without heavy traverses 
in their front, would be safe; that it was manifest, by this concen- 
tration of fire, my heavy guns could soon be dismounted ; and my 
making a protracted resistance depended on my ability to protect 
my men from the heavy fire, and hold the fort from the flank 
casemates against an assault. With these views, I employed my 
men day and night, most of the time under fire, in erecting traverses 
to protect my guns on the main wall as long as possible, to render 
the casemate selected for the sick and wounded secure, and to 
provide safe quarters for themselves in their rest from the arduous 
duties they would have to endure. It was necessary also to put a 
large traverse at the Sally Port, which was entirely exposed. 

Thus absolutely to prevent the probability of Fort Morgan's 
being reduced at the first test and onset by the heavy batteries of 
the enemy, it was necessary for my limited garrison (of some 
400 efi'ective) to labor to effect a work equal almost in extent to 
building a new fort. 

On early morning of the 9th the enemy proceeded with monitors 
and transports, and disembarked troops at navy cove, commencing 
at once their first work of investment by land. 

The "new redoubt" (2,700 yards from the fort) from which the 
guns had been withdrawn, and the work formerly known as 
"Battery Bragg," were destroyed as far as possible by burning the 
wood work. The buildings around the fort, hospitals, quarters, 
stables, &c., were also at the same time fired and cleared away as 
much as possible. 

Two monitors, three sloops- of- war and several gunboats engaged 
the fort for two or three hours — the wooden vessels at rather long 
range — with no material damage apparent to either side. Soon 
thereafter a flag of truce was reported from the fleet, and com- 
municated to this effect: 

Brigadier-General R. L. Page, Commanding Fort Morgan : 

Sir — To prevent the unnecessary sacrifice of human life 

40 Souihe)-n Historical Society Papers. 

which must follow the openinor of our batteries, we demand the. 
unconditional surrender of Fort Morgan and its dependencies. 
We are very respecfully, your obedient servants, 

I). G. Farragut, Rear Admiral 
Gordon Granger, Mujur-General. 
To which my reply said: 

Roar Admiral D. G. Farragut, 
Gordon Granger, M'lyjr-General : 

Sirs — I am prepared to sacrifice life, and will only surrender 
when I have no means of defence. I do not understand that while 
being communicated with under fl;ig of truce, the "Tennessee" 
should be towed wilhin range of njy guns. 

Rtspectfully, ttc, 

R. L. Page, 

Brigadier-General C S. A. 

From this time to the 15th, day and night, we were engaged by 
the fleet, sometimes in a brisk fight of several hours' duration, at 
other in a desultory firing — without any very effective aamaga 
being done to our fort, save a demonstration of the fact that our 
brick walls were easily penetrable to the heavy missiles of the 
enemy, and that a systfematic, concentrated fire would soon breach 

On the 15th, three of the 15-inch shells striking the right-flank 
face of Bastion No. 4 breached the wall, and disabled the howitzers 

During this time a pretty continuous fire was kept up on the 
fort from the Parrottguns in several batteries erected by the enemy ; 
and in the intervals of serving the gims my men were engaged in 
the work before mentioned, for their protection, in the anticipation 
of a vigorous bombardment. 

The sharpshooters in our front had become very numerous and 
active, and with these encircling us on the land, and the fire de- 
livered from the fleet on the flanks, our guns had to be served with 
much care and under great difficulty. 

The land forces of the enemy completed their first approach (see 
accompanying sketch) on the 9th and 10th across the peninsula; 
the second through the 11th and 12th; the third, a bayou, near and 
parallel to Gulf shore, 13th and 14th; their first parallel 500 and 
700 yards distant, 15th, 16th, 17th, I8th, 19th; approaches on 20th 
and 21st to within 200 yards of our glacis. 

Such guns as I could use on this force I annoyed them with, 
especially at night, and to the extent possible retarded their work ; 

Defence qf Fort Morgan. 41 

though nothing very eflfective could be accomplished in this way, 
as their working parties were well concealed in the sand hills, and 
when our fire was concentrated on any one point they would 
merely, unseen, remove to' some other. 

To the morning of the 22d, our efforts were with the heavy guns 
that bore on them to interfere with the investing approaches of the 
enemy. The topography of our front, however, was to their ad- 
vantage, and they made a steady advance, covering it somewhat 
with an irregular fire from the batteries already in position, and 
lining their works already completed with sharpshooters to pick 
off our gunners. 

At daylight the fleet was reported moving up to encircle us, and 
shortly its batteries (in conjunction with those on land, which 
numbered thirty-six (36) guns and mortars) opened a furious fire, 
which came from almost every point of the compass, and continued 
unabated throughout the day, culminating in increased force at 
sundown; after which the heavy calibres and mortars kept it up 
during the night. 

This fire disabled all the heavy guns, save two, which did not 
bear on the land approach, partially breached the walls in several 
places, and cut up the fort to such extent as to make the whole 
work a mere mass of debris. Their mortar practice was accurate. 

Apprehensive from the great effect already had on the walls, 
that my magazines, containing now 80,000 pounds, were in danger 
in continuation of the bombardment in the night, with great care 
and under continuous fire I had the powder brought out and 

The guns in the '"Water" and "Lunette" batteries, now un- 
serviceable and in jeopardy from the enemy, I ordered spiked and 
otherwise effectually damaged ; and all the guns on the main ram- 
part dismounted by tlie fire from the enemy were likewise destroyed 
as of no further avail in defence. Early in the night the wood- 
work of the citadel was fired by the mortar shells, and burned 
furiously for some hours— the enemy during the conflagration 
pouring in his missiles with increased vigor. With great eflbrts 
the fire was arrested, and prevented extending around near the 
magazines, which would have been in imminent danger of explo- 
sion. In the gallant endeavor to prevent this disaster, I would 
especially mention Privates Murphy, Bembough and Stevens, First 
Tennessee regiment, for great courage and daring displayed. 

At daylight on the 23d (all my powder had then been destroyed). 

42 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the citadel was again set on fire in several places by shells, and 
burned until it was consumed. 

The report made to me now was that the casemates which had 
been rendered as safe as possible for the men, some had been 
breached, others partially (Captains Johnston, Fisher and Hughes 
informed me that another shot on them would bring down the 
walls of their company quarters), so that a resumption of the severe 
fire from the enemy would in all likelihood inflict great loss of 
life, there being no bombproof in the fort. The enemy's approach 
was very near the glacis. My guns and powder had all been de- 
stroyed ; my " means of defence gone " ; the citadel, nearly the entire 
quartermaster store and a portion of the commissariat burnt by 
the enemy's shells. It was evident the fort could hold out but a 
few hours longer under a renewed bombardment. The only ques- 
tion was, hold it for this time, gain the eclat and sustain the loss of 
life from the falling of the walls, or save life and capitulate? 

I capitulated to the enemy at 2 o'clock P. M., and though they 
refused to insert it in the terms there was a full understanding, and 
I was assured that my sick and wounded should be sent at once to 
Mobile by a flag of truce. This was not done. Considering the 
great exposure to which the men were subjected, and the fact that 
shells frequently burst among them when in the casemates, the 
casualties were unusually small. I enclose a list. 

The garrison in this severe test behaved well, and I would make 
little distinction. 

Captain J. GaUimard, engineer in charge, performed his duties 
to my satisfaction. To the officers of the First Alabama battalion 
artillery. Major J. T. Gee commanding, and of Captain Cothran's 
company. Twenty-first Alabama, I give my thanks for their prompt- 
ness and alacrity in every duty; and to Colonel A. J. Jackson, 
commanding First Tennessee, and Captains Johnston and Fisher 
and their brave companies of that regiment, for very efficient ser- 

To Captain C. H. Smith, A. A. G., and Captain R. T. Thorn, A. 
I. G., for prompt performance of all their duties, I am under obli- 
gations; and to my aid-de-camp. Lieutenant J. C. Ta3'lor, I owe 
much for his promptness and energy, and for his active and gallant 
assistance throughout the operations. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. L. Pagk, Brigadier- General 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 43 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park, Twelftli Alabama Regiment. 

[Continued from December No.] 

February 5th, 1865 (Sunday) — My sleep was a very cold and 
uncomfortable one last night, and I rose early to warm myself by 
the single stove in the "division." The "pen," as our quarters are 
called, embraces an area of near two acres. The building, a mere 
shell, unceiled and unplastered, is on three sides, with a high, close 
plank fence on the fourth side, separating us from the privates' 
barracks. The long side of the building (barracks, as it is called), 
parallel with the fence, is about 300 feet in length, running east 
and west, and the other two sides or ends are each about 150 feet 
long. The campus or exercise ground is low and flat, wet and 
muddy. There are narrow plank walks, intersecting each other 
and near the building, which are thronged with passing crowds 
this wet weather. The bunks or berths in each division are six feet 
long and about four feet apart, extending entirely across the room. 
Each division is heated by one large upright stove, which the 
prisoners keep very hot when sufficient coal can be obtained. The 
room is so open and cold, however, that a half-do"en or more stoves 
would be required to heat it. Several poor fellows, who have no 
bunk-mates and a scarcity of covering, sit up around the stoves 
and nod all night. The mess-room is next to "22" and near " the 
rear." It is a long, dark room, having a long pine table, on which 
the food is placed in separate piles, either on a tin plate or on the 
uncovered, greasy table, at meal hours, twice a day. No knives 
nor forks, nor spoons are furnished. Captain Browne kindly 
brought my meals to me. The fare consists of a slice of baker's 
bread, very often stale, with weak coffee, for breakfast, and a slice 
of bread and piece of salt pork or salt beef, sometimes alternating 
with boiled fresh beef and bean soup, for dinner. The beef is 
often tough and hard to masticate. It is said to be thrown, bloody 
and unwashed, in huge pots, filled with water of doubtful clean- 
liness, and boiled. Many prisoners club together and form messes, 
and with such money as they receive from Northern friends, or as 
they can make by their own ingenious work, buy such eatables as 
can be obtained from the sutler. The prison allowance is poor 
and scant indeed, and I eagerly consume all I receive. Being on 
crutches I am unable to run and scuffle for a place at the mess- 
room table, where all stand to eat, after pushing and crowding in. 

44 Southern Historicnl Society Papers. 

Many bring their rations to their bunks, and eat there. All eat as 
if hungry and ill-fed. Tubs, made of barrels, are placed at night 
in front of the doors, and used as urinals. These are emptied by 
details of prisoners early every morning. Each division has its 
daily details to make fires, sweep up, etc. I spent much of the 
day writing to friends, informing them of my "change of base" 
from the Old Capitol to Fort Delaware. 

February Qth and 7</i— Captain W. M. Dwight, A. A. G., of South 
Carolina, is "chief" of 22. His duties are to keep a roll of the 
inmates, make all the details, look after the sweeping and cleaning 
the room, report names of the«sick, preserve order in the division, 
preside over meetings, etc. Captain D. is an active, gentlemanly 
officer, and quite popular. I have met Captain E. J. Dean, Colonel 
P. A. McMichael, Lieutenant James Campell and Adjutant G. E. 
Manigault, of South Carolina; Adjutant John Law, of Tennessee; 
Colonel Isaac Hardeman, Captain W. H. Bennett, Captain E. W. 
Crocker, Captain C. S. Virgin, Adjutant G. C. Conner, of Georgia, 
and others, but saw them only a few minutes. They are polite 
and intelligent gentlemen, excellent representatives of their re- 
spective States. The majority of the prisoners are worn and feeble 
by sickness, want of necessary food, wounds, scurvy, personal care, 
anxiety and privation. Many are sadly depressed on account of 
long confinement and cruel delay in exchanges. Some are in 
complete despair. Others make Dixie and home themes of con- 
stant thought and conversation. They dream and sigh, and talk 
and long for home and its loved ones. A few constitutional cowards, 
who have a mortal horror of the battlefield, seem contented here. 
They prefer to risk the annoyances, inconveniences, hunger, insults 
and deseases of prison to the lesser but more dreaded dangers of 
the field of battle. This class of persons is very limited. Over 
2,000 officers and 7,000 non-commissioned officers and privates are 
in the two prison pens. Brigadier-General A. Schoeff", a Hungarian, 
is in command, and has two very unpopular and insolent officers, 
Captain G. W. Ahl and Lieutenant Woolf, as his adjutants. These 
uniformed plebeians delight in exercising petty tyranny over 
their superiors in the prison. They are rude, coarse men, with no 
conception of sentiments of generosity and magnanimity. Woolf 
is generally drunk, boastful and boisterous. Ahl is more genteel 
in speech and manner, but less obliging and more deceitful and 
cruel. General Schoeff is disposed to be lenient and kind, but is 
terribly afraid of his superior officers, especially Secretary Stanton. 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 45 

He is a moral coward, and as false and faithless as the notorious 
French liar and revolutionist, Barere. General Schoeff, the Hun- 
garian, and General Meagher, the Irishman, surely forget the op- 
pressions they pretend to lament in their native lands, while assisting 
our enemies to enslave and destroy ours. "Consistency is a jewel" 
they do not prize. Mercenary motives control them. 

February 8th — With Captain Browne and Lieutenant Arrington, 
I left 22, and found somewhat better quarters in division 28. Here 
we have to climb over two bunks to the uppermost one. Puttino- 
my crutches on the bunks above as I ascend, I climb with difficulty, 
by means of my hands and knees to my bunk, leaving it as seldom 
as possible. This division is called "The Gambling Hell," and 
games of faro, keno, poker, euchre, vingt et vn, seven-up, chuck-a- 
luck, etc., are played incessantly, day and night. Gamblers from 
all the divisions resort to " 28." The fascination for games of chance 
is wonderful, and the utter recklessness with which some men will 
venture their last "check" is really painful to behold. Many pen- 
niless fellows, "dead broke" from repeated fights with the "tiger," 
stand near and eagerly watch the games for hours in succession. 
The " faro-bankers," two officers from West Virginia, seem to be 
flourishing, have plenty of money, and live well from the sutler's. 
Lieutenant C, C. Carr, of Uniontown, Alabama, bunks next to me. 
He is in the Fourty-fourth Virginia regiment. Carr is an Alabamian 
in a Virginia command, while I am a Georgian in an Alabama 
regiment. Lieutenant George R. Waldraan, also of the Forty- 
fourth Virginia, from Baltimore, Maryland, is the popular and 
accommodating postmaster of the division. He carries off our 
letters for inspection and mailing, and delivers those received, after 
the authorities have opened and read them. He also attends 
" money calls," and brings sutler's checks in lieu of the greenbacks 
sent to prisoners. It is an interesting sight to see the crowds gather 
around him, as he calls out the names of those receiving letters. 
The eyes of the fortunate recipients sparkle with pleasure, and 
smiles light up their countenances, while the disappointed turn 
reluctantly and sadly away, with sighs of regret, when the roll has 
been finished, and their names not called. Some poor fellows 
never join these expectant crowds, as they have no acquaintances 
North, and never receive any letters; they are to be pitied. It is 
a great consolation to know you are not forgotten, though a prisoner. 
We find it difficult to sleep at night in our new quarters; so many 
noisy men remain awake, gambling, talking, swearing and walking 

46 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

about. Loud bursts of laughter and horried oaths sometimes 
arouse and startle us. Such confusion should be stopped after 10 
o'clock. Prayers are held by some of the officers in each division 
at 9 o'clock at night. Wicked 28 is not neglected, and its occupants 
are usually very quiet and respectful during the exercises, but 
gambling is actively resumed as soon as "amen" is pronounced. 
Captain E. A. Jeffress, Twenty-first Virginia regiment, from Clarkes- 
ville, Virginia, is one of the few inmates of our room who will 
lead in prayer. Officers from other divisions assist him. 

February 9th — A few officers were paroled to-day for exchange. 
Why am I not among the number? Very few here are more 
helpless than I, and the fortunate parties are strong and well. It 
is difficult to be patient and calm under such treatment. The 
paroled officers are buoyant and happy, while those who have to 
remain are correspondingly depressed and wretched. The anxious, 
increasing desire to be exchanged is positively painful. Nostalgia 
or homesickness is alarmingly prevalent, and its effects, combined 
with poor food and rough treatment, are often fatal. Sometimes a 
paragraph from an eagerly scanned newspaper, or a "grape vine" 
telegram, having no foundation whatever, makes all hopeful and 
jubilant, but soon a counter report fills them with gloom and 
despair. Many declare they would prefer to fight in battle every 
day to remaining longer in their wretched quarters. Gaming 
occupies the minds of many. Some read novels and histories, 
others study ancient and modern languages and mathematics, and 
thus divert, for the time, their minds from the painful, desperate, 
hopeless surroundings. A few are actually losing their memories 
and are in danger of either becoming gibbering idiots or dangerous 
madmen. A speedy change to home life is the only salvation for 

Editorial Paragraphs. 47 

Editarial Ifai^agrapbe. 

As WE enter with this issue upon the second year of the publication of 
our Fapers, we warmly congratulare the Society on ihe success of the past 
year and the prospects for the future. 

Despite "hard times" our enterprise has met with a success which en- 
courages us to hope that we shall be able to increase our circulation duriii"- 
the coming year, and advance all of the interests of the Society. 

But we beg our friends to remember that we need their continued sym- 
pathy and active help, in order that our expectations may be realized. 

Renewals have been coming in with some degree of briskness; but 
many have yet failed to renew, and we beg that they will do so at once. We 
send this number to all old subscribers who have not notified us to discon- 
tinue their subscriptions, in the hope that they will find it convenient to 
renew. But we again call attention to our terms, which are strictly cash in 

Lists of Names and the postoflice address of those who might probably 
subscribe to our Papers would be very useful. Some of our friends have 
sent us such lists, and we beg that others will do so ; but a still better list, of 
course, would be lists of subscribers with money. A little effort on the part 
of our friends would swell our list and increase our power to be useful in the 
erreat work in which we are engaged. 

Any Failures to receive our Papers by our subscribers will be promptly 
corrected, so far as we are able to do so, when reported to this office. The 
Secretary is accustomed to give his personal attention to the making up of 
our mail, and is satisfied that few failures have occurred through any fault 
of onr oflice. But we beg that if subscribers fail to receive their numbers 
they will report to us promptly, that we may seek to rectify it, and not wait 
until the close of the year to make their complaints. 

Back Numbers for 187G we can furnish only in tAvo bound volumes, 
which we mail at $2.00, $2.2.5 or $2.50 per volume, according to style of bind- 

"A Confederate View op the Treatment of Prisoners" (being 
our numbers for March and April, 1S7G, neatly bound) we can still mail for 
$1.2.5, $1..50 or $1.75, according to binding. And we again suggest that our 
friends Avould do a valuable work by placing this little volume (as well as our 
oiher publications) on the shelves of every public library in the land. 

48 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Contributions to our Archives are as acceptable as ever, and con- 
tinue to come in from time to time. Since our last acknowledgment we 
have received among others the following: 

Fro7n W. H. H. Terrell, Adjutant-General of Indiana (the author) — "In- 
diana in the War of the Rebellion," being the otiicial report of the part 
borne b}^ Indiana in the "war between the States." Life and Public Ser- 
vices of Oliver P. Morton, of Indiana. 

From H. C. Wall (the author)— "The Pee Dee Guards" (Company D, 
Twenty-third North Carolina regiment), from 1S61 to 1865. 

From the Vermont Historical Society — "History of the Saint Albans Raid," 
by Hon. Edward A. Sowlcs. 

From the author {Napier £flr^Ze«)—" Military Annals of Louisiana" during 
the late war. 

From the author {Dr. R. Randolph Stevenson)— '•'■ The Southern Side, or 
Andersonville Prison." 

From the author {Rev. Joseph H. Martin, of Atlanta, Georgia)— '■^ The De- 
claration of Independence — A Centennial Poem." 

From Robert Clarke 8c Co., Cincinnati— "C. W. Moulton's reply to Boyn- 
ton's Review of Sherman's Memoirs." 

From John McCrae, Esq., Camden, South Carolina — A complete tile of 
Charleston Daily Mercury, from the 8th of July, 1859, to the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1865, and from the 19th of November, 1866, to the 16th of November, 
1868. The Charleston Daily Neios, from June, 1866, to 5th of April, 1873. 
Charleston News and Courier, from April 7th, 1873, to November 27th, 1875. 
Daily South Carolinian, from 1855 to October, 1864, and Daily Columbia 
Guardian, from November 14th, 1864, to February 15th, 1865. The Southern 
Presbyterian, from September 11th, 1858, to December 29th, 1865, and from 
May 7th, 186'1, to December 30th, 1875. 

Tliese, added to the valuable files received from Mr. McCrae some months 
ao-o, constitute a most important addition to our collection, and place the 
Society under obligations to Mr. McCrae, which are only increased by the 
courteous manner in which he has made the donations, and the real pleasure 
which it seems to have afforded him. 

From Mrs. C. A. Hamilton, Beaufort, South Carolina — A large collection of 
war issues of the Charleston and other papers. (The Society is anxious to 
secure even odd numbers of papers published during the war, as they help to 
complete our files, and are valuable as duplicates.) 

From Major H. B. McClellan, Lexington, Kentucky (formerly of General 
Stuart's staff)- A package of MSS. containing the following: General J. E. 
B. Stuart's report of operations of his cavalry, from October 30th, 1862, to 
November Gth, 1862. An original letter from Major-General John Pope to 
Major-General Banks, dated July 21 st, 1862, enclosing dispatch from Brigadier- 
General Rufus King, at Falmouth (giving account of his raid on Beaver Dam 
depot), and oKdering Banks to send Gimeral Hatch at once to make cavalry 
raid on Gordonsvllle, Charlottesville, &c. (This letter was probably found 
when Stuart captured Pope's headquarters). 

iTira Himm iim pims 

Tol. III. 

Riclimond, Ya., February, 1877. 

No. 2. 

General R. H. Anderson's Report of the Battle of Gettysburg. 

[Carrying out our purpose of giving preference in our publications to 
original MSS. reports, wliich have never been published, we have the pleas- 
ure of adding to the reports of the battle of Gettj^sburg, which we have al- 
ready published, that of General R. H. Anderson, who commanded a divi- 
sion in Hill's corps.] 

Headquarters Anderson's Division, 
Third Army Corps, 
Orange Courthouse, Fa., August 7th, 1863. 

Major — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
operations of my division from its departure from Fredericksburg 
to its return to Culpeper Courthouse, Virginia, during the months 
of June and July, 1863: 

Pursuant to instructions received from Lieutenant-General A. 
P. Hill, commanding the Third Army corps, my command, com- 
posed of Wilcox's, Mahone's, Wright's, Perry's and Posey's bri- 
gades, and Lane's battalion of artillery, moved on the afternoon of 
the 14th of June from the position which it had been occupying 
in line of battle near Fredericksburg for ten days previously, and 
followed the march of the First and Second corps towards Cul- 
peper Courthouse. The night of the fourteenth it lay near Chan- 
cellorsville. On the fifteenth it moved to within four miles of 
Stevensburg, having been detained two hours at the Rapidan, clear- 
ing away obstructions from the road approaching the ford. 

On the sixteenth it arrived at Culpeper Courthouse. On the 
seventeenth it moved to Hazel river, forded it and encamped on 
its left bank. On the eighteenth to Flint Hill, and on the nine- 
teenth to Front Royal, at which place it halted early in the day 
and encamped, in obedience to the directions of the Lieutenant- 
General commanding. At four o'clock in the afternoon orders 
were received to resume the march, and during that night the 
troops and part of the wagon train crossed the two branches of 

50 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the Shenandoah — rain and darkness preventing the greater part ot 
the wagons from crossing until the following morning. As soon as 
all the wagons had crossed on the morning of the twentieth, the 
march was continued, and in the afternoon the command halted 
two miles beyond White Post. Moved on the twenty-first to Berry- 
ville, on the twenty-second to Roper's farm, on the road to Charles- 
town, and on the twenty-third to Shepherdstown. 

On the twenty-fourth it crossed the Potomac, and moved to 
Boonshoro', on the twenty-fifth to Hagerstown, on the twenty-sixth 
two miles beyond Greencastle, and on the twent3^-seventh through 
Chambersburg to Fayetteville, at which place it halted until the 
first of July. 

Soon after daylight on the first of July, in accordance with the 
commands of the Lieutenant-General, the division moved from 
Fayetteville in the direction of Cashtown — arrived at the latter 
place early in the afternoon, and halted for further orders. 

Shortly before our arrival at Cashtown, the sound of brisk can- 
nonading near Gettysburg announced an engagement in our front. 
After waiting about an hour at Cashtown, orders were received 
from General Hill to move forward to Gettysburg. Upon ap- 
proaching Gettysburg, I was directed to occupy the position in 
line of battle which had just been vacated by Pender's division, 
and to place one brigade and a battery of artillery a mile or more 
on the right of the line, in a direction at right angles with it and 
facing to the right. Wilcox's brigade and Captain Ross' battery of 
Lane's battalion were posted in the detached position, whilst the 
other brigades occupied the ground from which Pender's division 
had just been moved. W^e continued in this position until the 
morning of the second, when I received orders to take up a new 
line of battle, on the right of Pender's division, about a mile and 
a half farther forward. 

Lane's battalion of artillery was detached from my command 
this morning and did not rejoin it. 

In taking the new position, the Tenth Alabama regiment, Wil- 
cox's brigade, had a sharp skirmish with a bod}'' of the enemy, 
who had occupied a wooded hill on the extreme right of my line. 
The enemy was soon driven from the wood, and the line of battle 
was formed with the brigades in the following order: Wilcox's, 
Perry's (commanded by Colonel David Lang), Wright's, Posey's 
and Mahone's. 

The enemy's line was plainly in view, about twelve hundred 


General Anderson's Report of the Battle of Gcttyshimj. 51 

yards in our front, extending along an opposite ridge somewhat 
more elevated than that which we occupied, the intervening ground 
being slightly undulating, enclosed by rail and plank fences and 
under cultivation. 

Our skirmishers soon became engaged with those of the enemy, 
and kept up an irregular fire upon one another. Shortly after the 
line had been formed, I received notice that Lieutenaiit-General 
Longstreet would occupy the ground on the right— that his line 
would be in a direction nearly at right angles with mine— that he 
would assault the extreme left of the enemy and drive him towards 
Gettysburg, and I was at the same time ordered to put the troops 
of my division into action by brigades, as soon as those of General 
Longstreet's corps had progressed so far in their assault as to be 
connected with my right flank. About two o'clock in the after- 
noon the engagement between the artillery of the enemy and that 
of the First Army corps commenced, and was soon followed by fu- 
rious and sustained musketry, but it was not until half-past five 
o'clock in the evening that McLaw's division (by which the move- 
ment of my division was to be regulated) had advanced so far as 
to call for the movement of m)^ troops. 

The advance of McLaw's division was immediately followed in 
the manner directed by the brigades of mine. 

Never did troops go into action with greater spirit or more de- 
termined courage. The ground afforded them but little shelter, 
and for nearly three-quarters of a mile they were compelled to 
face a storm of shot and shell and bullets, but there was no hesitation 
nor faltering. They drove the enemy from his first line and pos- 
sessed themselves of the ridge and of much of the artiller}'- with 
which it had been crowned, but the situation discovered the enemy 
in possession of a second line, with artillery bearing upon both our 
front and flanks. From this position he poured a destructive fire 
of grape upon our troops — strong reinforcements pressed upon our 
right flank, which had become detached from McLaw's left, and 
the ridge was untenable. The brigades were compelled to retire. 
They fell back in the same succession in which they had advanced — 
Wilcox's, Perry's, Wright's and Posey's. They regained their po- 
sition in the line of battle. The enemy did not follow. Pickets 
were again thrown to the front, and the troops lay upon their arms. 

In Wilcox's, Perry's and Wright's brigades the loss was very 

On the third of July nothing of consequence occurred along that 

52 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

portion of the line occupied by my division until the afternoon, when 
at half-past three o'clock a great number of pieces of our artillery, 
massed against the enemy's centre, opened upon it and were replied 
to with equal force and fury. 

After about an hour's continuance of this conflict, the enemy's 
fire seemed to subside, and troops of General Longstreet's corps 
were advanced to the assault of the enemy's centre. I received 
orders to hold my division in readiness to move up in support if 
it should become necessary. The same success at first and the 
same repulse attended this assault as that made by my division on 
the preceding evening. The troops advanced gallantly, under a 
galling and destructive storm of missies of every description, 
gained the first ridge, were unable to hold it, gave way and fell 
back — their support giving way at the same time. 

Wilcox's and Perry's brigades had been moved forward so as to 
be in position to render assistance or to take advantage of any suc- 
cess gained by the assaulting column, and at what I supposed to 
be the proper time, I was about to move forward Wright's and 
Posey's brigades, when General Longstreet directed me to stop the 
movement, adding that it was useless and would only involve un- 
necessary loss, the assault having failed. 

I then caused the troops to resume their places in line, to afford 
a rallying point to those retiring, and to oppose the enemy should 
he follow our retreating forces. No attempt at pursuit was made, 
and our troops resumed their line of battle. 

Some loss was sustained by each of the brigades of the division 
from the cannonading — Wilcox's, which was supporting Alexan- 
der's artillery, suffering the most seriously. 

There was nothing done on the fourth of July, Late in the 
evening I received orders to draw off the division as soon as it be- 
came dark, and take the road towards Fairfield. On the fifth I 
was directed to hold the gap in the mountains between Fairfield 
and Waynesborough. In the evening I moved to a place called 
Frogtown, at the base of the mountain. 

At six o'clock P. M. on the sixth moved towards Hagerstown — 
halted on the morning of the seventh about two miles from the 
town, and remained in camp until the tenth of July. 

On the afternoon of the tenth moved about three miles beyond 
Hagerstown, in the direction of Williamsport, and on the morning 
of the eleventh moved two miles and took a position in line of 
battle with the right resting on the Boonsboro' and Williamsport 

General Anderson'' s Report of the Battle of Getty ahurg. 53 

turnpike— the general direction of the line being at right angles to 
that road. 

The enemy was in view on the hills in our front— skirmishers 
were advanced at once, and the troops were diligently employed in 
strengthening the position. 

We lay in this line until the night of the thirteenth, when we 
marched just after dark towards the Potomac, which we crossed 
the following day (the fourteenth) at Falling Waters. On the fif- 
teenth moved to Bunker Hill, at which place we remained until 
the twenty-first, when the march was resumed, and the division 
encamped on that night two miles south of Winchester. 

On the twenty-second crossed the Shenandoah and halted for the 
night at Front Koyal. On the twenty-third the division marched 
at daylight — Wright's brigade, under command of Colonel Walker, 
being detached to relieve a brigade of the First corps on duty at 
Manassas Gap. 

This brigade had a very sharp encounter with a greatly superior 
force of the enemy at Manassas Gap, and behaved with its accus- 
tomed gallantry. 

Colonel Walker was severely but not dangerously wounded in 
the beginning of the fight, when the command devolved upon 
Captain McCurry, who, being incapacitated by ill health and fee- 
bleness, subsequently relinquished it to Captain Andrews. 

The division encamped on the night of the twenty-third at Flint 
Hill. On the twenty-fourth, whilst pursuing the march, and when 
near Thornton river, some skirmishing occurred between the lead- 
ing division (Heth's) and the enemy. Mahone's brigade relieved 
Walker's (Heth's division), which had been posted to support the 
artillery and cover the road, and continued in that position until 
the rear of the corps had passed, when he followed and rejoined 
the division on the south of Hazel river. On the twenty-fifth of 
July the command arrived at Culpeper Courthouse. 

The total loss sustained by the division in the battle of Gettys- 
burg, the fight at Manassas Gap and in minor affairs, is two thou- 
sand two hundred and sixty-six. 

The reports of the commanders of brigades, including Captain 
Andrews' report of the fight at Manassas Gap, are herewith sub- 
mitted. The members of my staff". Majors T. S. Mills and R. P. 
Duncan, Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General, Lieutenants 
Wm. McWillie and S. D. Shannon, Aides-de-Camp, and Messrs. R. 
D. Spann and J. G. Spann, volunteer Aides-de-Camp, by their active 

54 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and zealous attention to their duties, rendered valuable service at 
all times and upon all occasions. The conduct of the troops under 
my command was in the highest degree praiseworthy and com- 
mendable throughout the campaign. Obedient to the orders of 
the Commanding General they refrained from taking into their own 
hands retaliation upon the enemy for the inhuman wrongs and 
outrages inflicted upon them in the wanton destruction of their 
property and homes. Peaceable inhabitants sufifered no molesta- 
tion. In a land of plenty they often suffered hunger and want. 
One-fourth of their number marched ragged and barefooted through 
towns in which it was well ascertained that the merchants had 
concealed supplies of clothing. In battle they lacked none of that 
courage and spirit which has ever distinguished the soldiers of the 
Army of Northern Virginia; and if complete success did not at- 
tend their efforts, their failure cannot be laid upon their shortcom- 
ing, but must be recognized and accepted as the will and decree of 
the Almighty Disposer of human affairs. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. H. Anderson, 

Major- General Commanding Division. 

Major W. H. Palmer, Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General 
and Chief of Staff Third Armij Corps. 


Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 55 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park, Twelfth Alabama Regiment. 

[Continued from January No.] 

February 10th, 11th and 12th, 1865 — There is a tent of sutler's sup- 
plies near the mess hall, kept by an avaricious Yankee, named Em- 
ery, who is believed to be a partner of General SchoefF. Tobacco, 
matches, oil for cooking lamps, stationery, baker's bread, pies, 
cakes, apples, onions, etc., all of very poor quality, are kept for 
sale, and from 500 per cent, to 1,000 per cent, profit is charged. 
Emery's position is a paying, if not a very dignified one. Jolly 
Sam Brewer, the clever Twelfth Alabama sutler, would have rejoiced 
at a quarter of Emery's huge profits. There is very often an eager, 
clamorous throng crowded around his tent, checks in hand, and 
held aloft, eager to buy the inferior articles, sold at prices so far 
above their value. Emery and his clerks are vulgar, impertinent, 
grasping Yankees, and elegant Southern gentlemen are frequently 
comi^elled to submit to disagreeable familiarties from these ill bred 
men. The extortioners are openly denounced and unsparingly 
criticised and ridiculed by the impatient, hungry and poverty- 
stricken Rebels, as they anxiously await their time to be served. 
The enormous prices for very poor articles on sale are very can- 
didly and freely complained of and objected to by the needy cus- 
tomers. But while they grumble, stern necessity forces them to 
buy. In clear weather the prisoners promenade in the open area and 
exercise by running, jumping, pitching quoits, etc. 

February loth, l-lth, 15th and 16th— The privy is on the beach, 
where the tide comes in, 150 feet or more distant from the nearest 
division. It is open and exposed in front, and is in sight of Dela- 
ware city. The seats are very filthy, and cannot be occupied with- 
out being defiled. The sea water proves no disinfectant, and the 
constant frequenters of the place are sickened by the offensive 
odors which are wafted to their sensitive olfactories. Diarrhoea and 
dysentery are so prevalent, and the pen is so crowded, that parties 
are very often compelled to wait an hour or longer before they 
can be relieved. The floor and seats are too filthy and nauseating 
for description; yet very many who suffer from the diseases men- 
tioned visit the foul place dozens of times, day and night, in 
rain, wind, hail, sleet and snow, and in spite of the most intense 
oold and blackest, most impenetrable darkness, pollution is scarcely 
avoidable on such occasions. 

56 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

February 17th, ISth and 19th — Plenty of "grape," i. c, rumors 
afloat of a speedy general exchange. I have written home by my 
old college-mate, Capt. Zeke Crocker, who is on the exchange list. 
Much of my time is spent writing to my lady friends in the Valley 
of Virginia and Baltimore, and to relatives South. No letters from 
home, however, reached me by flag of truce boat, though I know 
they have been written. The authorities are intentionally negli- 
gent about forwarding and delivering our letters from Dixie to us. 
Have read "Macaria," by Miss Evans; "The Caxtons," by Bulwer, 
and am reviewing arithmetic and algebra. A number of valuable 
books have been sent us by the ever thoughtful and attentive Bal- 
timore ladies. They will never know how much they have done, 
in various kindly ways, to ameliorate our unhappy condition and 
relieve the dull tedium of our monotonous life. God bless the 
noble women of Baltimore! They are angels of mercy to us. 
The supply of drinking water has been scarce and insuflicient 
lately, and those who have been too nice to use the filthy ditch 
water, so unpleasant to sight and smell, for bathing purposes, have 
been forbidden to use the fresh water in the hogsheads. The 
drinking water is brought over from Brandywine creek, and is 
dipped out of the hogsheads by means of tin cups, coffee pots, 
buckets, etc. It cannot be clean, but is greatly to be preferred to 
the brackish ditch water. It is to be hoped we will not have a 
water famine. Many pleasant acquaintances have been formed 

February 20th — Mr. Bennett, of Baltimore, sent me one dollar 
and a supply of paper, envelopes and stamps. Ahl and Wolf are, 
like many other civilians, "clothed in a little brief authority " over 
their fellow men, very arrogant and offensive. They seem to de- 
light in harassing and annoying the defenceless victims under 
their care and control. They evidently regret the prospect of re- 
sumption of exchange. When we leave, their occupation as turn- 
keys will be gone, and the dreaded "front" stares them in the face. 
Their coward hearts quail at the thought. Wolf gave up watches 
and Confederate money to most of the prisoners. This is a good 
indication of approaching exchange. I am satisfied that President 
Davis and the Confederate Government have been ready for it at 
any time. No blame is attached to our leaders. Colonel Robert 
Ould has labored zealously in our behalf. My hopes of release 
have revived. 

February 21st, 22d, 2Zd and 2ith — A movement has been on foot 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 57 

to stop the gambling and noise after ten o'clock, and many of the 
leading gamblers have approved the idea. Colonel Wm. J. Clark, 
Twenty -fourth North Carolina troops, has been elected chief of the 
division, and made a short speech, announcing that, by vote, it was 
agreed that all lights should be put out and quiet observed after 
the usual nine o'clock prayers. My friends Arrington and Browne 
aided me actively in canvassing in favor of this excellent change. 
Colonel Clark is an old army officer. Midshipman Howell, a rela- 
tive of Mr. Davis, is an inmate of 28. Lieutenant E. H. Crawley, 
Twenty-sixth Georgia; Captain J. H. Field, Eighth Georgia; Lieu- 
tenant Q. D. Finley, Eighteenth Mississippi, and Adjutant Alex. S. 
Webb, of Forty-fourth North Carolina troops, are among the in- 
mates also. 

The newspaper accounts of Sherman's march from Georgia 
through South Carolina are heartrending. An extract from one of 
them says: "Sherman burnt Columbia on the seventeenth instant. 
He had burnt six out of seven farm houses on the route of his 
march. Before he reached Columbia, he had burned Blackville, 
Graham, Bamburg, Buford's bridge and Lexington, and had not 
spared the humblest hamlet. After he left Columbia, he gave to 
the flames the villages of Allston, Pomaria, Winnsboro', Black- 
stock, Society Hill, and the towns of Camden and Cheraw." 
Would that the prisoners at Fort Delaware could be exchanged 
and sent to confront this ruthless, heartless destroyer of the homes 
and subsistence of helpless women and children. We would teach- 
him a wholesome lesson. The paragraph quoted reminds me of a 
letter written by General Sheridan. After the battle of Fisher's 
Hill, he wrote from Strasburg as follows : " Lieutenant J. R. Meigs,, 
my engineer officer, was murdered beyond Harrisburg, near Day- 
ton. For this atrocious act, all the houses within an area of five 
m_ miles were burned. In moving back to this point, the whole 
mk country, from the Blue Badge to the North Mountain, has been 
Bmade entirely untenable for a rebel army. I have destroyed over 
H 2,000 barns, filled with wheat, hay and farming implements, over 
^70 mills, filled with flour and wheat; have driven in front of the 
I army over 4,000 head of stock, and have killed and issued to the 
troops not less than 3,000 sheep. This destruction embraces the 
Luray Valley and the Little Fort Valley, as well as the Main Val- 
I ley." These two vandals fight with the torch better than the sword, 
and seem to glory in their own infamy. The South Carolina pris- 

58 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

oners are greatly troubled b}'- the terrible accounts of Sherman's 
destructive march through their native State. 

February 25th and 2Qth — The terrible reports of Sherman's cru- 
elty during the burning of Columbia, and of his subsequent march 
into North Carolina, are appalling and disheartening to us all. 
The Carolinians are specially grieved and indignant. Sherman's 
whole course in the South is in bold and dishonorable contrast 
with the gentle and generous conduct of Lee and his veterans in 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. I well remember that memorable 
march into the enemy's territory, far more daring and heroic than 
the unapposed marches of the brutal Sherman through Georgia 
and Carolina. I was with Lee when he invaded Pennsylvania, 
and was wounded at Gettysburg, just before our brigade entered 
the town, July first, 1863. General Lee's famous order, dated June 
27th, 1863, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, is brought forcibly to 
my mind. The following immortal words, extracted from that re- 
nowned order, ought to be repeated daily in the ears of the inhu- 
iman Sherman : 

"The Commanding General considers that no greater disgrace 
-could befall the army, and through it our whole people, than the 
perpetration of the barbarous outrages upon the innocent and de- 
fenceless, and the wanton destruction of private property, that have 
marked the course of the enemy in our own country. Such pro- 
ceedings not only disgrace the perpetrators and all connected with 
them, but are subversive of the discipline and efficiency of our 
army. The yet unsullied reputation of our army, and the duties 
exacted of us by civilization and Christianity, are not less obliga- 
tory in the country of the enemy than in our own. It must be 
remembered that we make war only upon armed men, and that we 
cannot take vengeance for the wrongs our people have suflered, 
without lowering ourselves in the eyes of all whose abborrence has 
been excited by the atrocities of our enemj^, and offending against 
Him to whom vengeance belongeth, and without whose favor and 
support our efforts must all prove in vain. The Commanding 
General, therefore, earnestly exhorts the troops to abstain, with 
most scrupulous care, from unnecessary or wanton injury to pri- 
vate property; and he enjoins upon all officers to arrest and bring 
to summary punishment all who shall, in any way, ofi'end against 
the orders on this subject. 

"R. E. Lee, General 

This Christian and humane effort to mitigate the horrors of war 
confers greater glory on Lee than all the villages, towns, cities and 
private residences burnt by Sherman and his cruel followers can 
ever reflect upon his dishonored name. Man}!- of Lee's soldiers 

Diary of Gainain Robert E. Park. 59 

had suffered great mental anguish and immense pecuniary losses 
by the cruel devastation and cowardly atrocities of their enemies, 
but when they, exultant and victorious, invaded the country of 
their inhuman enemy, they nobly restrained their angry passions 
and kept pure and bright their unsullied reputations. They hero- 
ically resisted the alluring temptation to inflict merited retaliation, 
and like brave. Christian soldiers and gallant gentlemen, scrupu- 
lously obeyed the humane orders of their beloved chieftain. But 
tins sublime lesson of generosity and magnanimity was lost upon 
tlie vandal enemy. In base return for Lee's noble. Christian con- 
duct they despoiled and desecrated his own home at Arlington, 
and the cherished homes of his brave followers in Virginia, Geor- 
gia and South Carolina. Sherman's base course, his wicked crimes, 
have forever stained his name and cause, dishonored his country 
and disgraced his triumph. The grand, glorious and humane Lee 
and his chivalrous officers and brave men disdained to retaliate by 
imitating the cruel deeds of the malignant Sherman, Sheridan and 
Grant and their hordes of reckless ruffians. We have just reason 
to be proud of the magnanimous conduct of our peerless leader, 
while the Yankees must hang their heads in shame at the evil 
deeds perpetrated by their chosen commanders. In Southern par- 
lance, the terms soldier and gentleman are synonymous, and our 
officers and men pride themselves upon that "chastity of honor," 
which, as Edmund Burke expressed it, "feels a stain like a 

February 27th — A part}^ of ninety or one hundred officers and a 
few hundred privates were paroled and left for Richmond. Some 
of the officers bribed Ahl and Wolf with gold watches and green- 
backs to put their names on the paroled list. Influential Northern 
friends aided others, and a few sold their places and remained be- 

February 2Sth — One hundred and three officers, of those earliest 
captured, were paroled to-day for exchange. We are growing hope- 
ful of a speedy return to our homes and all are in fine spirits. 
The despondent are becoming chSSrful and happy at the exhila- 
rating prospect of release from durance vile. 

March 1st and 2(i— Lieutenant Waldman, our division post- 
master, surprised and delighted me by handing me the following 
letter this morninor after " letter call'' : 

60 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

BAliTmoRE, February 22d, 1865. 
Captain K. E. Park : 

Dear sir — I have lately learned that j'ou are a prisoner at the 
Old Capitol, and too delicate to make known your wants. Now 
let me beg, as a great favor, that you will write me immediately, 
and call on me for whatever you may need. I shall attend 
promptly and with the greatest pleasure to your commands. You 
don't know how highly we ladies feel ourselves honored to be able 
to add in any way to your comfort. The longer your list the bet- 
ter I'll be pleased. 

Very respectfully, 

Miss Eliza Jamison, 
43 Calvert street, Baltimore, Md. 

This charming, elegantly expressed letter had been reforwarded 
from Washington, and its kind, cordial words gave me unqualified 
pleasure. The generous writer is one of those earthly angels from 
that glorious city of angelic women, Baltimore. My astonishment 
was profound, for I had never heard of Miss Eliza Jamison before, 
and could not divine how she had heard of me. I promptly and 
gratefully responded to her highly valued note, telling her candidly 
that my greatest want was a few greenbacks, adding that a cheer- 
ful young lady correspondent, who would help to revive my spir- 
its and drive away unwelcome thoughts of my depressing sur- 
roundings, would prove very acceptable. 

March od to 6th — The parapet between our pen and that of the 
privates, on which the sentinels walk, had several ladies and gen- 
tlemen walking upon it a day or two ago, and they looked kindly 
and compassionately upon the emaciated, ragged, suffering Rebels 
in the two pens. One of the ladies carried her handkerchief to 
her eyes to wipe away the generous tears, as she gazed pityingly 
upon the abject misery and wretchedness before her. I hear they 
were Delaware ladies, and that Senator Saulsbury was one of the 
gentlemen in the party. If these sjmipathizing people could spend 
a few hours inside the pens, among the prisoners, and witness the 
distressing evidences of hunger to be constantly seen there, they 
would have pitied us with truest pity, and not blamed the darring, 
starving men for oft-repeated attemps to escape by swimming, un- 
der friendly cover of night, across the bay to the Delaware shore. 
Hunger seems to have dissipated the pride and self-respect of many 
of the prisoners. They will perform the most menial services for 
the most trivial gift or smallest articles of food. When the bunks 
and floors are swept, pieces of bread crusts and crumbs and stale 

Diary of Captaiii Robert E. Park. 61 

scraps of food are sought for and eagerly gathered up by hungry 
officers, who have no means to purchase from the sutler, and for 
whom the rations issued are entirely insufficient. It is a painful 
spectacle to see them snatch the dirty scraps and quickly devour 
them, or hastily thrust them in their jackets, and stand ready for 
another grab. A number gather promptly every morning around 
these piles, and contend for the spoils. Their hunger must be tor- 
turing to thus humiliate and degrade themselves in the eff'ort to 
secure such insufficient and filthy cast away scraps of stale bread. 
These poor fellows eat rats and mice whenever they can catch 
them. How miserable their good mothers and loving wives would 
be if they knew to what wretched straits their imprisoned sons 
And husbands were reduced. Surely the powerful Government 
ought to feed these poor, suffering, starving men. ■ In Southern 
prisons the prisoners are issued the same rations as their guards, 
both in quantity and quality. How glad we would be if we were 
fed as our guards are. Many work hard all day, unloading vessels, 
rolling hogsheads and barrels, etc., and receive an extra ration 
only as pa3^ Three crackers ("hard tack," as it is called) and a 
cup of coffee for breakfast, and a small piece of beef, cup of soup 
and a third of a loaf of bread for dinner, are now our daily rations. 
These are for stout and small, sick and well, and are not enough for a 
hearty well man. Many eat the rations from dire necessity, as the 
only alternative is to starve. Some men require more food than 
others, and the small amount given is not enough to satisfy the 
least hungry. Guttapercha rings, breastpins, fans, buttons and 
■canes are made by ingenious prisoners as a means to raise money. 
The patterns are numerous, and many are unique and beautiful, 
A few are set in gold, but most are ornamented with silver, tin or 
lead, fastened with rivets. These materials are bought at a high 
price from the sutler and secretly from the guards. The articles 
are bought by visitors occasionally, and by prisoners as prison rel- 
ics. I have secured some rings for Sister L. Curiously carved 
pipes, and tasteful chains and necklaces, all of guttapercha and ivy 
root, are to be found for sale in most of the divisions. They have 
very few tools, and work ten or twelve hours sometimes for a mere 
pittance as a reward. Barbers can be found, too, and hair cut or 
face shaved for only five cents. Captain H., of the Thirteenth 
Creoroia, is mv barber. 

62 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Battle of Atchafalaj a Rirer— Letter from General Thomas Green. 

[The following letter, from one of the most gallant and successful Generals 
of the Trans-Mississippi Department, gives, with all the freedom of private 
correspondence, a vivid description of a hotly contested fight. "VVe are anx- 
ious to obtain more material from the Trans-Mississippi Department, and are 
taking steps to secure it.] 

Headquarters Forces on Atchafalaya, 
October 1, 1S63. 
My Dear AVife : 

I am yet in the land of the living, after another brilliant 
victory near the banks of the Mississippi. I crossed the Atchafa- 
laya during the night of the 28th September, and moved upon the 
enemy on the 29th in three columns — one column of infantry, 
1,400 strong, consisting of Mouton's and Speight's brigades. I 
moved on a trail through the swamps and took position behind 
the enemy. My own brigade, dismounted, with Wallen's and 
Rountree's battalions of cavalry, moved upon the enemy in front. 
I sent one of Majou's regiments of cavalry upon the left flank of 
the enemy, crossing the Atchafalaya twenty miles below^ my posi- 
tion. At about twelve o'clock M. I closed in upon the enemy on 
all sides. Speight's brigade of 600 men and Major Boon's cavalry 
of 200 were the only troops closely engaged. The fight was a very 
hot one for a half or three-quarters of an hour. Boon charged the 
enemy's cavalry and dispersed them. Colonel Harrison of Speight's 
brigade charged the enemy's infantry in rear during the very heat 
of the action. Major Boon having dispersed the cavalry of the 
enemy, I ordered him to go to the assistance of Harrison, and 
charge the enemy in front, which he did in the most dashing and 
gallant manner. Nothing could be imagined more terrible on the 
same scale. Boon dashed through and through the entire encamp- 
ment of the enemy, sabering* and shooting, and trampling the 
living, wounded and dead under the feet of his horses. The whole 
affiiir was a most brilliant success, and has added another victory to 
our long list. It has cheered the hearts of our soldiers, and cast a 
gloom over the enemy. I have five hundred prisoners, many of 
whom are officers (say thirty or forty), two colonels, and many 
captains and lieutenants. 

* Major Boon, mentionea in the foregoing letter, informs me that the writer erred in this 
statement, and that the sabre was not used In the engagement by the combatants on either 

Austin, Texas, October 6, 1876. V. O. King. 

Battle of Atchafalaya River. 65 

We have again given the enemy a wholesome lesson, and I have 
go far been exceedingly fortunate as commander, beginning with 
Val Verde. The last /owr battles fought in Louisiana have been 
under my command, three of which are splendid victories, and the 
other one of the most desperate fights on record, for the numbers 
engaged, and one where there was more fruitless courage displayed 
than any other, perhaps, during the war. We did not achieve this 
last victory without loss. About thirty of Speight's brigade were 
killed dead, and sixty or seventy wounded. My own brigade suf- 
fered in the death of Lieutenant Spivey and three or four others of 
my cavalry; but the loss which was greater to me than all the 
others put together, was the desperate wounding of the best cavalry 
officer in the army — Major Boon of my brigade. The Major's 
right arm was torn to atoms, and amputated in the socket of the 
shoulder. His left hand was also torn up and two-thirds of it am- 
putated, leaving him only his little finger and one next to it, hav- 
ing lost the thumb and two fingers of that hand and over half the 
hand itself I am again encamped at my old headquarters, Mor- 
gan's ferry, on Atchafalaya. The Yankees are to-day making dem- 
onstrations as though they intended to advance upon us; but if 
they do, it will be after very heavy reinforcement, as we gave those 
now here such a terrible basting day before yesterday that they 
will not again voluntarily engage us. 

There has been a torrent of rain. It poured down all day the 
day we were fighting, and rained without intermission twenty-four 
hours after that day. The mud in these swamps is over the tops 
of our highest boots — in fact, the roads now are next to impassa- 
ble. I have had a dumb chill to-day — the first one I have had in 
Louisiana. I fear we will have serious sickness as tliC winter ap- 
proaches. There have been very few deaths so far. If I had a 
little good brandy or whisky, or even (Louisiana lightning) rum, 
I could break my dumb chill in a minute; but there is nothing of 
that kind in the wilderness of the Atchafalaya. I will try very 
hard to get a furlough, unless I find that active operations are again 
close at hand. Major and Leigh were with me in the fight on the 
29th, and are well. 

The messenger is waiting for this. 

Yours devotedly, 
(Signed) Thomas Gueen. 

»64 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Lieutenant- General S. D. Lee's Report of the Tennessee Campaig-n, 
beginning September 29th, 1864. 

[Pursuing our policy of giving the jDreference to reports from original 
■MSS., we publish the following from an autograph MS. of the accomplished 
soldier who prepared it. So far as we are aware, it has never before been 
published in any form, and it will be, therefore, an inipni-taut addition to the 
••material of military students, as well as of deep interest to all desiring to see 
■some account of that campaign.] 

Columbus, Mississippi, January 30th, 1865. 

Colonel — I have the honor to offer the following as my official 
report of the operations of my corps during the offensive move- 
ment commencing at Palmetto station, Georgia, September 29th, 
1864. It is impracticable now, in consequence of the movement of 
■troops and my temporary absence from the army, to obtain de- 
tailed reports from my division commanders. 

As a corps commander, I regarded the morale of the army 
.greatly impaired after the fall of Atlanta, and in fact before its fall 
■the troops were not by any means in good spirits. It was my ob- 
servation and belief that the majority of the officers and men were 
"SO impressed with the idea of their inability to carry even tempo- 
rary breastworks, that when orders were given for attack, and there 
was a probability of encountering works, they regarded it as reck- 
lessness in the extreme. Being impressed with these convictions, they 
did not generally move to the attack with that spirit which nearly 
always insures success. Whenever the enemy changed his posi- 
tion, temporary works could be improvised in less than two hours, 
and he could never be caught without them. In making these ob- 
servations, it is due to many gallant officers and commands to 
state that there were noticeable exceptions, but the feeling was so 
general that anything like a general attack was paralyzed by it. 
The army having constantly yielded to the flank movements of 
the enemy, which he could make with but little difficulty, by rea- 
son of his vastly superior numbers, and having failed in the offen- 
sive movements prior to the fall of Atlanta, its efficiency for further 
retarding the progress of the enemy was much impaired; and, be- 
sides, the advantages in the topography of the country south of 
Atlanta were much more favorable to the enemy for the move- 
ments of his superior numbers than the rough and mountainous 
■country already yielded to him. In view of these facts, it was my 

General S. D. Lee's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 65 

opinion that the army should take up the offensive, with the hope 
that favorable opportunities would be offered for striking the enemy 
successfully, thus insuring the efficiency of the army for future 
operations. These opinions were freely expressed to the Com- 
manding General. 

My corps crossed the Chattahoochee river on September 29th, 
and on October 3d took position near Lost mountain, to cover the 
movement of Stewart's corps, on the railroad, at Big Shanty and 
Altoona. On October 6th, I left my position near Lost mountain, 
marching via Dallas and Cedartown, crossing the Coosa river at 
Coosaville October 10th, and moved on Resaca, partially investing 
the place by four P. M. on October 12th. The surrender of the 
place was demanded in a written communication, which was in my 
possession, signed by General Hood. The commanding officer re- 
fused to surrender, as he could have easily escaped from the forts 
with his forces and crossed the Oustenaula river. I did not deem 
it prudent to assault the works, which were strong and well 
manned, believing that our loss would have been severe. The 
main object of appearing before Resaca being accomplished, and 
finding that Sherman's main army was moving from the direction 
of Rome and Adairsville towards Resaca, I withdrew from before 
the place to Snake Creek gap about midday on the 13th. The 
enemy made his appearance at the gap on the 14th in large force, 
and on the 15th it was evident that his force amounted several 
corps. Several severe skirmishes took place on the 15th, in which 
Deas' and Brantley's brigades of Johnson's division were princi- 
pally engaged. This gap was held by my command till the balance 
of the army had passed through Matex's gap, when I followed 
with the corps through the latter. The army moved to Gadsden, 
where my corps arrived on October 21st. At this point clothing 
was issued to the troops, and the army commenced its march to- 
wards Tennessee. My corps reached the vicinity of Leighten, in 
the Tennesssee Valley, October 29th. Stewart's and Cheatham's 
corps were then in front of Decatur. On the night of the 29th I 
received orders to cross the Tennessee river at Florence, Alabama. 
By means of the pontoon boats two brigades of Johnson's division 
were thrown across the river two and a half miles above south 
Florence, and Gibson's brigade of Clayton's division was crossed 
at south Florence. The enemy occupied Florence with about 1,000 
cavalry, and had a strong picket at the railroad bridge. The cros- 
sing at this point was handsomely executed and with much spirit 

66 Southern Hidorical Society Papers. 

by Gibson, under tbe direction of General Clayton, under cover of 
several batteries of artillery. The distance across the river was 
about one thousand yards. The troops landed, and, after form- 
ing, charged the enemy and drove him from Florence. The cross- 
ing was spirited, and reflected much credit on all engaged in it. 
Major-General Edward Johnson experienced considerable difficulty 
in crossing his two brigades, because of the extreme difficulty of 
managing the boats in the shoals. He moved from the north bank 
of the river late in the evening with one brigade. Sharp's Missis- 
sippi, and encountered the enemy on the Florence and Huntsville 
road about dark. A spirited affair took place, in which the enemy 
were defeated with a loss of about forty killed, wounded and pris- 
oners. The enemy retreated during the night to Shoal creek, about 
nine miles distant. The remainder of Johnson's and Clayton's 
divisions were crossed on the night of the 30th and on the morning 
of the 31st. Stevenson's division was crossed on November 2d. 
My corps remained in Florence till November 20th, when the army 
commenced moving for Tennessee, my command leading the ad- 
vance and marching in the direction of Columbia via Henryville 
and Mount Pleasant. I arrived in front of Columbia on the 26th, 
relieving Forest's cavalry then in position there, which had fol- 
lowed the enemy from Pulaski. 

The force of the enemy occupying Columbia was two corps. 
They confined themselves to the main works around the city, and 
their outposts and skirmishers were readily driven in. On the 
night of the 27th the enemy evacuated Columbia and crossed Duck 
river. Stevenson's division of my corps entered the town before 
daylight. After crossing, the enemy took a strong position on the 
opposite side of the river and entrenched, his skirmishers occupy- 
ino- rifle pits 250 yards from the river. There was considerable 
skirmishing across the river during the day, and some artillery 
firing, resulting in nothing of importance. 

On the morning of the 29th Johnson's division of my corps 
was detached and ordered to report to the General Commanding. 
I was directed to occupy and engage the enemy near Columbia, 
while the other two corps and Johnson's division would be crossed 
above and moved to the rear of the enemy in the direction of 
Spring Hill. The entire force of the enemy Avas in front of Co- 
lumbia till about midday on the 29th, when one corps commenced 
moving oflf — the other remaining in position as long as they could 
be seen by us, or till dark. I had several batteries of artillery put 

General S. D. Lee's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 67 

in position, to drive the skirmishers of the enemy from the vicinity 
of the river bank, and made a display of pontoons— running sev- 
eral of them down to the river, under a heavy artillery and mus- 
ketry fire. Having succeeded in putting a boat in the river, Pettus' 
brigade of Stevenson's division Avas thrown across, under the im- 
mediate direction of Major-General Stevenson, and made a most 
gallant charge on the rifle pits of the enemy, driving a much su- 
perior force and capturing the pits. The bridge was at once laid 
down and the crossing commenced. During the affiiir around Co- 
lumbia the gallant and accomplished soldier, Colonel R. F. Beck- 
ham, commanding the artillery regiment of my corps, was mortally 
wounded while industriously and fearlessly directing the artillery 
firing against the enemy. He was one of the truest and best 
officers in the service. 

The enemy left my front about 2.30 A. M. on the morning of the 
30th, and the pursuit was made as rapidly as was prudent in the 
night time. The advance of Clayton's division arrived at Spring 
Hill about 9 A. M., when it was discovered that the enemy had 
made his escape, passing around that portion of the army in that 
vicinity. My corps, including Johnson's division, followed imme- 
diately after Cheatham's corps towards FrankHn. I arrived near 
Franklin about 4 P. M. The Commanding General was just about 
attacking the enemy with Stewart's and Cheatham's corps, and he 
directed me to place Johnson's, and afterwards Clayton's, division 
in position to support the attack. Johnson moved in rear of 
Cheatham's corps. Finding that the battle was stubborn, General 
Hood directed me to move forward in person, to communicate 
with General Cheatham, and, if necessary, to put Johnson's divi- 
sion in the fight. I met General Cheatham about dark, and was 
informed by him that assistance was needed at once. Johnson 
was immediately moved forward to the attack, but owing to the 
darkness and want of information as to the locality, his attack was 
not felt by the enemy till about one hour after dark. This divi- 
sion moved against the enemy's breastworks under a heavy fire of 
artillery and musketry, gallantly driving the enemy from portions 
of his line. The brigades of Sharp and Brantly (Mississippians), 
and of Deas (Alabamians), particularly, distinguished themselves. 
Their dead were mostly in the trenches and in the works of the 
enemy, where they fell in a desperate hand to hand conflict. 
Sharp captured three stand of colors. Brantly was exposed to a 
severe enfilade fire. These noble brigades never faltered in this 


68 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

terrible night struggle. Brigadier-General Manigault, commanding 
a brigade of Alabamians and South Carolinians, was severely 
wounded in this engagement, while gallantly leading his troops to 
the fight; and his two successors in command, Colonel Shaw was 
killed and Colonel Davis wounded. I have never seen greater 
evidences of gallantry than was displayed by this division, under 
command of that admirable and gallant soldier, Major-General 
Ed. Johnson. The enemy fought gallantly and obstinately at 
Franklin, and the position he held was for infantr}' defence one of 
the best I had ever seen. The enemy evacuated Franklin hastily 
during the night of the 30th. My corps commenced the pursuit 
about 1 P. M. on December 1st, and arrived near Nashville about 
2 P. M. December 2d. The enemy had occupied the works around 
the city. My command was the centre of the army in front of 
Nashville; Cheatham's corps being on my right and Stewart's on 
my left. Nothing of importance occurred till the 15th. The army 
was engaged in entrenching and strengthening its position. On 
the 15th the enemy moved out on our left, and a severe engage- 
ment was soon commenced. In my immediate front the enemy 
still kept up his skirmish line, though it was evident that his main 
force had moved. My line was much extended, the greater part 
of my command being in single rank. About 12 M. I was in- 
structed to assist Lieutenant-General Stewart, and I commenced 
withdrawing troops from my line to send to his support. I sent 
him Johnson's entire division, each brigade starting as it was dis- 
engaged from the works. A short time before sunset the enemy 
succeeded in turning General Stewart's position, and a part of my 
line was necessarily changed to conform to his new line. During 
the night Cheatham's corps was withdrawn from my right and 
moved to the extreme left of the army. The army then took po- 
sition about one mile in rear of its original line. My corps being 
on the extreme right, I was instructed by the Commanding Gen- 
eral to cover and hold the Franklin pike. Clayton's division occu- 
pied my right, Stevenson's my centre, and Johnson's my left. It 
was evident soon after daylight that a large force of the enemy 
was being concentrated in my front on the Franklin pike. About 
9 A. M. on the 16th the enemy, having placed a large number of 
guns in position, opened a terrible artillery fire on my line, princi- 
pally on the Franklin pike. This lasted about two hours, when 
the enemy moved to the assault. They came up in several lines 
of battle. 

General S. D. Lee's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 69 

My men reserved their fire till they were within easy range and 
then delivered it with terrible effect. The assault was easily re- 
pulsed. It was renewed, however, with spirit several times, but 
only to meet each time with a like result. They approached to 
within thirty yards of our line, and their loss was very severe. 
Their last assault was made about 3J P. M., when they were driven 
back in great disorder. The assaults were made principally in 
front of Holtzclaw's Alabama, Gibson's Louisiana and Stovall's 
Georgia brigades of Clayton's division, and Pettus' Alabama brigade 
of Stevenson's division, and too much credit cannot be awarded 
Major-General Clayton and these gallant troops for their conspicuous 
and soldierly conduct. The enemy made a considerable display of 
force on my extreme right during the day, evidently with the in- 
tention of attempting to turn our right flank. He made, however, 
but one feeble effort to use this force, when it was readily repulsed 
by Stovall's Georgia and Brantley's Mississippi brigades, which 
latter two had been moved to the right. Smith's division of Cheat- 
ham's corps reported to me about 2 P. M., to meet any attempt of 
the enemy to turn our right flank ; it was put in position, but was 
not needed, and, by order of the Commanding General, it started to 
Brentwood about 2>l P. M. The artillery fire of the enemy during 
the entire day was heavy, and right nobly did the artillery of my 
corps, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hoxton, perform their duty. Court- 
ney's battalion, under Captain Douglas, was in Johnson's front, 
Johnson's battalion was in Stevenson's front, and Eldridge's bat- 
talion, under Captain Fenner, was in Clayton's front. The officers 
and men of the artillery behaved admirably, and too much praise 
cannot be bestowed upon this efficient arm of the service in the 
Army of Tennessee. The troops of my entire line were in fine 
spirits and confident of success (so much so that the men could 
scarcely be prevented from leaving their trenches to follow the 
enemy on and near the Franklin pike). But suddenly all eyes 
were turned to the centre of our line of battle near the Gracey 
White pike, where it was evident the enemy had made an entrance, 
although but little firing had .been heard in that direction. Our 
men were flying to the rear in the wildest confusion and the enemy 
following with enthusiastic cheers. The enemy at once closed 
towards the gap in our line and commenced charging on the left 
division— Johnson's— of my corps, but were handsomely driven 
back. The enemy soon gained our rear and were moving on my 
left flank when our line gradually gave away. My troops left their 

70 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

lines in some disorder, but were soon rallied and presented a good 
front to the enemy. It was a fortunate circumstance that the enemy- 
was too much cripj)led to pursue us on the Franklin pike. The 
only pursuit made at that time was by a small force coming from 
the Gracey White pike. Having been informed by an aide of the 
General Commanding, that the enemy were near Brentwood, and 
that it was necessary to get beyond that point at once, everything 
was hastened to the rear. When Brentwood was passed, the enemy 
was only half a mile from the Franklin pike, where Chalmer's cav- 
alry was fighting them. Being charged with covering the retreat 
of the army, I remained in rear with Clayton's and part of Steven- 
son's divisions, and halted the rear guard about seven miles north 
of Franklin about 10 P. M. on the 16th. Early on the morning of 
the 17th our cavalry was driven in in confusion by the enemy, 
who at once commenced a most vigorous pursuit, his cavalry 
charging at every opportunity and in the most daring manner. It 
was apparant that they were determined to make the retreat a rout 
if possible. Their boldness was soon checked by many of them 
being killed and captured by Pettus' Alabama and Stovall's Geor- 
gia brigades and Bledsoe's battery under Major-General Clayton. 
Several guidons were captured in one of their charges. I was soon 
compelled to withdraw rapidly towards Franklin, as the enemy 
was throwing a force in my rear from both the right and left of the 
pike on roads coming into the pike near Franklin and five miles 
in my rear. This force was checked by Brigader-General Gibson, 
with his brigade and a regiment of Buford's cavalry under Colonel 
Shacklett. The resistance which the enemy had met with early in 
the morning, and which materially checked his movements, enabled 
us to reach Franklin with but little difficulty. Here the enemy 
appeared in considerable force and exhibited great boldness, but 
he was repulsed and the crossing of the Harpeth river effected. I 
found that there was in the town of Franklin a large number of our 
own and of the enemy's wounded, and not wishing to subject them 
and the town to the fire of the enemy's artillery, the town was 
yielded with but little resistance. Some four or five hours were 
gained by checking the enemy about I2 half miles south of Frank- 
lin and by the destruction of the trestle bridge over the Harpeth, 
which was effected by Captain Coleman, the engineer officer on my 
staff, and a party of pioneers, under a heavy fire of the enemy's 
sharpsliooters. About 4 P. M., the enemy, having crossed a con- 
siderable force, commenced a bold and vigorous attack, charging 

■General S. D. Lee's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 71 

with his cavalry on our flanks and pushing forward his lines in the 
front. A more persistent effort was never made to rout the rear 
guard of a retiring column. This desperate attack was kept up till 
long after dark, but gallantly did the rear guard, consisting of Pet- 
tus' Alabama and Cummings' Georgia brigades (the latter com- 
manded by Colonel Watkins) of Stevenson's division, and under 
that gallant and meritorious officer Major-General C. L. Stevenson, 
repulse every attack. Brigadier-General Chalmers, with his di- 
vision of cavalry, covered our flanks. The cavalry of the enemy 
succeeded in getting in Stevenson's rear and attacked Major-General 
Clayton's division about dark, but they were handsomely repulsed; 
Gibson's and Stovall's brigades being principally engaged. Some 
four or five guidons were captured from the enemy during the 

About 1 P. M. I was wounded while with the rear guard, but did 
not relinquish command of my corps till dark. Most of the details 
in conducting the retreat from that time were arranged and 
executed by Major-General Stevenson, to whom the army is much 
indebted for his skill and gallant conduct during the day. I can- 
not close this report without alluding particularly to the artillery 
of my corps. On the 16th, sixteen guns were lost on the lines — the 
greater portion of them were without horses — they having been dis- 
abled during the day ; many of the carriages were disabled also. 
The noble gunners, reluctant to leave their guns, fought the enemy 
in many instances, till they were almost within reach of the guns. 
Major-General Ed. Johnson was captured on the 16th ; being on 
foot, he was unable to make his escape from the enemy in conse- 
quence of an old wound. He held his line as long as it was prac- 
ticable to do so. The Army of Tennessee has sustained no greater 
loss than that of this gallant and accomplished soldier. To all my 
•disvision commanders, Stevenson, Johnson and Clayton, I am in- 
debted for the most valuable services; they were always zealous in 
the discharge of their duties. 

Although it is my desire to do so, I cannot now allude to the 
many conspicuous acts of gallantry exhibited by general,_ field and 
company officers, and by the different commands. It is my in- 
tention to do so in future, when detailed reports are received. To 
the officers of my personal staff and also of the corps _ stafi", I am 
indebted for valuable services ; they were always at their posts and 
ready to respond to the call of duty. 

I have the honor to be, yours respectfully, 

S. D. Lee, Lieutenant- General. 
€olonel A. P. Mason, A. A. G. 

72 Southern Historical Society Palmers. 

General J. E. B. Stuart's Report of his Caralry Expedition into 
Pennsylvania in October, 1862. 

[The following report, which we print from an original MS. in General 
Stuart's own handwriting, does not appear in the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia reports, published by the Confederate Congress, and has, we believe, 
never been in print. Lil<e everj^thing from the great cavalry chieftain, it 
will attract attention and be read with interest.] 

Headquarters Cavalry Division, 
October 14th, 1862. 
Colonel E. H. Chilton, 

A. A. General Army Northern Virginia: 

Colonel — I have the honor to report that on the 9th instant, 
in compliance with instructions from the Commanding General 
Army of Northern Virginia, I proceeded on an expedition into 
Pennsylvania with a cavalry force of 1,800 and four pieces of horse 
artillery, under command of Brigadier-General Hampton and Col- 
onels W. H. F. Lee and Jones. This force rendezvoused at Darks- 
ville at 12 M., and marched thence to the vicinity of Hedgesville, 
where it camped for the night. At daylight next morning (Oc- 
toher 10th) I crossed the Potomac at McCoy's (between Williams- 
port and Hancock) with some little opposition, capturing two or 
three horses of the enemy's pickets. We were told here by citi- 
zens that a large force had camped the night before at Clear Spring, 
and were supposed to be en route to Cumberland. We proceeded 
northward until we reached the turnpike leading from Hagerstown 
to Hancock (known as the National road). Here a signal station 
on the mountain and most of the party with their flags and ap- 
paratus were surprised and captured, and also eight or ten pris- 
oners of war, from whom, as well as from citizens, I found that the 
large force alluded to had crossed but an hour ahead of me towards 
Cumberland, and consisted of six regiments of Ohio troops and 
two batteries, under General Cox, and were en route via Cumber^ 
land for the Kanawha. I sent back this intelligence at once to the 
Commanding General. Striking directly across the National road,. 
I proceeded in the direction of Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, which 
point was reached about 12 M. I was extremely anxious to reach 
Hagerstown, where large supplies were stored, but was satisfied 
from reliable information that the notice the eneni}^ had of my ap- 
proach, and the proximity of his forces, would enable him to pre- 
vent my capturing it. I therefore turned towards Chambersburg. 

General Stuart's Report of his Pennsylvania Expedition. 73' 

I did not reach this point until after dark in a rain. I did not 
deem it safe to defer the attack till morning, nor was it proper tc 
attack a place full of women and children without summoning it 
first to surrender. I accordingly sent in a flag of truce, and found 
no military or civil authority in the place, but some prominent 
citizens who met the officer were notified that the place would be 
occupied, and if any resistance were made the place would be 
shelled in three minutes. Brigadier-General Wade Hampton's 
command, being in advance, took possession of the place, and I 
appointed him military governor of the city. No incidents oc- 
curred during the night, during which it rained continuously. 
The officials all fled the town on our approach, and no one could 
be found who would admit that he held office in the place. About 
275 sick and wounded in the hospital were paroled. During the 
day a large number of horses of citizens were seized and brought 
along. The wires were cut and railroad obstructed, and Colonel 
Jones' command was sent up the railroad toward Harrisburg to de- 
stroy a trestle work a few miles off. He however reported that it was 
constructed of iron, and he could not destroy it. Next morning it 
was ascertained that a large number of small arms and munitions 
of war were stored about the railroad buildings, all of which that 
could not be easily brought away were destoyed, consisting of about 
5,000 new muskets, pistols, sabres and amunition; also a large as- 
sortment of army clothing. The extensive machine shops and 
depot buildings of the railroad and several trains of loaded cars 
were entirely destroyed. From Chambersburg, I decided after 
mature consideration to strike for the vicinity of Leesburg as the 
best route of return, particularly as Cox's command would have 
rendered the direction of Cumberland, full of mountain gorges, 
particularly hazardous. The route selected was through an open 
country. Of course I left nothing undone to prevent the inhabi- 
tants from detecting my real route and object. I started directly 
towards Gettysburg, but having passed the Blue Ridge, turned 
back towards Hagerstown for six or eight miles, and then crossed 
to Maryland by Emmettsburg, where as we passed we were hailed 
by the inhabitants with the most enthusiastic demonstrations of 
joy. A scouting party of 150 lancers had just passed towards Get- 
tysburg, and I regretted exceedingly that my march did not admit 
of the delay necessary to catch them. Taking the road towards 
Frederick, we intercepted dispatches from Colonel Rush (lancers) 
to the commander of the scout, which satisfied me that our where- 

'74 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

abouts was still a problem to the enemy. Before reaching Frede- 
rick I crossed the Monocacy, and continued the march through 
the night via Liberty, New Market and Monrovia, on Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad, where we cut the telegraph wires and obstructed 
the railroad. We reached at daylight Hyattstown, on McClellan's 
line of wagon communication with Washington ; but we found 
only a few wagons to capture, and pushed on to Barnsville, which 
we found just vacated by a company of the enemy's cavalry. We 
had here corroborated what we had heard before — that Stoneman 
had between four and five thousand troops about Poolesville, and 
guarding the river fords. I started directly for Poolesville, but 
instead of marching upon that point I avoided it by a march 
through the woods, leaving it two or three miles to my left, and 
getting into the road from Poolesville to the mouth of the Monoc- 
acy. Guarding well my flanks and rear, I pushed boldly forward, 
meeting the head of the enemy's column going toward Poolesville. 
I ordered the charge, which was responded to in handsome style 
by the advance squadron (Irving's) of Lee's brigade, which drove 
back the enemy's cavalry upon the column of infantry advancing 
to occupy the crest from which the cavalry were driven. Quick as 
thought Lee's sharpshooters sprang to the ground, and engaging 
the infantry skirmishers, held them in check till the artillery in 
advance came up, which, under the gallant Pelham, drove back 
the enemy's force upon his batteries beyond the Monocacy, be- 
tween which and our solitary gun quite a spirited fire continued 
for some time. This answered, in connection with the high crest 
occupied by our piece, to screen entirely my real movement quickly 
to the left, making a bold and rapid strike for White's ford to force 
my way across before the enemy at Poolesville and Monocacy 
could be aware of my design. 

Although delayed somewhat by about 200 infantry, strongly 
posted in the cliffs over the ford ; yet they yielded to the moral 
effect of a few shells before engaging our sharpshooters, and the 
crossing of the canal, now dry, and river was effected with all the 
precision of passing a defile on drill — a section of artillery being 
sent with the advance and placed in position on the Loudoun side, 
another piece on the Maryland height, while Pelham continued to 
occupy the attention of the enemy with the other, withdrawing 
from position to position until his piece was ordered to cross. The 
enemy was marching from Poolesville in the meantime, but came 
up in line of battle on the Maryland bank only to receive a thun- 

General Stuart^s Report of Ms Pennsylvania Expedition. 75 

dering salutation, with evident effect, from our guns on Ibis side. 
I lost not a man killed on the expedition,, and only a few slight 
wounds. The enemy's loss is not known, but Pelbam's one gun 
compelled the enemy's battery to change its position three times. 

The remainder of the march was destitute of interest. The con- 
duct of the command and their behavior towards the inhabitants 
is worthy of the highest praise ; a few individual cases only were 
exceptions in this particular. Brigadier-General Hampton and 
Colonels Lee, Jones, Wickham and Butler, and the officers and 
men under their command are entitled to my lasting gratitude for 
their coolness in danger and cheerful obedience to orders. Unof- 
fending persons were treated with civility, and the inhabitants 
were generous in proffers of provisions on the march. We seized 
and brought over a large number of horses, the property of citizens 
of the United States. The valuable information obtained in this 
reconnoissance as to the distribution of the enemy's force was 
communicated orally to the Commanding General, and need not 
be here repeated. A number of public functionaries and promi- 
nent citizens were taken captives and brought over as hostages for 
our own unoffending citizens whom the enemy has torn from their 
homes and confined in dungeons in the North. One or two of my 
men lost their way, and are probably in the hands of the enemy. 

I marched from Chambersburg to Leesburg (90 miles), with only 
an hour's halt, in thirty-six hours, including a forced passage of 
the Potomac — a march without a parallel in history. 

The results of this expedition in a moral and political point of 
view can hardly be estimated, and the consternation among prop- 
erty holders in Pennsylvania beggars description, 

I am specially indebted to Captain B. S. White (Confederate 
States cavalry), and to Messrs. Hugh Logan and Harbaugh, whose 
skillful guidance was of immense service to me. My staff are 
entitled to my thanks for untiring energy in the discharge of their 

I enclose a map of the expedition drawn by Captain W. W. 
Blackford to accompany this report; also a copy of orders en- 
forced during the march. 

Believing that the hand of God was clearly manifested in the 
signal deliverance of my command from danger, and the crowning 
success attending it, I ascribe to Him the praise, the honor and the 
glory. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient 
servant, J. E- B. Stuart, 

Major- General Commanding Cavalry. 

76 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[The following letters from General Lee will be appropriate ad- 
denda to General Stuart's report.] 

Headquarters Department Northern Virginia, 
Camp Near Winchester, October 20, 1862. 

Major-General J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry: 

General — To show my appreciation of the conduct of your- 
self and your men in the recent expedition into Pennsylvania, I 
enclose a copy of my letter to General Cooper, Adjutant and In- 
spector-General, forwarding your report of the expedition. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) R. E. Lee, General. 

Headquarters Department Northern Virginia, 

October 18, 1862. 

General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General : 

General — In forwarding the report of Major-General Stuart 
of his expedition into Pennsylvania, I take occasion to express to 
the Department my sense of "the boldness, judgment and prudence 
he displayed in its execution, and cordially join with him in his 
commendation of the conduct and endurance of the brave men he 

To his skill and their fortitude, under the guidance of an over- 
ruling Providence, is their success due. 
I have the honor to be, most respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) R. E. Lee, General. 

Official : 

W. H. Taylor, Major and Aide-de-Camp, 

Letters on the Treatment and Exchange of Prisoners. 77 

Letters on the Treatment and Exchange of Prisoners. 

[The following letters explain themselves, and shed additional light on a 
question which we propose to ventilate from time to time.] 

Hdrs. Department South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 
Charleston, S. C, July 1, iSG-i. 

General — I send with this a letter addressed by five General 
■officers of the United States army, now prisoners of war in this 
city, to Brigadier-General L. Thomas, Adjutant-General United 
States army, recommending and asking an exchange of prisoners 
■of war. 

I fully concur in opinion with the officers who have signed the 
letter, that there should be an exchange of prisoners; and though 
I am not instructed by my Government to enter into negotiations 
for that purpose, I have no doubt that it is willing and desirous 
now, as it has ever been, to exchange prisoners of war with your 
•Government on just and honorable terms. 

One difficulty in the way of carrying out the cartel of exchange 
agreed on between the two Governments would not exist, that I 
am aware of, if the exchange were conducted between you and 
myself. If, therefore, you think proper to communicate with your 
Government on the subject, I will without delay communicate 
with mine, and it may be that we can enter into an agreement, 
subject to the approval of our respective Governments, by which 
the prisoners of war now languishing in confinement may be re- 

I should be glad to aid in so humane a work; and, to the end 
that there may be no unnecessary delay on my part, I have di- 
rected an officer of my staff, Major J. F. Lay, Assistant Adjutant 
and Inspector-General, charged with the delivery of this, to wait 
a reasonable time in the vicinity of Port Royal ferry for your an- 
swer. He is fully informed of my views on the subject, and, if 
jou desire it, will confer with you or any officer you may desig- 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Sam. Jones, 
Major- General Commanding. 

To Major-General J. G. Foster, U. S. A., 

Commanding Department of the South, Hilton Head, S. C. 

78 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

[ Unofficial.] 

Charleston, S. C, July 1, 1864. 

General — The journals of this morning inform us for the first 
time, that five General officers of the Confederate service have ar- 
rived at Hilton Head, with a view to their being subjected to the 
same treatment that we are receiving here. 

We think it but just to ask for these ofhcers every kindness and 
courtesy that you can extend to them, in acknowledgment of the 
fact that we at this time are as pleasantly and comfortably situated 
as is possible for prisoners of war, receiving from the Confederate 
authorities every privilege that we could desire or expect; nor are- 
we unnecessarily exposed to fire. 

Respectfully, General, your obedient servants, 

(Signed) R. W. Wessels, 

Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers,. 

(Signed) T. Seymour, 

Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers, 

(Signed) E. P. Scammon, 

Brigadier- General, 

(Signed) C. A. Heckman, 

Brigadier- Gen eral Volunteers,. 

(Signed) Alexander Shaler, 

Brigadier- General U. S. Volunteers,. 

Prisoners of War. 
To Major-Goneral J. G. Foster, 

Commanding Department of tJie South, Hitton Head, S. C. 

Charleston, S. C, July 1, 1SG4. 
Brigadier-General L. Tpiomas, 

Adjutant- General United States Army, Washington, D. C. : 

General — We desire respectfully to represent through you to our] 
authorities, our firm belief that a prompt exchange of the prison- 
ers of war in the hands of the Southern Confederacy, if exchanges 
are to be made, is called for by every consideration of humanity. 
There are many thousands confined at Southern points of the 
Confederacy, in a climate to which they are unaccustomed, de- 
prived of much of the food, clothing and shelter they have habit- 
ually received, and it is not surprising that from these and other 

Letters on the Treatment and Exchange of Prisoiiers. 79- 

causes that need not be enumerated here much suffering, sickness 
and death should ensue. In this matter the statements of our own 
officers are confirmed by those of Southern journals. And while 
we cheerfully submit to any policy that may be decided upon by 
our Government, we would urge that the great evils that must re- 
sult from any delay that is not desired should be obviated by the 
designation of some point in this vicinity at which exchanges 
might be made— a course, we are induced to believe, that would 
be acceded to by the Confederate authorities. 

And we are, General, your most obedient servants, 

(Signed) H. W. Wessels, 

Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers. 
(Signed) T. Seymour, 

Brigadier- General U. S. Volunteers. 
(Signed) E. P. Scammon, 

Brigadier- General U. S. Volunteers. 
(Signed) Alexander Shaler, 

Brigadier- General U. S. Volunteers. 
(Signed) C. A. Heckman, 

Brigadier- General U. S. Volunteers. 

Through Major-General J. G. Foster. U. S. V., 

Commanding Department of the South, Hilton Head, S. C. 

Hdks. Department South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 
Charleston, S. C, July 13, 1SG4. 

General' — I have received your letter of the 1st instant. Mine of 
the 13th and 22d ultimo indicate with all necessary precision the 
location of United States officers who are prisoners of war in this 
city. I cannot be more minute without pointing out the houses in 
which they are confined ; and for reasons very easily understood, I 
am sure that this will not be expected. If my statements in my 
letter of the 22d ultimo are insufficient, the letter of the five Gen- 
eral officers, dated the 1st instant, in which they assure you that 
they " are as pleasantly and comfortably situated as is possible for 
prisoners of war, receiving from the Confederate authorities every 
privilege that we (they) could desire or expect; nor are Ave (they) 
unnecessarily exposed to fire," gives you all the information in re- 
gard to their treatment that you can reasonably desire. 

:80 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

In conclusion, let me add that I presumed, from a copy of your 
■confidential order of the 29th ultimo, found on the battle field on 
.John's Island on the 9th instant, that you were commanding in 
person the troops operating against this city, and as you had par- 
ticularly requested me to communicate with you only by way of 
Port Royal ferry, I felt bound to delay my reply until I was as- 
sured it would promptly reach you by the route you were pleased 
to indicate. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Sam. Jones, 

Major- General Commanding. 
To Major-General J. G. Foster. 

Commanding United States Forces., Hilton Head. 

Hdrs. Depaetment South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 

Charleston, July 13, 1864. 

'General — Your letter of the 4th in reply to mine of the 1st inst. 
i.has been received. 

I am pleased to know that you reciprocate my desire for an ex- 
change of prisoners of war, but regret that you should require as 
a condition precedent to any negotiation for this end that I should 
remove from their present location the United States prisoners of 
war now in this city. Such a course on my part would be an im- 
plied admission that those officers are unduly exposed and treated 
with unnecessary rigor, which they have themselves assured you 
in their letter of 'the 1st instant is not the case. 

I regard the exchange of prisoners as demanded alike by the 
rules of civilized warfare and the dictates of common humanity. 
To require a change of location, which you have every reason to 
know that the prisoners themselves do not desire, is to throw an 
unnecessary obstacle in the way of accomplishing this end, and 
thus to retain prisoners of war in irksome confinement. The 
'Change I most prefer is to send them to your headquarters, and 
this may yet be done unless defeated by obstacles interposed by 
yourself or your Government. 

I was notified of your request that I would send a staff officer 
to meet one of yours at Port Royal at 2 P. M. to-day, too late to 
comply therewith. I have, however, directed the officer of your 
staff to be informed that I would send an officer to meet him at 4 
P. M. to-morrow, and I have accordingly directed Major J. F. Lay, 

Letters on the Treatment and Exchange of Prisoners. 81 

Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General, to take charge of this 
letter and deliver it at Port Royal ferry. I repeat that he is fully 
advised of my views, and, should you desire it, will confer with 
you, or any officer of your staff whom you may designate. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Sam. Jones, 

Major- General Commanding. 
To Major-General J. G. Foster, 

Commanding United States Forces, Hilton Head. 

Hdrs. Department South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 
Charleston, S. C, August 2, 1864. 

General — I received j^our letter of the 29th ultimo, informing 
me that the United States Secretary of War has authorized you to 
exchange any prisoners in your hands, rank for rank, or their 
equivalents, such exchange being a special one, and that you had 
sent Major Anderson of your staff to make arrangements as to 
time and place for the exchange. Major Lay of my staff", whose 
authority to act I had previously made known to you, and who 
met Major Anderson at Port Royal ferry, reports to me that he and 
Major Anderson had agreed to make the exchange to-morrow morn- 
ing in the north channel leading to Charleston harbor. Having 
received authority from my Government to make the exchange, I 
will send, five General and forty-five field officers of the United 
States service on a steamer for exchange at the time and place 
appointed. The details as to equivalents will be settled between 
Majors Lay and Anderson, or other officer to whom you may as- 
sign that duty, and any balance that may be found due you will 
be forwarded, in officers, by flag of truce as agreed upon. 

On your assurance, conveyed in your letter of the 16th ultimo, 
that Assistant Surgeon Robinson, of the 104th Pennsylvania regi- 
ment, was not when captured reconnoitring, I will release and 
send him within your lines as soon as it can be done. He had 
been sent from here before I received your letter in regard to him 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Sam. Jones, 

Major- General Commanding. 
To Major-General J. G. Foster, 

Commanding U. S. Forces, Department of the South, Hilton Head. 


82 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The Defence of Fort Gregg. 

Since publishing in our last number General Lane's account of the defence 
of Fort Gregg, we have received a letter from an officer of the Washington 
artillery, complaining that injustice was done that gallant command in 
Captain McCabe's note (page -301, December N'umber), by omitting all men- 
tion of the part borne by them. In General Lane's account the name of 
Lieutenant McElroy of the Washington artillery is mentioned. But in 
order that we may give all a fair hearing, we take pleasure in republishing, 
as requested, the following account from "A Soldier's Story of the Late 
War, by Napier Bartlett." We may add the remark that in the peculiar 
circumstances which surrounded the heroic band from different commands 
who collected in Fort Gregg, it is perfectly natural that there should be 
honest differences of opinion as to the numbers, &c., of the several com- 
mands. Bid they were all Confederate soldiers, and they bore themselves 
worthily in the hour of trial. 

[From "A Soldier's Story of the War."] 

A dramatic interest attached to the defence of the forts, aside 
from the fact that here was to be the last stand for Petersburg. 
This was because of the necessity of here detaining the enemy, 
who were advancing, wave after wave around the works, until 
Longstreet could get across the James; secondly, the attack on 
Gregg was followed by a lull along other portions of the line, and 
the men rested upon their weapons to witness, as at a spectacle of 
great national interest, the struggle of Secessia, and the last angry 
glare of her guns on a formal field of battle. The number of men 
on the two sides, 214 in Fort Gregg, about the same in Whitworth, 
and 5,000 advancing against them, illustrated the comparative 
srrength of the combatants. Fort Gregg was the Confederate La 
Tourgue. When it falls, all of the old traditions and usages of the 
South fall with it; when the Federal standards wave over it, there 
is then to be centralization, negro government, and four times the 
ruin inflicted on the South as was put by Germany on France. 

The two forts stand 250 yards in the rear of the captured line, 
and were built for precisely such an occasion as is suggested by 
the cheers of the advancing enemy — namely, for use as an inner 
defence when disaster should overtake the Confederate line. 
Fronting Gregg is a little fort, the last built by Lee, and called by 
the men Fort Owen, after the Lieutenant-Colonel of that name 
from the Washington artillery, who was assigned to the command 
of Fort Gregg and the surrounding works. Lieutenant Battles, of 


Defence of Fori Gregg. 33 

the Washington artillery, is in "Owen," with two guns, and Lieu- 
tenant McElroy, of the same battalion, has charge of a company of 
sixty-two artillerymen who have been doing duty here most of the 

The night had been strangely quiet upon this portion of the 
lines, but towards daybreak the silence gave place to a little touch 
of skirmishing to the right of Gregg— sufficient to cause the order- 
ing of the infantry and artillerymen into Fort Owen, although it 
was then so dark that scarcely anything could be seen. Our in- 
fantry there could be barely detected moving in the trenches, 
towards what seemed to be the picket firing. As the men peered 
into the darkness in the direction of the flashes, solid shots com- 
menced to plow up the earth — the infantry began quitting the 
trenches and taking to the fields, leaving the cannoniers under the 
impression that the troops were chasing small game of some sort. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Owen in his report says he gave orders to 
withdraw to Fort Gregg, and hurried off" to rally fugitives — a no 
easy matter — who had already been dispersed by the Federal 
attack. McElroy reached the latter with his men, but Battles not 
receiving his horses in time, found himself suddenly surrounded, 
and his command captured by the enemy. McElroy immediately 
opened fire from Fort Gregg with his artillery-infantry, drove them 
away, and then turning his infantry once more back to artillery, 
ran down into Fort Owen and opened fire with the recaptured 
pieces on the enemy, two hundred yards to his right. Horses 
having been procured, the pieces by order were moved forward a 
mile, where the guns fired thirty-five rounds each, and were then 
retired to Fort Gregg. Lieutenant McElroy says, in his report, 
there were two hundred men in the fort, who were, with the excep- 
tion of his command, of Harris' Mississippi brigade, and that his 
loss was six killed, two wounded and thirty-two prisoners. Colonel 
Owen proceeds to say : 

At the time McElroy was put in position in " Gregg" some guns 
were placed in Fort Whitworth, a detached work like " Gregg " and 
to its right and rear. 

Major-General Wilcox, who was then in Gregg, seeing Harris' 
brigade in what he thought a dangerous position in front, sent his 
Aide to the General to recall his men to the two forts, Harris him- 
self going into Whitworth, and Lieutenant-Colonel James II. 
Duncan, of the Nineteenth Mississippi, into Gregg. 

As the enemy advanced, McElroy was cautioned to have his 
ammunition as handy as possible upon the platform for quick 

84 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

work. Under orders, Captain Walker hurriedly withdrew the guns 
from Fort Whitworth. 

The enemy, a full corps of at least 5,000 men, advanced in three 
lines of battles. Three times the little garrison repulsed them. 
The fort seemed fringed with fire from the rifles of the Mississip- 

The cannoniers bravely and skilfully used their guns. The enemy 
fell on the clear field around the fort by scores. 

The capture of the work was but a question of time. The blue 
coats finally jumped into the ditch surrounding the fort, and 
presently climbed over each others backs to gain the summit of 
the parapets. There was a weak point on the side of Gregg, where 
the ditch was incomplete, and over this a body of the enemy rushed. 
Presently six regimental standards were distinctly seen waving on 
the parapet. 

The part taken in the defence of Gregg, by the Mississippians, 
is thus described in the Vicksburg Times: 

" Fort Gregg was held by the Twelfth and Sixteenth Mississippi 
regiments, Harris' brigade, numbering about 150 muskets, under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel James H. Duncan, of the Nine- 
teenth Mississippi, who had been assigned by General Harris to 
the immediate command of that work. The artillery in the fort 
was a section of Third company Washington artillery, commanded 
by Lieutenant Frank McElroy. General Harris, with his two other 
regiments. Nineteenth and Forty-eighth Mississippi, occupied 'Fort 
Whitworth,' distant about 100 yards, and between that work and 
the Southside railroad." 

General Harris, in a letter designed to be an official report, says, 
" General Wilcox ordered me to take position in front of the enemy, 
and detain them as long as possible. With this object in view I 
advanced about 400 yards, and formed at right angles with the 
Boydton plank road. The ground being undulating, I threw both 
flanks behind the crest on which I formed, and exposed my centre, 
in order that I might induce the enemy to believe that there was a 
continuous line of battle behind the ridge. I then advanced a line 
of skirmishers well to the front. The enemy being misled by this 
device, made the most careful dispositions, two lines of battle, and 
advancing with the utmost caution, my position was held until the 
enemy was in close range, when a heavy fire was opened upon 
both sides. 

"The enemy pressing me heavily and out-reaching me on my 
flanks, I fell back upon Fort Gregg and Whitworth, the Twelfth 
and Sixteenth under Colonel Duncan, being ordered to Fort Gregg, 
and to hold it at all hazards. 

"The Nineteenth and Forty-eighth were placed in Whitworth. 
In Gregg there was a section of the Third company Washington 
artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Frank McElroy. Preparations 
were now made by the enemy for the assault, and this time Captain 

Defence of Fori Gregg. 85 

Walker, Adjutant and Inspector-General of General Walker, Chief 
of Artillery, came with orders to withdraw the artillery, and against 
this I most earnestly protested. 

"The four guns were withdrawn from Whitworth under protest; 
but the enemy were too close to permit the withdrawal of the guns 
from Gregg. Perceiving the guns of Whitworth leaving, the enemy 
moved forward to assault us in both works. He assaulted in 
columns of brigades, completely enveloping Gregg, and approach- 
ing Whitworth only in front. Gregg repulsed assault after assault; 
the two remnants of regiments, which had won glorious honor on 
so many fields, fighting this, their last battle, with most terrible 
enthusiasm, as if feeling this to be the last act in the drama for 
them ; and the officers and men of the Washington artillery fight- 
ing their guns to the last, preserved untarnished the brilliancy of 
reputation acquired by their corps. Gregg raged like the crater of 
a volcano, emitting its flashes of deadly fires, enveloped in flame 
and cloud, wreathing our flag as well in honor as in the smoke of 
death. It was a glorious struggle. Louisiana represented by these 
noble artillerists, and Mississippi by her shattered bands, stood 
there side by side together, holding the last regularly fortified lines 
around Petersburg." 

While Gregg and Whitworth were holding out, Longstreet was 
hastening with Field's division, from the north side of the James, 
to form an inner line for the purpose of covering General Lee's 
withdrawal that night. As soon as Harris heard of the formation 
of that line, he withdrew with his little band, cutting his way 

At 12 o'clock that night the last man and the last gun of the 
brave army that had defended the lines of Petersburg for one year, 
passed over the pontoon bridges, and the march commenced, that 
ended at Appomattox courthouse. I have been induced to write 
the foregoing, of which I was eye witness, in the hope of correcting^ 
history. Many accounts have been published of the defence of 
Fort " Gregg," but all that I have seen have been generally far from 
the truth. Pollard, who showed but little disposition to waste 
compliments on the troops from the Gulf States, says Captain 
Chew of the fourth Maryland battery of artillery was in command 
of the work, and his account is reiterated by many others. If he 
was, it is strange we did not know it. A battery of Mary landers 
had in reality been disbanded a short time before the fight, their 
time having expired, and they were awaiting their discharge papers 
to enable them to go to their homes. If Captain Chew was in the 
fort at all, he was simply there as a volunteer or a spectator. 

We should give the honor to those who earned it in this fierce 
fight of three hours against such fearful odds. Swinton, in his 
"Army of the Potomac," in hisdescription of the breaking through 
the lines on this historic Sunday, says: 

"On reaching the lines immediately around Petersburg, a part 
of Ord's command under Gibbon began an assault directed against 

86 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Fort Gregg and Whitworth, two strong enclosed works, the most 
salient and commanding south of Petersburg. The former of these 
redoubts was manned by Harris' Mississippi brigade, numbering 
two hundred and fifty men, and this handful of skilled marksmen 
conducted the defence with such intrepidity that Gibbons' force, 
surging repeatedly against it, was each time thrown back ; at length 
a renewed charge carried the work, but not till its two hundred and 
fifty defenders had been reduced to thirty. * * Gibbons' loss 
was four hundred men." 

Swinton does not mention the Washington artillery in the fort : 
he also errs in putting the number of Mississippians at 250. Gene- 
ral Harris says there were 150. These, with the 64 artillerists, make 
a total of 214 men, and these men put liors clu combat 500 of the 
enemy, or an average of more than two men each. 

Dahlgreri's Ride into Fredericksburg. 87 

Dahlg-ren's Ride into Fredericksburg. 

This incident is scarcely of sufficient importance to demand a 
place in our Papers, except as an illustration of how " history " is 
manufactured and a small affair magnified into a brilliant achieve- 
ment by a sensational press. 

In the Memoir of Ulric Dahlgren, by his father, Rear Admiral 
Dahlgren, there is quoted from the account of a newspaper corre- 
spondent the following vivid sketch of the affair : 

I am sitting in Colonel Ashboth's tent, at General Sigel's head- 
quarters, listening to a plain statement of what occurred, narrated 
by a modest, unassuming sergeant. I will give it briefly. 

General Burnside had requested that a cavalry reconnoissance 
of Fredericksburg should be made. General Sigel selected his 
body-guard, commanded by Captain Dahlgren, with fifty-seven of 
the First Indiana cavalry. It was no light task to ride forty miles, 
keep the movement concealed from the enemy, cross the river and 
dash through the town, especially as it was known that the Rebels 
occupied it in force. It was an enterprise calculated to dampen 
the ardor of most men, but which was hailed almost as a holiday 
excursion by the Indianians. They left Gainesville Saturday 
morning, took a circuitous route, rode till night, rested awhile, and 
then, under the light of the full moon, rode rapidly over the worn- 
out fields of the Old Dominion, through by-roads, intending to 
dash into the town at daybreak. They arrived opposite the place 
at dawn, and found to their chagrin that one element in their cal- 
culation had been omitted — the tide. 

The bridge had been burned when we evacuated the place last 
summer, and they had nothing to do but wait till the water ebbed. 
Concealing themselves in the woods, they waited impatiently. 
Meanwhile, two of the Indianians rode along the river bank below 
the town to the ferry. They hailed the ferr3aTian, who was on the 
opposite shore, representing themselves to be Rebel officers. The 
ferryman pulled to the northern bank, and was detained till he 
gave information of the Rebel force, which he said numbered eight 
companies, five or six hundred men all told. 

The tide ebbed, and Captain Dahlgren left his hiding place with 
his fifty-seven Indianians. They crossed the river in single file at 
a slow walk, the bottom being exceedingly rocky. Reaching the 
opposite shore, he started at a slow trot towards the town, hoping 
to take the enemy by surprise. But his advance had been discov- 
ered. The enemy w"as partly in saddle. There was a hurrying to 
and fro, mounting of steeds, confusion, and fright among the peo- 
ple. The Rebel cavalry were in every street. Captain Dahlgren 
resolved to fall upon them like a thunderbolt. Increasing his trot 
to a gallop, the fifty-seven dauntless men dashed into the town, 

88 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

cheering, with sabres glittering in the sun — riding recl^lessly upon 
the enemy, who waited but a nrioment in the main street, then ig- 
nominiousiy fled. Having cleared the main thoroughfare, Captain 
Dahlgren swept through a cross street upon another squadron with 
the same success. Tliere was a trampling of hoofs, a clattering of 
scabbards, and the sharp ringing cut of the sabres, the pistol flash, 
the going down of horse and rider, the gory gashes of the sabre 
stroke, a cheering and hurrahing, and screaming of frightened wo- 
men and children, a short, sharp, decisive contest, and the town 
was in the possession of the gallant men. Once the Rebels at- 
tempted to recover what they had lost, but a second impetuous 
charge drove them back again, and Captain Dahlgren gathered the 
fruits of the victory — thirty-one prisoners, horses, accoutrements, 
sabres — held possession of the town for three hours and retired, 
losing but one of his glorious band killed and two wounded; leav- 
ing a dozen of the enemy killed and wounded. I would like to 
give the names of these heroes if I had them. The one brave fel- 
low who lost his life had fought through all the conflict, but seeing 
a large rebel flag waving from a building he secured it, wrapped it 
around his body, and was returning to his command, when a fatal 
shot was fired from a window, probably by a citizen. He was 
brought to the northern shore, and there buried by his fellow-sol- 
diers beneath the forest pines. 

It thrills one to look at it, to hear the story, to picture the en- 
counter — the wild dash, the sweep like a whirlwind, the cheers, 
the rout of the enemy, their confusion, the victory. Victory, not 
for the personal glory, not for ambition, but for a beloved country; 
for that which is dearer than life — the thanks of the living, the 
gratitude of unnumbered millions yet to be. Brave sons of the 
West, this is your glory, this your reward! No exploit of the war 
equals it. It will go down to history as one of the bravest achieve- 
ments on record. 

The following letters from Judge Critcher and Major Kelly show 
how largely the correspondent drew upon his imagination in his 
account of this comparatively insignificant aSair. But this ro- 
mancing is a fair sample of the style in which many of the so- 
called " histories " of the day are manufactured. 

The letters of Judge Critcher and Major Kelly were written after 
seeing the above account of " one of the bravest achievements on 

General Fitzhugh Lee: 

My Dear Sir — There is far more of romance than truth in the 
newspaper account of Dahlgren's ride into Fredericksburg. The 
contributors to the daily newspapers seem to be under the neces- 
sity of writing something, if possible, that is marvellous and sen- 

DahJgren's Bide into Frcderichhurg. SO* 

sational ; and a father may well be pardoned for reproducing what 
is so flattering to his pride. But the facts : 

There were four companies of cavalry, just mustered into service 
and armed with such guns as each man could provide, that had 
then their headquarters at Fredericksburg. But these companies 
were distributed by order of General Smith (then at Richmond) 
from West Point, on the York river, along the lower Rappahan- 
nock; at certain points on the Potomac, and on the upper Rappa- 
hannock at the various fords twenty-five or thirty miles above 
Fredericksburg, leaving at headquarters, besides the sick and such 
as had no arms, but few efficient men. 

The evening before Dahlgren's raid Captain Simpson's company, 
from Norfolk, unexpectedly joined us, but having provided no 
quarters, they were distributed for the night in the most conve- 
nient houses. Next morning Dahlgren entered the town, conducted 
by a deserter from Stafford, who led his men over a ford near Fal- 
mouth which had not been used within the memory of man. Our 
pickets nearer town were deceived and captured. Our position in 
town and our weakness were well known to the surrounding coun- 
try, and of course to the deserter. When the attack was made by 
Dahlgren on our camp, he found but a few sick and disabled men, 
with the usual employees of the quartermaster and commissary, 
and perhaps a few others. Captain Simpson placed himself at the 
head of a few of his men, attacked the rear guard of the enemy^ 
pursued them at full speed through Fredericksburg to Falmouth, 
killing one and wounding two men. As soon as our scattered 
forces could effect a rendezvous on Marye's heights, we crossed the 
river and pursued the party five or six miles through Stafford — 
capturing, however, but two of their men. Captain Simpson lost 
one man killed. Exclusive of Simpson's company, which had not 
reported for duty, I question whether we had as many men in 
Fredericksburg at the time as Dahlgren, and of these several were 
sick and others without arms. So that, knowing our position and 
our weakness as he must have done, and as he could have learned 
from any one along the road or at Falmouth, the exploit of this 
youthful hero, though very creditable to him, seems not so distin- 
guished by its boldness or success. 

I append a letter from Major Kelly, from whom I hoped to ob- 
tain an accurate account of the affair. He was then editor of the 
Fredericksburg Herald, in which paper a minute and accurate ac- 
count of every incident of the day was published the next morn- 
ing. Most respectfully, 

John Critciier, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Commanding at Fredericksburg^ 

in the autumn of 18G2. 

•90 Southern Historical Society Palmers. 

Fredericksburg, April 19, 1S72. 
Judge Critcher : 

Dear Sir — I regret very much that I am unable to assist you 
materially in the review you propose of the article sent in regard 
to "Dahlgren's Ride into Fredericksburg." 

The files of the Herald during the war fell a prey to the ravages 
of the times, and I have not the slightest recollection of any facts 
that I may then have written. 

The first intimation I had of the affair was a small colored boy's 
coming into the chamber (about 8 o'clock in the morning, or pos- 
sibly 9) with the announcement, "De Yankees is in town." It 
was Sunday morning, as ^ou recollect. Directly thereafter I heard 
the clatter of horses' feet, and on going to the parlor window saw 
the head of the invading force. The horses were in a walk, and 
no dash whatever. I looked for some moments before I realized 
that they were indeed Federal soldiers. I saw the blue overcoats, 
but thought they belonged to Colonel Bell's company, he having 
arrived, as I understood, the evening before. 

The invading party could learn at Falmouth all they wanted to 
know, and I have not a doubt that when they crossed the river 
they were under the impression that only one company of cavalry 
occupied the town. I do not suppose any one in Falmouth had 
heard of the arrival of Bell and his company — the latter, I believe, 
having been quartered below town or in its suburbs late the even- 
ing previous. 

You know more accurately than I do as to the " fruits of the 
victory," &c. The Munchausen story of "prisoners," "holding 
the town three hours," &c., is simply ludicrous. 

The Federal cavalryman was killed by one of the Confederates, 
and not a citizen. The first was on the outside of a. fence on a 
cross street and the other on the inside. There was no dash on 
his part after a " Rebel flag," but those living in the vicinity said 
he was retreating and refused to surrender. This I learned a very 
brief period after he was killed, and whilst his body was still lying 
on the ground. His " fellow-soldiers " had something else to do 
than take his body to the northern shore and bury it. They were 
retreating for life. One or two of the Yankees were captured. I 
remember to have talked with one, and my impression is that he 
was not wounded. 

I remember that you took some cavalrymen, crossed the rivei, 
and went in pursuit — overtook them, and had a brisk engagement. 
You told me afterwards of the gallantry of some of your men on 
that occasion. 

Regretting that I cannot assist you in giving a narrative, such as 
I could if my memory was refreshed by the account I wrote at the 
time, I remain, Very truly yours, 

J, H. Kelly. 

Editorial Paragraphs. 91 

EditOTial If anagraphs. 

The Kind Notices of the Press have several times elicited our 
thanks, but we have not thought proper to publish in our Papers any of 
the comniendations of our editorial brethren. We will, however, venture to 
give our readers the following from the pen of our gallant friend, Captain J. 
Hampden Chamberlayne, the editor of tlie Richmond State : 

We have several times had occasion to commend the work of this Society 
and the usefulness of its publications. The issue of the Papers for the 
month just passed is one of unusual variety, and is, as all its predecessors, 
of a positive value to tlie historian and to all interested in reaching tiie truth 
of our recent war between tlie States. 

Particularlj' welcome are the reports of General IMaurj' of the operations 
of his department — headquarters at Mobile — and of General R. L. Page 
touching the defence of Fort Morgan. These papers are published for the 
first time, and fill an important gap in the story of the militarj'- life of the 
Confederacy. Captain Park's diary continues its minute and lifelike descrip- 
tions, and Mr. McCarthy's " Soldier Life" is, as all his sketches, faithful and 
sparkling. The papers on the Fort Gregg defence lielp to throw light on 
aftau's hitherto known but vaguel.y, and the memorial address on General 
Lee, confining itself for the most part to mere outline, yet attempts to set 
forth clearly the salient points of character and achievement exhibited by 
our great commander. 

This issue is, we repeat, of positive value as well as not a little of attrac- 
tiveness in the various styles of its ditFerent essays and reports. 

The Society, indeed, has in a very short time taken honorable rank in its 
class, and by the persistent labors, energy, accuracy and knowledge of the 
Secretary it has not only acquired for its publications a large and self-sus- 
taining circulation, but accumulated a great mass of historical material of 
high value to the country and to the truth of history. Establishing close 
relations with other societies having analogous ends in view, a system of ex- 
change has been adopted which is already of great use, and promises con- 
stantly increasing results. Contented with small beginnings and hard work, 
the Secretary and the Society have wisely avoided all attempts at show, and 
make good use of the poor quarters, which is all that has yet been bestowed 
by way of encouragement to its work. It is much to be hoped that no long 
time will go by before the valuable material accumulated by its labor will 
find better means and place of preservation, and the ofticers be more wor- 
thily furnished with facilities for their duties. The publications, however, 
by which the Society is chiefly known, though they form as yet but a small 
part of what it has done, are worthy of unstinted praise. Giving a due at- 
tention to a variety of subjects, and'letting slip no opportunity of sifting out 
of conflicting statements the very truth, they already serve, when bound, to 
furnish a veritable mine of facts, records, anecdotes, and memoralMlia ni 
general which bear upon the history of the Confederacy, both as a civd or- 
ganization and as an armed camp. Fortunate, too, in the printer selected, 
these Southern Historical Society Papers are admiral>ly prepared (at 
the printing house of George W. Gary), and lack nothing of neatness aud 
even elegance in material and typography. 

Guided by patriotic enthusiasm^ and conducted, down to the details of its 
work, with minute and painstaking care, it is not strange that the Society 
and its monthly Papers grow fast as well as deservedly in the appreciation 
of the public. 


"92 Southern Miswrical Society Pai^evs. 

"General Lee," a New Work by Marshall, the Engraver. — 
We have received from the publisher, Oscar Marsliall, 697 Broadway, New 
Yorlc, a copy of this superb picture. Wliile we do not thinli the photograpli 
from which the engraving is made quite equal to another one of tlie thirty- 
two in our possession, we regard the engraving as a very admirable one in 
every respect, and are so anxious to see it widely circulated tliat we cheer- 
fully give place to the following notice sent us by a competent and apprecia- 
tive art critic : 

Virginia, if she cannot claim to be the mother of many artists, has more 
than once benefited art by furnishing llie subject, the hero, and tlie inspira- 
tion. Tims Washington, the noblest of Virginians, inspired Stuart with 
that slight but matchless sketch in the Boston Athen;eum, wliich is undoubt- 
edly the most celebrated American picture in existence, Henry, another 
Virginian, is the subject of historical painting "•Patrick Henry in the 
House of Burgesses," which is perhaps the masterpiece of Eothermel, And 
now the chief American engravei-, William Edgar Marshall, who has 
already, by a strolve or a few strokes of genius, scattered Stuart's master- 
piece across the country in an incomparable line engraving, has issued 
another print, likewise of very uncommon power, representing that man 
who of all cont(-mporary Americans lias perliaps the greatest number of ad- 
mirers both in the North and tlie South, General Eobert E. Lee, 

This new worlv is very ambitious in size, grasp and treatment. It is a 
bust-portrait, tlie head being somewhat larger than life, and the chest being 
represented below the shoulders. Although the scale is so large, there is- 
none of his works in which this master of pure line has shown more care and 
intelligence in representing, by well chosen strokes, the richness and trans- 
parenc.y of complexion, the variety of textures, the tilmy lightness of hair 
and beard, the fullness of stufts, and the general sense of enveloping air, all 
of which combine to give quality to a portrait. 

The face, tui-ned somewhat to the spectator's right, represents Lee in the 
hale strength f>f middle age, with the eagle force of the eyes slightly veiled 
by the influence of time and experience. As in tlie record of his life the 
vicissitudes of history only tauglit this grand man a calm and equable dig- 
nity, so in the portrait it is tlie endurance, fortitude and unconquerable 
nobility of character which ai-e made emphatic. The active and aggressive 
traits are held in check by a sense of superior wisdom. If ever the expres- 
sion of a modern face deserved to be called Olympian, it is the countenance 
delineated in tliis remarkable pi-int. Seldom has an engraver given sucli 
liquid depth to a large, grand eye. It looks out straight to the horizon, with 
a comprehensive glance of inelfable manliness, repose, and natural com- 
mand. It shows the courage to act, and also the courage to bear and to 

The fine, waving, grizzled hair and beard, which gave to Lee tlie soldierly 
comeliness of some noble old moustache of the Peninsula, are treated by 
Mr. Marshall with a felicity that only his long experience with the burin 
could inspire. Tlie light waved lines express, at the proper distance, the 
exact character of dry, soft, silky, aged hair, which lifts easily on every 
breeze, and always allows the conforination of the cranium and the muscu- 
lar anatomy of the face to be distinctly divined. The grand and thought- 
worn forehead, the firm mouth, and the general monumental and strong 
■character of the face are well understood and rendered. Few heroes have 
had so pure and heroic a type of face. The engraver understands his work 
so well as to leave on the beholder's mind an impression of magnificent 
manhood, of vast resources of energy, and, finallj- of self-communing, self- 
respecting calm. 

The dress indicated is the old working uniform of warlike days — the suit 
three small stars on the collar, the waistcoat carelessly 

Editorial Paragraphs. 93 

opened, and the white. shU't stiffly tied at the neck with black. Although 
this uniform, how^ever, indicates a definite historical period, we cannot help 
seeing in the air of the majestic face a somethino; wiiich that particular uni- 
form never accompanied — the accomphshed work of life, tlie cliasteningand 
visionary sadness of a Lost Cause, the jojrandeur of self-repression. By this 
happy inconsistency, tliis hen trovato anacln-onism, we conceive the engraver 
to wish to include the whole record of a great career, and to combine at once 
the characteristics of tlie time of effort and the time of rptrospeetion. The 
technical quality of this head is througiiout peculiarly good : seldom lias jMu-e 
line given as good a suggestion of tlie painter's carnation and gray and silver 
and warm shadows. Every plane of tlie modeling, every variation of tint in 
a rich blood-chased complexion is keenly followed by tiie cliange of line, and 
subtly interpreted to tlie eye. The mere technical inventiveness of this large 
print is a lesson to l\w line-engraver. 

" Wade Hampton, Governor of South Carolina," is now a grand 
historic figure whom the world admires. Lieutenant-General Wade Hamp- 
ton of the old Cavalry Corps, Army Northern Virginia, won the admiration 
•of all w'ho love chivalric skill and daring. But the bold j^et cautious and 
prudent campaign which has rescued his native State from "carpet-bag" 
rule and plunder, and made '•''Wade Hampton (jovernor of South Carolina.,''^ 
the idol of his people, and the admiration of the world, has showai him pos- 
sessed of even nobler traits of mind and heart than lie ever displayed on the 
field of battle, and has made the w^orld more anxious than ever to see the 
lineaments of his classic face. 

We are greatly indebted to Walker, Evans & Cogswell, of Cliai-loston, S. 
C, for a superb engraving of this grand man. The likeness is a very admi- 
rable one, the execution is fine, and the picture one which we would be glad 
to see extensively hung in the homes of our people, that our children may 
study the features of this noble specimen of the soldier, patriot and states- 

A Roster of General Ed. Johnson's Dn^isioN, EwcU's corps, had 
been prepared along with the other ''copy" of the Army Xorthern Virginia 
Roster, and was left out by one of those strange mishaps which will some- 
times occur in the Ix-st regulated offices. It will appear at the end of the 
entire Roster. 

The Confederate Roster is nearly complete, and has excited conside- 
rable interest and attention. 'J'liat some errors should have crept into it, 
and some omissions have occurred, is not to be wondered at. Indeed, no 
one can have any tolerable conception of the immense amount of labor it 
has cost to dig out a Roster from the imperfect records to be iiad, without ad- 
miring the patient research which our friend. Colonel Jones, has shown, and 
Avondering that his work contains so few errors or omissions. 

After the publication of the Roster in its present form is completed, it is 
designed to thoroughly revise and correct it, make such additions to it as 
Miay be necessary, and then publish it in separate book form. Meantime the 

94 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

author is exceedingly anxious to make it as accurate and complete as possi- 
ble, and we would esteem it a favor if any one detecting errors or omissions 
would write us tlie necessary corrections. 

Renew ! Renew ! Renew ! is now the watcliword at this office. If any 
of our subscribers fail to receive this number of our Papers, and sliould 
chance to see this paragraph in the copj'" of some more fortunate neighbor, 
let them know tliat the trouble probably is that they have failed to pay their 
subscj-iption for 1877. We dislike very mucli to part company with anj^ of 
our subscribers, but we must adhere to our terms, whicli are cash in advance^ 

Agents are Wanted to canvass every city, town, village and commu- 
nity for our Papers, and to a reliable, efficient agent we can pay liberal 

But our agents must malve us frequent reports and prompt remittances. 
Subscribers are entitled to receive their Papers just as soon as they pay for 
them, and we cannot, of course, send them until the agent reports the names 
to us. 

Contributions to Our Archives continue to come in, and our collec- 
tion grows more and more valuable every day. Among otliers received we 
acknowledge now the following : 

From Mr. Yates Snowden, of Charleston, S. C. : " The Land We Love '^ 
for 18G8, and two numbers for 1869; a number of war newspapers for '61, 
'62, '63 and '64 ; a number of valuable Confederate pamplilets. 

From A. Barron Holmes, Esq., of Cliarleston, S. C. : Caldwell's "His- 
tory of Gregg's (McGowan's) South Carolina Brigade" ; Holmes' "Phosphate 
Rocks of Soutli Carolina " ; Report of the Committee on tlie Destruction of 
Churclies in tlie Diocese of South Carolina during the late War, presented 
to the Protestant Episcopal Convention, May, 1868. (This report sliows that 
in the diocese of South Carolina the enemj'^ burned ten churches and tore 
down tlu'ee ; tliat eleven parsonages were burned ; that every church be- 
tween tlie Savannah river and Charleston was injured, some stripped even 
of weatherboarding and flooring ; that almost every minister in that region 
of the State lost home and library ; that almost every church lost its commu- 
nion plate — often a massive and venerable set, the donation of an English 
or Colonial ancestor, — and that clergy and parisliioners alike had been so 
robbed and despoiled that they were reduced to absolute want.) "The 
Record of Fort Sumpter during the Administration of Governor Pickens," 
compiled by W. A. Harris ; address of Major Theo. G. Barker at the anni- 
versary of the Washington Artillery Club, February 22d, 1876 ; Reinterment 
of the South Carolina Dead from Gettysburg, address of Rev. Dr. Girardeau, 
odes, &c.; Oration of General Wade Hampton, and poem of Rev. Dr. E. T. 
Winkler, at the unveiling of tlie monument of the Washington Light In- 

Editorial Paragraphs. 95 

fantiy of Charleston, June 16th, 1870; "South Carolina in Arms, Arts, and 
the Industries," by John Peyre Thomas, Superintendent of Carolina Mili- 
tary Institute ; Map of the Siege of Vicksburg ; Map of the Seat of War in 
Mississippi ; " Marginalia, or Gleanings from an Army Note Book," by Per- 
sonnel urmY correspondent, &c., Columbia, S. C, 1864; "The Burning of 
Columbia, S. C," by Dr. D. H. Trezevant. 

From J. F. Maijer, Eichmond : Messages of President Davis for January 
18th, February 5th, February 13th and February 14th, 1864. Mr. Mayer is 
an industrious collector of Confederate material, and places us under fre- 
quent obligations for rare and valuable documents. 

From General Carter L. Stevenson, Fredericksburg, Va : A box of his ' 
headquarter papers, which consist of such valuable material as the following: 
Keport of Lieutenant-General S. D. Lee of the operations of his corps from 
the time he succeeded General Hood in the command to the arrival of the 
army at Palmetto Station ; General Lee's report of Hood's Tennessee Cam- 
paign ; General Stevenson's report of the same campaign ; General Steven- 
son's report of the operations of his division from tlie beginning of the Dal- 
ton- Atlanta campaign up to May 30th, 1864 ; General Stevenson's report of 
engagement on Powder Sprhigs road, June 22d, 1864 ; Eeports of General 
Stevenson, General Brown, General J. E. Jackson, General E. C. Walthal, 
General E. W. Pettus, and a number of regimental and battery commanders 
of the Battle of Lookout Mountain. 

A large number of general field orders, field letters, field notes, returns, 
inspection reports, &c., &c., which are invaluable material for a history of 
Stevenson's division, and indeed of the whole army with which this gallant 
and accomplished oflicer was connected. 

(We are exceedingly anxious to collect a full set of papers bearing on the 
operations of our Western armies, and regard this contribution of General 
Stevenson as a most valuable addition to the large amount of such material 
which we already had in our archives.) 

From the Department of State, Washington : Foreign relations of the 
United States, 1876. 

From General Eaton, Commissioner of Education : Eeport of education 
bureau for 1875. Special Eeport on Libraries in the United States. 

From Major R. F. Walker, Superintendent Public Printing, Va.: Annual 
reports for 1875-76. 

From Dr. W. H. Ruffner, Svperintendent of Public Instruction, Va.: 
School report for 1876. 

From Historical Society of Montana : "Contributions," Vol. I, 1876. 

From Major H. B. McClellan, of Lexington, Kentucky (in addition to con- 
tributions acknowledged in our last) : Two letters of instructions from Gene- 
ral E. E. Lee to General Stuart— one dated August 19, 1862, ami the other 
August 19, 1862, 4|P. M.; General Lee's order of battle on the Eapidan, August 
19, 1862 ; General Stuart's report of October 24, 1862, giving roster of his 
cavalry division and recommending Col. Thomas T. Munford to be promoted 
to rank of brigadier-general ; autograph letter from General Stuart to Gene- 

"96 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ral Cooper, dated Xovember 11, 1862, recommending the promotion of Major 
Pelham to the rank of lientenant-colonel of artillery; original letter from 
General R. E. Lee to General Stuart commending the "gallant conduct" 
of Sergeant Mickler, of Second South Carolina cavalrj', and liis party in the 
fight at Brentsville January 9, 18G3, and stating that he had recommended 
their promotion for "gallantry and skill "; confidential letter (dated April 
4, 1864), from General Stuart to General J. R. Chambliss, commander of his 
outposts on the Lower Rappahannock ; confidential letter of Colonel Charles 
Marshall (General Lee's military secretary) to General Stuart conveying im- 
portant iiaformation and orders from General Lee. 

From General I. M. St. John, last Commissary-General : A report to Presi- 
dent Davis of the closing operations of the Commissary Department. Letters 
from Ex-President Davis, General R. E. Lee ; GeneralJohn C. Breckinridge, 
Secretary of War ; Colonel Thomas G. "Williams, Assistant Commissary- 
General ; Major J. H. Claiborne, Commissary Department ; Major B. P. 
Noland, Chief Commissary for Virginia ; Hon. Lewis E. Harvie, late presi- 
dent of the Richmond and Danville and Petersburg railroads ; and Bishop 
T. U. Dudley, late major and C. S. — all confirming the statements made in 
General St. John's report. These papers have never been published, and 
are of great historic interest and value. 

From Robert W. Christian., Esq., Richmond : General J. B. Magruder's 
report of his operations on the Peninsula, and of the battles of "Savage 
Station," and " Malvern Hill." Maryland's Hope, by W. Jefterson Buchanan. 
Richmond, 1864. Letters of John Scott, of Fauquier, proposing constitutional 
reform in the Confederate Government. Richmond, 1864. 

From Professor L. M. Blackford, Episcopal High-School : A volume of 
Confederate battle reports, including Generals Beauregard's and Johnston's 
reports of first Manassas, and a number of other reports of the first year of 
the war. 

From Major I. Scheibert, of the Royal Prussian Engineers : The French 
edition of his work on the civil war in America. We are awaiting the pi'omise 
of a competent soldier and critic to give us a review of this able book. 




L lilf PiPK, 

Vol. III. 

Richmond, Ta., March, 1877. 

No. 3. 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1865— Report of General I. M. St. John, 
Commissary General. 

[The following? report of General St. John, from his orignial MS., with the 
accompanying letters, will form a necessary supplement to the papers on the 
" Resources of the Confederacy " which we published last year, and will be 
found to be of great interest and historic value. From these papers it appears 
certain that the Departments never received the letter wi-itten by General 
Lee requesting the accumulation of supplies for his army at Amelia Court- 

Louisville, Kentucky, July 14th, 1S73. 
Hon. Jefferson Davis : 

Sir — In pursuance of your suggestion, I have the honor to 
report, from, the best accessible data, the closing operations of the 
Confederate States commissary service. As you are probably aware, 
many of the more important papers of the Subsistence Bureau 
were lost during the Richmond fire and the subsequent retreat. It 
accordingly became essential to verify in the most careful manner 
all statements herein resting simply upon personal recollection. 
This has been done; and hence the time which has been allowed 
to pass since the first intimation of your wishes. 

Early in February, 1865, I received the order of transfer from 
the direction of the Nitre and Mining Corps to that of the Subsist- 
ence Bureau. A very brief inquiry into the available resources of 
the latter sufficed to disclose a state of afiairs calling for extreme 
and indeed exceptional measures to meet immediate and very 
urgent requisitions. The more remote future I found too critically 
involved in the military operations, then progressing in Virginia 
and the Carolinas, to require more than general consideration. 
Beyond the most trusted confidential officers of the Executive and 
the War Department, few knew how far military events and hostile 
pressure had come to control the power of the Subsistence Bureau 
to execute its ordinary duties. I expected to find greater embar- 
rassments in arranging a prompt and ample collection of supplies 

98 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

for the Southern armies, from the depreciated currency, the failing 
condition of the railroads and the general exhaustion of the country ; 
but difficulties still more serious lay elswhere. In every military 
department, and in the several districts of supply (which I ex- 
amined), after the fullest allowance for all local obstacles, and all 
possible official shortcomings, the military status was still found to 
be the real measure of the ability of the Subsistence Bureau to 
collect at that time the required supplies. Cavalry raids, which at 
first only occasionally cut the more important lines of communi- 
cation, had penetrated at the close of 1864 into the interior districts 
and had become very destructive. Travel and the movement of 
supplies were in several important instances (as officially reported 
to the War Department) suspended for days at a time on every 
leading railroad within our lines. Upon some of these roads com- 
munications were only restored with great difficulty, and on one 
important trunk line not at all. Interior depots of supplies pre- 
viously deemed secure against all risk, were frequently captured 
and destroyed. Several of the more productive districts of Virginia 
and the Carolinas, which were relied upon for certain supply in 
last resort, had passed permanently into hostile occupation. All 
the remaining districts of supply (in February'', 1865) were either 
directly menaced, or remotely disturbed by military preparations 
and movements for what proved to be our closing struggle. 

Under these depressing circumstances, I found the army of 
Northern Virginia with difficulty supplied day by day with reduced 
rations. In the other military departments, however, the situation 
was better ; and from several it was still possible to draw a con- 
siderable surplus for the Richmond and Petersburg depots, whenever 
transportation could be procured. 

After a brief survey of the work to be done and of our remain- 
ing resources as before referred to, I at once proceeded to organize 
a system of appeal and of private contribution as auxiliary to the 
regular operations of the commissary service. With the earnest 
and very active aid of leading citizens of Virginia and North 
Carolina, this effort was attended with results exceeding expectation. 
Calls were made upon the Quartermaster-General in person, and 
the officers in charge of the corn and forage supply for combined 
action ; and these calls were met to the extreme limit of their 
power. Requisitions were also made upon the reserve stores of 
the Nitre and Mining Bureau, which my successor (in hearty co- 
operation) arranged to meet without detriment to his own service. 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1865, 99 

Still further to increase receipts of meat and other supplies from 
beyond the Confederate lines, requisitions for coin were approved 
by the President and the Secretary of War, and were met as called 
for by the Treasury Department. It would be an omission not to 
add in this direct connection that all aid and support possible 
under the circumstances were rendered to the Commissary-General 
by his superior and associate officers, and especially by the old 
corps of his predecessor. 

With these combined agencies, it was found practicable during 
the ensuing three weeks to materially improve the collection of 
supplies for the Army of Northern Virginia and in part for their 
delivery : sufficiently so to become the subject of special note in 
the correspondence of the General Commanding (General Lee) 
with the War Department, to which reference is made in the ap- 
pended letter of the late Secretary of War (General Breckinridge). 
On or before March 15th, 1865, the Commissary-General was able 
to report to the Secretary of War that in addition to the daily issue 
of rations to the Army of Northern Virginia, there lay in depot 
along the railroad between Greensboro' (North Carolina), Lynch- 
burg, Staunton and Richmond, at least ten days rations of bread 
and meat, collected especially for that army, and subject to the 
requisition of its chief commissary officer : also that considerably 
over 300,000 rations were held in Richmond as a special reserve, 
and that the Post Commissary, Major J. H. Claiborne, had marked 
down and was prepared to impress a still larger quantity of flour 
and other supplies secretly stored by hoarders and speculators. 

In the accompanying statement of the Assistant Commissary- 
General, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas G. Williams (see appended 
papers), it will be further observed that there was collected by April 
1st, 1865, in depot, subsistence stated in detail as follows : 

At Richmond, Virginia, 300,000 rations bread and meat. 
At Danville, Virginia, 500,000 rations bread. 
At Danville, Virginia, 1,500,000 rations meat. 
At Lynchburg, Virginia, 180,000 rations bread and meat. 
At Greensboro', North Carolina, and vicinity, 1,500,000 rations 
bread and meat. 

In addition, there were considerable supplies of tea, coffee and 
sugar carefully reserved for hospital issues chiefly. These returns 
did not include the subsistence collections by the field trains of 
the Army of Northern Virginia under orders from its own head- 

100 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

quarters, nor the depot collections at Charlottesville, Staunton and 
other points upon the Virginia Central railroad to meet requisitions 
from the Confederate forces operating in the Valley and Western 
Virginia. South and West of Greensboro' (North Carolina) the 
depot accumulations were reserved first to meet requisitions for the 
forces operating in the Carolinas, and the surplus for Virginia 

This collection of supplies was reported daily, as it progressed, 
to the Secretary of War. The Quartermaster-General and his offi- 
cers were also officially advised as occasion required. It is hardly 
necessary to add that every possible effort was made to secure from 
the Quartermaster Department prompt transportation from the 
railroad depots to the front; but the officers of that Department, 
owing to the rapid deterioration and, in many cases, the absolute 
failure of the motive power of the railroads, were unable to for- 
ward the collected supplies as fast as they were brought into depots. 
After every effort to move had been exhausted, the supplies not 
transported were placed in temporary sub-depots to await events. 

Early in March, 1865, the questions arising out of the status thus 
set forth were carefully considered in a conference between the 
Secretary of War (General Breckinridge) and the General Com- 
manding (General Lee), to which the Quartermaster-General (Gen- 
eral Lawton) and the Commissary-General were called. After a 
general discussion of the army wants in clothing, forage and sub- 
sistence, the Commissary-General, in reply to the inquiry of the 
General Commanding, stated that a daily delivery by cars and canal 
boat, at or near Richmond, of about five hundred tons of commis- 
sary stores was essential to provide for the Richmond siege reserve 
and other accumulations desired by the General Commanding; 
that the depot collections were already sufficient to assure the 
meeting of these requisitions, and if the then existing military lines 
could be held, the Commissary-General felt encouraged as to the 
future of his own immediate Department. Upon the question of 
railroad transportation, the Quartermaster-General then stated that 
the rolling stock at command, and especially the engines, had be- 
come so much worn and otherwise deficient, and without means or 
provision for renewal, that the daily delivery in Richmond and 
Petersburg of five hundred tons of commissary stores in addition 
to other requirements of the general service and the demands of 
the resident population, could not be guaranteed. He engaged 
however, to make every possible effort to secure from the railroad 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1865. 101 

companies the desired improvement in the condition of their roll- 
ing stock. These efforts were made; but at that late period of ex- 
haustion the situation had passed all human power to amend. 

The Commissary-General next submitted the question of mili- 
tary protection of stores in transit; but the Commanding General 
in reply dwelt upon the increasing military pressure upon his 
lines and his own diminishing forces. No better protection was to 
be looked for in the coming than in the last campaign. 

From the date of this interview until the evacuation of Rich- 
mond, the Bureau effort continued to be directed to depot accumu- 
lations, and with the general result already referred to, and of which 
the annexed statements of the Assistant Commissary-General and 
of Majors Claiborne, Noland and Dudley, Confederate States Army, 
present details. 

Upon the earliest information of the approaching evacuation, 
instructions were asked from the War Department and the General 
Commanding for the final disposition of the subsistence reserve in 
Richmond, then reported by Major Claiborne, Post Commissary, to 
exceed in quantity 350,000 rations. The reply — Send up the Dan- 
ville railroad if Richmond is not safe — was received from the army 
headquarters April 2d, 1865, and too late for action, as all railroad 
transportation had then been taken up, by superior orders, for the 
archives, bullion and other Government service then deemed of 
prior importance. All that remained to be done was to fill every 
accessible army wagon; and this was done, and the trains were hur- 
ried southward. The residue of the subsistence reserve was then 
distributed among the citizens of Richmond, partly in a regular 
manner under the direction of the Post Commissary, and thereafter, 
what was left, after the evacuation had progressed too far for an 
orderly distribution, was appropriated by the crowd. 

It may be added that on March 31st, or possibly the morning of 
April 1st, a telegram was received at the Bureau in Richmond from 
the chief commissary officer of the Army of Northern Virginia 
requesting bread stuffs to be sent to Petersburg. Shipment was 
commenced at once, and Avas pressed to the extreme limit of trans- 
portation permitted by the movement of General Longstreet's corps 
(then progressing) southward. No calls by letter or requisition 
from the General Commanding, or from any other source, official 
or unofficial, had been received, either by the Commissary-General 
or the Assistant Commissary-General; nor (as will be seen by the 
appended letter of the Secretary of War) was any communication 

102 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

transmitted through the Department channels to the Bureau of 
Subsistence — for the collection of supplies at Amelia Courthouse. 
Had any such requisition or communication been received at the 
Bureau as late as the morning of April 1st, it could have been met 
from the Richmond reserve, with transportation on south-bound 
trains ; and most assuredly so previous to General Longstreet's move- 

On the morning of April 3d, the Commissary-General left Rich- 
mond with the Secretary of War, for the headquarters of the 
General Commanding near Amelia Springs. On the route efforts 
were made to press to the same point several trains of army wagons 
with subsistence, part of which was captured by hostile cavalry 
then operating immediately in the rear of General Lee's army near 
Clementon bridge of the Appomattox river, and the remainder were 
turned off towards Farmville. The party of the Secretary of War 
forced their way with difficulty through to Amelia Springs, pass- 
ings long lines of army trains (headquarter and subsistence) still 

After personal conference, early on the morning of the 6th, with 
the General Commanding (at General Longstreet's quarters) as to 
the disposition of the remaining supplies at Farmville, the Secretary 
of War with the Quartermaster-General, the Chief of the Engineer 
Bureau and the Commissary-General, proceeded to Farmville, the 
latter officer awaiting notification from headquarters whether to 
hold at Farmville or to send down the railroad about 80,000 rations 
there held on trains for immediate issue. No return communication 
coming from the General Commanding or the corps commanders, 
couriers were repeatedly sent out : but the military events of the 
day were very adverse on the left. During that night and the 
morning of the 7th, the remnants of the army passed through 
Farmville taking but a portion of the rations there being issued. 
On the day before, the Commissary-General asked from the General 
Commanding, in the presence of the Secretary of War, instructions 
or suggestions as to placing these Farmville supplies at the most con- 
venient points of temporary security, the presence of the enemy's 
cavalry having caused the supplies of other depots to be moved 
westward. General Lee replied in substance that the military 
eituation did not permit an answer. 

On the evening of the 7th the party of the Secretary of War 
again met the subsistence trains on the railroad at Pamphlin's 
station, twenty miles west of Farmville. From reports of hostile 

Resources of the Confe'deracy in 1865. 103 

movements close at hand, the Commissary-General suggested that 
the cars be ordered further west, communicating, if possible, with 
the General Commanding, then six miles distant on the Appomattox 
road. It was, however, on consultation with the Secretary of War 
and Quartermaster-General, not deemed advisable, under the extreme 
uncertainty of information, to give special orders. The next morn- 
ing these cars, or the larger portion, were captured, or burned to 
avoid capture. The surrender followed the subsequent day, April 

From Pamphlin's depot, the Commissary-General accompanied 
the Secretary of War to Danville, and thence to Greensboro' (North 
Carolina), then the headquarters of General Joseph E, Johnston. 
At Danville instructions were given to Colonel T. G. Williams and 
Major S. B. French (ranking officers) to remain with Major B. P. 
Noland, Chief Commissary Officer in Virginia, and reorganize the 
commissary service in that State, should events permit. 

The Bureau headquarters were continued in North Carolina 
until the surrender of that Military Department. 

During the interval, preparations were made for the westward 
movement of forces as then contemplated. In these arrangements, 
the local depots were generally found so full, and supplies so well 
in hand, from Charlotte southwest, that the Commissary-General 
was able to report to the Secretary of War that the requisitions for 
which he was notified to prepare could all be met. The details of 
this service were executed, and very ably, by Major J. H. Claiborne, 
then and until the end Assistant Commissary-General. 

The remaining duties of the Subsistence Bureau from that time 
until the final surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department, con- 
sisted chiefly in arranging, so far as was permitted by our rapidly 
diminishing territory and resources, for the supply of returning 
troops and the hospitals. 

Permit me in closing to acknowledge in grateful terms the very 
efficient aid of Lieutenant-Colonel T. G. Williams, Assistant Com- 
missary-General, Majors French, Claiborne, Noland and Dudley, 
and of all Commissary officers who assisted in the execution of the 
duties indicated in this report. 

Very respectfully, 

•^ I. M. St. John, 

(Late) Commissary- General C. S. A. 

104 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Louisville, Kentucky, 1st November, 1873. 
General I. M. St. John : 

Dear Sir — I have read with great satisfaction your report of 
your administration of the commissariat of the Confederate States. 
The facts stated by you, and by those connected with you in your 
official duties as Commissary-General, accord with my recollections 
and impressions, as well as with your oral report to me soon after 
the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. Had your ex- 
pressions been stronger than they are, they would but the more 
fully have corresponded with the oral report referred to, and with 
your statement as to the provision made to supply the troops under 
the command of General Johnston, had that army made the con- 
templated retreat. 

With great regard and a grateful remembrance of your zeal and 
efficiency in the several offices held by you in the service of the 


I am faithfully, yours, 
(Signed) Jefferson Davis. 

Phoenix Hotel, 
Lexington, Kentucky, May 16th, 1871. 

. My dear General — My absence from home for some weeks has 
caused a delay in answering your letter in relation to the supplies 
for General Lee's army about the time of the evacuation of Kich- 

Without reciting the various points of jouv inquiries, I will 
answer them by a general statement. 

I took charge of the War Department on the 5th of February, 1865. 
The evacuation of Richmond occurred the night of the 2d of April. 
When I arrived at Richmond the Commissary Department, from^ 
the cutting of the railroads by the enemy's cavalry, and other 
causes not necessary to mention, was in a ver}'- deplorable condi- 
tion. I placed you, much against your wishes, at the head of the 
Department. Your conduct of it under all the disadvantages was 
so satisfactory that a few weeks afterwards I received a letter from ' 
General Lee, in which he said that his army had not been so weU 
supplied for many months. 

A few days before the evacution of Richmond you reported to 
me that besides supplies accumulated at different distant points in. 
Virginia and North Carolina, you had ten days rations accessible- 
by rail, to and subject to the orders of his Chief Commissary. 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1865. 105 

I have no recollection of any communication from General Lee 
in regard to the accumulation of rations at Amelia Courthouse. If 
any came to me, it was probably by telegram on the day of the 
evacuation, when it was too late to comply. 

You and I had daily interviews, and I am sure that all requisi- 
tions were promptl}'' considered and filled when possible. 

The second or third day after the evacuation, I recollect you said 
to General Lee in niy presence that you had a large number of 
rations (I think 80,000) at a convenient point on the railroad, and 
desired to know where you should place them. The General re- 
plied that the military situation made it impossible to answer. 

General Lee's letter to me, relative to the improved condition of 
the Commissary Department, is probably among the Confederate 
archives at Washington city. 

I am, General, respectfully and truly, 

(Signed) John C. Breckinridge. 

General I. M. St, John, Louisville, Kentucky. 

Richmond, Va., September, 1SG5. 
General : 

At your request, I have the honor to make the following 

statement, from the best data I could obtain : 

On the 1st of April, 1865, the Subsistence Bureau of the Con- 
federate States, had available for the army of Northern Virginia: 
At Richmond, 300,000 rations bread and meat; at Danville, 500,- 
000 rations bread ; at Danville, 1,500,000 rations meat ; at Lynch- 
burg, 180,000 rations bread and meat; at Greensboro', North 
Carolina, and the vicinity of Danville, there were in addition not 
less than 1,500,000 rations of bread and meat; there were also at 
the points above named large supplies of tea, coffee and sugar, 
which were reserved chiefly for issues to hospital. 

These supplies were held ready for distribution upon the requi- 
sition of the Chief Commissary of General Lee's army. No requi- 
sitions were then on hand unsupplied. 

On the morning of 2d April, 1865, the Chief Commissary of 
General Lee's army was asked by telegram, what should be done 
with the stores in Richmond. No reply was received until night; 
he then suggested that if Richmond was not safe, they might be 
sent up on the Richmond and Danville railroad. As the evacuation 

106 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of Richmond was then actively progressing, it was impracticable 
to move those supplies. 

For many months previously the army wagon trains had been 
employed in collecting subsistence throughout the country and 
hauling directly to the army near Petersburg. No report of these 
collections was ever made directly to the Bureau ; so no estimate 
can be made of the amount of stores held in that way on or about 
the 1st of April, 1865. 

In reply to your question with regard to the establishment of a 
depot of supplies at Amelia Courthouse, I have to say that I had 
no information of any such requisition or demand upon the Bureau. 
During the month of March, and up to the 1st April, 1865, the 
combined exertions of our own officers and those of the volunteer 
commissariat kept all of the sub-depots on the lines of railroad in 
Virginia nearly always full. The means of transportation were con- 
stantly inadequate. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Thomas G, Williams, 

{Late) Lt.-Col. and Act. Asst. Corny.- Gen. C. S. Army. 

Richmond, June 3d, 1873. 

General — Your communication, calling attention to difference in 
my statement of number of rations at this post at the time of the 
€vacution of the city (400,000 rations of bread and meat) and that 
of Lieutenant-Colonel T. G. Williams, Assistant Commissary-Gen- 
eral (300,000 rations of bread and meat), has been duly considered. 
This difference has evidently been caused by reports to the Bureau 
prior to the latest movements before the evacuation of the city, and 
I feel fully assured in reiterating my statement that I controlled 
the quantity claimed; and more, that I had under my eye stores 
put away by speculators and hoarders that could have been gathered 
in short time, and had been permitted to remain undisturbed until 
necessity demanded. I distributed a large number of rations on 
the day and night of the evacuation to every demand from army 
sources, to many of the citizens, and then, with the pressure of the 
evacuation, the supplies were taken possession of by the crowd. 

No order was received by me, and (with full opportunities of 
information if it had been given) I have no knowledge of any plan 
to send supplies to Amelia Courthouse. 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1865. 107 

Under such circumstances, with transportation afiforded, there 
could readily have been sent about 300,000 rations, with due re- 
gard to the demand upon this post. 

During the retreat, supplies were found at Pamphlin's depot, 
Farmville, Danville, Salisbury and Charlotte: and being placed 
under orders as Assistant Commissary-General, I forwarded sup- 
plies from South Carolina to General J. E. Johnston's army, and 
also collected supplies at six or seven named points in that State 
for the supposed retreat of General Johnston's army through the 
State. This duty, with a full determination at the evacuation of 
this city to follow the fortunes of our cause, gave me opportunity 
of ascertaining the resources of the country for my Department. 
The great want was that of transportation, and specially was it felt 
by all collecting commissaries for a few months before the sur- 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. H. Claiborne, 

(Late) Major and C. S. C. S. A. 
To General I, M. St. John, 

(Late) Commy. Gen. of Subs. C. S. A. 

MiDDLEBURG, Va., April 16th, 1874. 

Dear General — My absence from home for a month, and the 
consequent accumulation of business, imposes on me the necessity 
of making but a brief and hurried answer to your inquiries. 

Had I the time it would give me pleasure to give you, as desired, 
a full statement of the organization and working of the Subsistence 
Bureau, and its condition when you were appointed Commissary- 
General in February, 1865. I have read with care your statement 
to Mr. Davis of the operations of the Subsistence Bureau during 
the dark and closing days of the Confederacy, when you were the 
chief of that Bureau, and so far as I was cognizant of them, or 
was at the time informed, I think the statement entirely correct. 
I was Chief Commissary of Virginia, with the rank of Major 
and Commissary, was stationed in Richmond, with my office 
in the same building with that of the Commissary-General, and 
was in close association with him. I think the plan adopted by 
your predecessor. Colonel Northrop (which was continued by you), 
for obtaining for the use of the army the products of the country, 
was as perfect and worked as effectively as any that could have 
been devised. 

108 Southern Historical Society Pajoers. 

Each State had its chief commissary; was laid off in divisions, 
with an officer in each, and the divisions subdivided, with agents 
in each of them. All these officers had the authority to impress 
supplies ; and with this power and the mone}^ which was furnished 
them without stint, all supplies which could be spared from the 
support of the non-combatants were obtained for the use of the 
army. The accumulations at the supply depots were regularly 
reported by the subordinate officers to the Chief Commissary of 
the State, and by him to the Commissary-General, who, either by 
general or special order, directed their disposition. 

I recollect well when you took charge of the Bureau, that our 
condition was almost desperate, not because our supplies were 
exhausted (though exhaustion at a not remote future was looked 
to and seriously apprehended), but because our transportation from 
points where supplies were accumulated had almost entirely failed 
us. All the railroads were in bad condition, and several of the 
most imjDortant ones had been so damaged by the enemy's cavalry 
as to be unavailing for the transportation of supplies for weeks at 
a time. 

Your action was prompt, energetic and efficient. Your appeal 
for temporary aid from private resources was nobly responded to 
by the people. The damaged roads were speedily repaired, and 
very soon we felt, as I well recollect, in a comparatively comfort- 
able condition ; and thus we continued until the evacuation of 
Richmond. I have no means of stating the quantities of supplies 
on hand at my several depots at or about that time, for all my 
official papers were burned, but I know that in Richmond, Dan- 
ville, Lynchburg, Staunton, Charlottesville, &c., the accumulations 
were large. I left Richmond at 1 o'clock of the night Richmond 
was evacuated, with orders from you to make Lynchburg my head- 
quarters, and be ready to forward supplies from that point to the 
army. I never heard of any order for the accumulation of sup- 
plies at Amelia Springs. If such order was given it must have 
been after the evacuation of Richmond was determined on, and when 
railroad transportation could not be had ; prior to that time such 
order could readily have been complied with. 

Regretting that I cannot make a more full and satisfactory re- 
sponse to your inquiries, 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) B. P. Noland, 

(Late) Major and Chief Commissary for Virginia, C. S. A. 
General I. M. St. John, {Late) Commissary- General C. S. A. 


Resources of the Confederacy in 1875. 109 

January 1st, 1876. 
Oeneral I. M. St. John, 

Late Covimissary-Gencral Confederate States: 
Dear Sir — I have read your report of July 14th, 1873, to Hon. 
Jeflferson Davis, giving an account of the operations of the Confede- 
rate States commissary service, with great interest, and am confident 
of its correctness and accuracy in every essential particular. While 
you filled the office of Commissary-General, and during your pre- 
decessor's administration of that Department, I was president and in 
charge of the Richmond and Danville railroad and the Piedmont rail- 
road, and conversant (except for a short interval) with many mat- 
ters connected with the commissariat at Richmond. My relations 
with two of the Secretaries of War and with Colonel Northrup, as 
well as the principal officers of his Department, were numerous, 
and frequently confidential. I had ofiicial as well as personal 
relations with them at all times, and their views and actions on the 
subject of transportation were frequently communicated to me. 
I was familiar with the wants of the Government, and when the • 
city of Richmond was selected as the Capital of the Confederacy, 
I was consulted as to the best plan for systematising the transpor- 
tation over all the railroad lines within its limits ; and being presi- 
dent of the Richmond and Danville and Piedmont railroads, some 
times the only ones open to the city of Richmond, great responsi- 
bility was devolved on me. The difliculties of obtaining supplies 
were very great, particularly when the roads under my charge 
were cut and transportation suspended on them, which was the 
case upon one or two occasions for several weeks. Engines and 
cars and machinery generally on these roads were insuSicient and 
inadequate from wear and tear, to accomplish the amount of trans- 
portation required by the Government, barely sufficient to meet 
the daily wants. Every other route for obtaining supplies outside 
of the State of Virginia was closed long before the surrender, but 
after you entered on the discharge of the duties of Commissary- 
General, the Richmond and Danville and Piedmont railroads were 
kept open, and about that time we added largely to its rolling stock, 
by procuring engines and cars from the different roads on the route 
of the Virginia and Tennessee railroad west. Starvation had 
stared the Army of Northern Virginia in the face ; and the Com- 
missary Department organized an appeal to the people on the line 
of the Ricfehmond and Danville railroad for voluntary contributions 
of supplies, and a number of gentlemen of influence, character and 

110 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

position, including the most eminent clergymen of the State, ad- 
dressed them in several counties, urging them to furnish the sup- 
ply wanted. 

No one who witnessed can ever forget the result. Contribution 
was universal, and supplies of food, sufficient to meet the wants of 
the army at the time, were at once sent to the depots on the road, 
until they were packed and groaned under their weight; and I 
affirm that at the time of the evacuation of Richmond, the difficulty 
of delivering supplies sufficient for the support of the Army of 
Northern Virginia under General Lee was solved and surmounted* 
for I know that abundant supplies were in reach of transportation 
on the Richmond and Danville railroad, being massed in Danville, 
Charlotte, and at other points; and from the increased motive 
powei above referred to, they could have been delivered as fast as 
they were required. Moreover, sufficient means — not in Confede- 
rate currency, but in specie — just before the evacuation of Richmond, 
had been furnished me by Mr. Trenholm, Secretary of the Treasury, 
to meet the exigency and pay all pressing demands on the company. 
At the time of the evacuation of that city, there were ample sup- 
plies in it, as well as on the railroad west of Amelia Courthouse, 
to have been delivered at the latter place for the retreating army, 
if its numbers had been double what they were. No orders were 
ever given to any officers or employee of the Richmond and Dan- 
ville railroad to transport any supplies to Amelia Courthouse for 
General Lee's arm)'', nor did I ever hear that any such orders were 
sent to the Commissary Department on the occasion of the evacua- 
tion of Richmond, until after the surrender of the army. On 
Saturday, the day before the evacuation of the city, I was officially 
informed by the Quartermaster- General (Lavvton), by direction of 
President Davis, that the Government had no purpose to evacuate 
the city at that time, and no reason to expect it, and that I could 
leave Richmond for a fortnight or more, if I desired to do so, with- 
out feeling any apprehension of its being evacuated in the mean- 
time. This information was given me in answer to a communica- 
tion that I wrote to President Davis on Friday night, asking full 
information of the purpose of the Government, in order that I 
might meet the responsibilities of my position. He not only 
directed the Secretary of War to give me all the information pos- 
sessed by the War Department, but to procure any ^information 
that I might ask for from General Lee himself. Being assured 
that there was no reason to apprehend an evacuation of the city, I 

Resources of the Confederacy in 1 865. Ill 

went on that evening to my home in Amelia, and returned next 
day, upon being informed by telegraph of the proposed evacuation. 
Neither the superintendent of the road nor myself, up to the time 
that the trains left the city, ever heard of supplies being wanted at 
Amelia Courthouse, although I had a long interview with the 
President and Secretary of War alone in my office in reference to 
the route to be taken by the wagon supply train, and a still longer 
conversation with the President on the cars during the night on 
his way to Danville. I have never believed that any orders to 
place supplies of food at Amelia Courthouse were received by the 
Commissary Department at the time of the evacuation of the city, 
because from Richmond, or from the upper portions of the railroad 
if required, they could at once have been transported without any 
delay or difficulty. Neither the road nor the telegraph was cut or 
disturbed until the day after the evacuation of the city. If orders 
were sent to the Commissary Department, I presume they were in- 
tercepted or otherwise miscarried. 

Respectfully and truly yours, 
(Signed) Lewis E. Harvie. 

Baltimore, Md., July 7, 1873, 

My Dear General — I have read carefully the statement you have 
submitted to the Hon. Jefferson Davis of the closing operations of 
the Confederate States Commissary Department, and I write to say 
that my recollection of the events of that troublous time entirely 
concurs with your own. 

My duties as assigned by yourself gave me full knowledge of 
the effort inaugurated at that time to avail of the influence and 
labors of distinguished private citizens, and I distinctly remember 
that the results were such as you indicate. With the accumula- 
tion of supplies at the general depots I had no official connection, 
but I am quite convinced that the statements of yourself. Colonel 
Williams and Major Claiborne are entirely accurate. 
Very respectfully and truly yours, 

(Signed) T. U. Dudley, Jr., 

(Late) Major and C. S. C. S. Army. 

General I. M. St. John, (Late) Commissary- General C. S. Army. 


112 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General Earl3''s Talley Campaigrn. 

By General A. L. Long, Chief of Artillery Second Corps Army Northern Virginia. 

[The history of this campaign has been ablj'' and fully presented in Gene- 
ral Early's "Memoirs" — a book that should be in the library of every one 
desiring to know the truth concerning General Lee's splendid campaign of 
1864 — but we are glad to be able to present the following outline from the 
pen of the accomi^lished soldier who served as Early's Chief of Artillery.] 

In compliance with his instructions, General Early, on the 13th 
of June, withdrew his corps, consisting of about eight thousand 
infantry and twenty-four pieces of artillery, from the Army of 
Northern Virginia, and proceeded towards Staunton. The artil- 
lery was subsequently increased to forty guns, and his forces were 
further augmented by the addition of about fifteen hundred cav- 
alry and two thousand infantry. At Charlottesville Early received 
intelligence of the rapid advance of Hunter upon Lynchburg with 
a force of twenty thousand men. 

Promptly shifting his objective point, and availing himself of 
the Orange and Alexandria railroad, he moved with such rapidity 
that he reached Lynchburg in time to rescue it. At that time the 
only force at hand for the defence of Lynchburg was the division 
of Breckinridge, less than two thousand strong, and a few hundred 
home guards, composed of old men and boys whose age exempted 
them from active service. Hunter, finding himself unexpectedly 
confronted by Early, relinquished his intended attack uj)on the 
city, and sought safety in a rapid night retreat. 

The next day Early instituted a vigorous pursuit, which contin- 
ued with uninterrupted pertinacity, until Hunter was overtaken in 
the neighborhood of Salem, a small town on the Virginia and Ten- 
nessee railroad, where he was defeated and forced to a hazardous 
and disorganizing retreat through the mountains to the Ohio river. 

Having at a single blow liberated the Valley, Early determined 
upon an immediate invasion of Maryland and a bold advance on 
Washington City. As his instructions were discretionary, he was 
at liberty to adopt that course, which at the time was both in a 
political and military point of view the best plan of action that 
could have been assumed. 

The defence of Richmond being the settled policy of the Con- 
federate Government, General Lee had on two occasions assumed 

General Earlyh Valley Campaign. 113 

the offensive in order to relieve that place from the paralyzing in- 
fluence of the Federals. 

The invasion of Maryland in 1862 and the campaign into Penn- 
sylvania the following year had relieved Richmond of the presence 
of the enemy for more than a year, but the tide of war had again 
returned, and that celebrated city was gradually yielding to the 
powerful embrace of her besiegers, which could only be loosened 
by a strong diversion in her favor. 

This Early undertook with the force at his command, after the 
disposal of Hunter's army. By uniting with his own corps the 
division of Breckinridge and Ransom's cavalry, Early found him- 
self at the head of about twelve thousand men. Though he knew 
this force to be inadequate to the magnitude of the work in hand, 
nevertheless he determined to overcome his want of numbers by 
the rapidity of his movements, thus hoping to acquire a momen- 
tum by velocity that would enable him to overcome that produced 
by the superior gravity of his opponents. 

After the dispersion of Hunter's forces, one day in preparation 
sufficed Early for the commencement of his advance upon Mary- 
land. His route through the Valley extended over a distance of 
two hundred miles or more, but the road was good, and although 
the country had been laid waste a short time before by Hunter, 
the genial season and fertile soil had already reproduced abundant 
subsistence for the horses and mules of the expedition ; but the 
greater part of the supplies for the troops were necessarily drawn 
from Lynchburg and Richmond. To prevent delay, therefore, 
orders were sent to these places directing supplies to be forwarded 
to convenient points along the line of march. Staunton was 
reached on the 27th of June. This was the most suitable point at 
which to supply the army, and there Early made a short halt to 
make the necessary arrangements to insure the uninterrupted con- 
tinuance of his march. In this he was ably assisted by Colonel 
Allan, Majors Harman, Rogers, Hawks, and other members of his 
staff. The beautiful Valley of Virginia everywhere gave evidence 
of the ravages of w^ar. Throughout the march down the Valley 
the unsparing hand of Hunter was proclaimed by the charred 
ruins of the once beautiful and happy homes. At Lexington the 
cracked and tottering walls of the Virginia Military Institute, the 
pride of Virginia and the Ahna Mater of many of the distinguished 
sons of the South, were seen, and near them appeared the black- 
ened remains of the private residence of Governor Letcher. Mrs. 

114 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Letcher, with an infant hardly a week old, had been moved from 
her bed to witness the destruction of her house. 

These melancholy scenes are almost too sad to relate ; neverthe- 
less the}'' are facts that must stand in evidence of the cruelty with 
which the war was prosecuted by the North against the South. 

When Early reached Winchester he learned that there was a 
Federal force at Harper's Ferry and another at Martinsburg, which 
it was necessary to dislodge before attempting the passage of the 
Potomac ; and this was effected by the 4th of July without much 
opposition, the Federals having withdrawn without waiting an at- 
tack. The way being now clear, the passage of the Potomac was 
made on the 5th at Shepherdstown, and the army advanced to 

Since the defeat of Hunter the advance of Early had been so 
rapid that his design to invade Maryland had not reached the 
Federal authorities in time to oppose his passage of the Potomac. 
But his entrance into Maryland being now known, it had produced 
great consternation as far as Baltimore and Washington. The 
boldness of this movement caused Early's forces to be greatly 
exaggerated, and rumor soon magnified it to four or five times its 
real strength. 

The invasion was considered of such magnitude that the cities 
of Washington and Baltimore were thought to be in such immi- 
nent danger, that the greatest alacrity was instituted in every di- 
rection to collect troops for the defence of those places. 

The object of General Early being simply a diversion in favor 
of the operations about Richmond, he remained a day or two at 
Sharpsburg, in order that the impression created by his invasion 
might have time to produce its full effect before he exposed his 
weakness by a further advance. At this time all the troops in the 
vicinity of Washington had been collected, besides which a large] 
number of quartermaster's employees had been improvised as sol- 
diers, thus making the force at hand exceed twenty thousand men,! 
while two corps from the army besieging Richmond and a part of I 
another corps from North Carolina, intended to reinforce that army, [ 
had been detached and put in rapid motion for the defence of the! 

In the face of these odds Early continued his advance into Ma- 
ryland. At Frederick he found General Wallace, with about ten 
thousand men, in position to oppose the passage of the Monocacy. 
Immediate preparations were made to dislodge Wallace and effect 

General Early'' s Valley Cam'paign. 115 

a crossing of that stream. Rodes was thrown forward on the Bal- 
timore and Ramseur on the Washington City road, while Gordon 
and Breckinridge, with a portion of Ransom's cavalry inclining to 
the right, moved to the fords a mile or two below the railroad 
bridge. At the same time the heights contiguous to the river were 
crowned by Long's artillery (consisting of the guns of Xelson, 
Braxton, King and McLaughlin), to cover the movement of the 
other troops. 

When the troops had gained their position, the crossing at the 
lower fords was promptly accomplished, and Breckinridge and 
Gordon, quickly forming their line of battle, advanced rapidly up 
the stream toward the Federal position, and, after a short but spir- 
ited conflict, defeated Wallace, whose army soon fell into a panic 
and fled in wild confusion, spreading dismay for miles in every 
direction by the terrible accounts they gave of the tremendous 
force Early vv^as leading through the country. The route being 
now open, Early proceeded by rapid marches to within cannon- 
shot of the walls of Washington. Since his entrance into Mary- 
land his force had been exaggerated by the inhabitants and the 
soldiery he had met, until in their terrified imagination it was 
magnified to thirty or forty thousand men. 

On his arrival before the Federal Capital, the exaggerated rumor 
of his strength having preceded him, its occupants were variously 
affected. The Federal authorities and all of their adherents Avere 
in a state of consternation, while the Southern sympathizers w-ere 
full of exultation — for at the time it was thought by many he would 
take the city. Had he had twenty or thirty thousand men he would 
have done so, with a prospect of holding it, and giving a new turn to 
subsequent military operations. But Early was too prudent and 
sagacious to attempt an enterprise with a force of eight thousand 
men which, if successful, could only be of temporary benefit. He 
was therefore content to remain in observation long enough to 
give his movement full time to produce its greatest effect, and then 
withdrew in the face of a large army and recrossed the Potomac 
without molestation. 

This campaign is remarkable for having accomplished more in 
proportion to the force employed, and for having given less public 
satisfaction, than any other campaign of the war. The want of 
appreciation of it is entirely due to the erroneous opinion that the 
City of Washington should have been taken; but this may be 

116 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

passed over as one of the absurdities of public criticism on the 
•conduct of the war. 

By glancing at the operations of Early from the 13th of June to 
the last of July, it will be seen that in less than two months he 
had marched more than four hundred miles, and with a force not 
exceeding twelve thousand men, had not only defeated but entirely 
dispersed two Federal armies of an aggregate strength of more 
than double his own ; had invaded Maryland, and by his bold and 
rapid movement upon Washington, had created an important di- 
version in favor of General Lee in the defence of Richmond, and 
had re-entered Virginia with a loss of less than three thousand 
men. After remaining a short time in the neighborhood of Lees- 
burg, he returned to the Valley by way of Snicker's Gap, and 
about the 17th of July occupied the neighborhood of Berryville. 

Early had no sooner established himself at Berryville, than a 
considerable force of the enemy appeared on the Shenandoah, near 
Castleman's Ferry, and partially effected a crossing, but were 
promptly driven back with heavy loss, after which they retired to 
the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry. 

About the same time a large force under General Averill was 
reported to be advancing from Martinsburg to Winchester. Being 
unwilling to receive an attack in an unfavorable position, Early 
sent Ramseur, with a division and two batteries of artillery, to 
Winchester, to retard Averill, while he withdrew with the main 
body of the army and supply trains by way of White Post and 
Newtown to Strasburg. 

Ramseur, having encountered the enemy a few miles east of 
Winchester, was defeated, with a loss of four pieces of artillery, and 
forced to retire to Newtown, where he rejoined Early. 

Averill, being arrested in his pursuit of Ramseur near Newtown, 
fell back to Kernstown, where he was soon joined by General 
Crook, with the forces from Harper's Ferry. 

From Newtown, Early continued his march to Strasburg without 
interrruption. On the 23d he was informed of the junction of 
Crook and Averill, and of their occupation of Kernstown ; there- 
upon, it was determined to attack them without delay. The 
security of the trains having been properly provided for, the army 
was put in motion early on the morning of the 24th towards the 

About noon a position was gained from which it was observed 
that the enemy was in possession of the identical. ground which 


General Earhfs Valley Campaign. 117 

had been occupied by Shields when encountered by Stonewall 
Jackson in March, 1862. The memory of that battle evidently 
did much to inspire the troops to deeds of valor in the approaching 

Early quickly made his disposition for battle. The divisions of 
Breckinridge and Rodes were thrown to the right of the turnpike, 
and those of Ramseur and Gordon were deployed to its left, the 
artillery being disposed of so as to cover the advance of the in- 
fantry, while the cavalry received instructions to close behind the 
enemy as soon as defeated. 

Perceiving that the left flank of the enemy was exposed, Breck- 
inridge, under cover of a wooded hill, gained a position from which 
he bore down upon it, and in gallant style doubled it upon the 
centre. This success was so vigorously followed up by the other 
troops, that the Federals gave way at all points, and were soon in 
rapid retreat, which was accelerated by a vigorous pursuit. In this 
battle the losses on the part of the Confederates were insignificant, 
while those of the Federals in killed, wounded and prisoners were 
considerable. While on the retreat a large number of their wagons 
and a considerable quantity of their stores were destroyed to 
prevent capture. 

Finding that the enemy had again sought safety behind his de- 
fences, Early determined to re-enter Maryland, for the double pur- 
pose of covering a retaliatory expedition into Pennsylvania, and 
to keep alive the diversion which had already been made in favor 
of the defence of Richmond. Therefore, about the 6th August, he 
crossed the Potomac in two columns — the one at Williamsport, and 
the other at Shepherdstown — and took a position between Sharps- 
burg and Hagerstown. 

This occupation of Maryland was destined to be of short duration, 
for since Early's audacity had caused his strength to be so greatly 
magnified, and the importance of his operations so exaggerated, 
Grant had considered it necessary to largely increase the Army of 
the Shenandoah, and to supersede Hunter, whose incapacity had 
long been obvious, by Phil. Sheridan, one of the most energetic and 
unscrupulous of his Lieutenants. Being aWare of the great increase 
of force prepared to be brought against him. Early recrossed the 
Potomac and returned up the Valley, being slowly followed by 
Sheridan, who had now taken command of the Middle Depart- 

On reaching Fisher's Hill, a position three miles west of Stras- 


118 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

burg, Early halted and offered battle, which Sheridan made a show 
of accepting until the morning of the 17th, when he was discovered 
to be retreating towards Winchester. He was immediately pursued 
by Early, and being overtaken near Kernstown, a spirited skirmish 
ensued while he continued to retire. Night coming on the com- 
batants separated. Early bivouacking in the neighborhood of Win- 
chester, while Sheridan crossed the Opequon. 

About this time Lieutenant-General Anderson joined Early with 
one division of infantry and a division of cavalry, thus increasing 
his force to about twelve thousand men, while that of Sheridan 
exceeded forty thousand. Notwithstanding the great disparity of 
numbers, the campaign was characterized by a series of skilful 
movements and brilliant skirmishes, which resulted on the 19th of 
September in the battle of Winchester, which had doubtless been 
hastened to a conclusion by the departure of Anderson from the 
Valley on the loth with Kershaw's division for Richmond. Anderson 
had no sooner turned his back on the mountains, than Sheridan 
threw his whole force against Early at Winchester and defeated 
him, not so much by force of numbers, as by one of those chances 
of war which sometimes beset the ablest commander ; for after 
having gallantly contested the field, and firmly maintained their 
position until near the close of the day, a portion of his troops was 
seized with a panic, which rapidly spread until the greater part of 
the infantry and cavalry fell into confusion, and troops who had 
never before turned their backs upon the enemy retired in disorder 
from the field. The artillery alone remained firm, and covered with 
distinguished gallantry the retreat of the other troops, until a place 
of safety was gained and order restored, and then retired fighting, 
step by step, until it extricated itself from overwhelming numbers, 
leaving heaps of dead to testify to its matchless conduct and power. 
Sheridan's forces were so shattered that he could not immediately 
avail himself of the success he had gained, and Early was permitted 
an uninterrupted retreat to Fisher's Hill. 

Notwithstanding his force had been considerably weakened by 
its late disaster. Early determined to maintain his position on 
Fisher's Hill. He could not realize that every man was not as 
stout-hearted as himself, nor that the troops he had so often led to 
victory were not invincible; and, besides h^s reluctance to abandon 
the rich and beautiful Valley, there were other and stronger rea- 
sons for his decision. It was evident that, if left unopposed in the 
Valley, Sheridan would immediately concert a plan of co-operation 

General Early'' s Valley Campaign. 119 

with Grant, either by advancing directly upon Richmond or by 
operating on its lines of communication with a powerful cavalry 
until a junction was formed with him below Petersburg; in which 
case the important diversion in favor of Lee would have come to 
naught. Therefore the object of detaining Sheridan with his for- 
midable force in the Valley sufficiently warranted Earl}', on the 
soundest military principles, in his determination to oppose him 
at all hazard. 

The defiant attitude assumed by him was the most effective he 
could have adopted for accomplishing his object, and it created a 
deception as to his strength that made his opponent cautious, 
but which was quickly dissipated by a collision. His force at 
this time was less than seven thousand men, while that of Sheri- 
dan was greater by at least four to one. 

Sheridan's forces having sufficiently recovered from the effect of 
the battle, pursued Early, and on the 22d attacked him in his po- 
sition on Fisher's Hill. The thin Confederate ranks could offer 
but feeble resistance to the overwhelming force brought against 
them, and the conflict was consequently of short duration ; and, 
owing to the extent and difficulty of the position, the Confederates 
sustained considerable loss before they could extricate themselves. 

Early then retired up the Valley to a position above Harrison- 
burg, while Sheridan pursued as far as New Market. Both armies 
then remained inactive for some days, in order to rest and reorgan- 
ize their forces. 

About the first of October, Sheridan retraced his steps down the 
Valley to the neighborhood of Middletown, where he took up a 
position on an elevated plateau behind Cedar creek. Early, per- 
ceiving that his adversary had retired, pursued him to the neigh- 
borhood of Strasburg, where he took up a position from which 
he might be able to attack with advantage. Sheridan had unwit- 
tingly assumed a position that gave his adversary admirable ad- 
vantages and opportunity to execute a surprise. 

Early entrusted a considerable force to General Gordon for that 
purpose. Having made himself fimiiliar with the work in hand, 
Gordon, on the night of 18th October, proceeded to its execution. 
Crossing Cedar creek sufficiently below the Federal pickets to 
avoid observation, he cautiously proceeded in the direction of the 
Federal encampments without accident or discovery. A favorable 
point for the accomplishment of his plans was gained just before 
daybreak on the 19th. The camp was reached, and in the midst 

120 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of quiet sleep and peaceful dreams the war-cry and the ringing 
peels of musketry arose to wake the slumbering warriors and call 
them affrighted to their arms. The drums and bugles loudly 
summoned the soldier to his colors, but alas ! there was no ear for 
those familiar sounds ! The crack of the rifle and the shouts of 
battle were upon the breeze, and no other sounds were heeded by 
the flying multitude. 

Gordon's surprise had been complete, and when the dawn ap- 
peared long lines of fugitives were seen rushing madly towards 
Winchester. Such a rout had not been seen since the famous 
battle of Bull Pam. 

The Federals left artillery, baggage, small arms, camp equippage, 
clothing, knapsacks, haversacks, canteens, in fact everything, in 
their panic. The whole camp was filled with valuable booty, 
which in the end proved a dangerous temptation to the Confede- 
rates — many of whom, instead of following up their brilliant suc- 
cess, left their ranks for plunder. 

If an apology for such conduct were ever admissible,' it was so 
on this occasion — the troops having been so long unaccustomed to 
the commonest comfort while making long and fatiguing marches 
and battling against large odds, and being now broken down, 
ragged and hungry, they would have been superhuman had they 
resisted the tempting stores that lay scattered on every hand. Our 
censure of this conduct must be mingled with compassion, when 
we remember that instances arise when the demand of nature is 

The Federals finding that they were not pursued when they 
reached the neighborhood of Middletown, their spirits began to 
revive, and the habit of discipline and order assumed its sway, 
and the shapeless mass of the morning regained the appearance of 
an army. 

Sheridan, having been absent, met his fugitive army a little be- 
low Newtown. Order having been restored, he reforEied his troops, 
and, facing them about, returned to the scene of their late disaster. 
The Confederates being unprepared for an attack, were quickly 
defeated and forced to retire to Fisher's Hill; from thereto New 
Market, where Early maintained a bold front for several weeks. 
By this return of fortune Sheridan not only recovered all that had 
been lost in the morning, but acquired considerable captures from 
the Confederates. 

The Confederates then retired to the neighborhood of Staunton 

General Earhfs Valley Campaign. 121 

and further operations were suspended on account of the inclem- 
ency of the season. 

Sheridan then occupied the lower Valley, where he employed 
himself in completing the work of destruction so bravely begun 
by Hunter, in which he seemed to vie with Alaric. His work of 
devastation was so complete that he exultingly reported to his supe- 
perior that a "crow in traversing the Valley would be obliged to carry 
his rations." Before the spring was open, Sheridan was in motion 
with a cavalry or rather mounted infantry force nine thousand strong, 
his objective point being Staunton. The force of Early, having 
been greatly reduced, was entirely inadequate for an effective re- 
sistance. Staunton was therefore evacuated, and Early retired to 
Waynesboro'. His entire force now only consisted of Wharton's 
division of infantry, six pieces of artillery and a small body of 
cavalry, making in all about eighteen hundred men. With this 
force he took a position to protect an important railroad bridge 
over the south branch of the Shenandoah, and at the same time to 
cover Rockfish Gap, a pass connecting the Valley with Eastern 
Virginia. This pass was doubly important, as it gave a passage 
both to the Charlottesville turnpike and Central railroad. 

As Sheridan was without artillery, and the ground being unfit 
for the operation of cavalry, Early could have easily maintained 
his position with reliable troops ; but, contrary to his belief, there 
was considerable disaffection in Wharton's division. Therefore, 
without his knowledge his little army harbored the elements of 
defeat, for at the first show of an attack the malcontents threw 
down their arms, and, almost without opposition, Sheridan carried 
the position, compelling Early with his faithful few to seek safety 
in retreat. A number of these, however, were captured before they 
could make their escape. 

Sheridan, having now removed all opposition, passed through 
Rockfish Gap into Eastern Virginia, traversed the interior of the 
State, and formed a junction with Grant almost without interrup- 

On reaching Gordonsville, Early collected a handful of men and 
threw himself upon the flank and rear of Sheridan, but his force 
was too small to make any impression. He was only induced to 
make this effort by his extreme reluctance to witness an unop- 
posed march of an enemy through his country. 

It has been said that Early, at the head of his faitliful band, 
hovering like an eagle about the columns of Sheridan, displayed 

122 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

more heroic valor than when at the head of his victorious army in 

Among some of those whom superior rank has not brought into 
special notice are Colonels Carter (Acting Chief of Artillery), 
Nelson, King and Braxton ; Majors Kirkpatrick and McLaughlin, 
of the artillery, distinguished at Winchester; Captains Massey, 
killed, and Carpenter, wounded ; Colonel Pendleton, Adjutant- 
General of Early's corps, killed at Fisher's Hill while gallantly 
rallying the fugitives ; Colonel Samuel Moore, Inspector-General 
of Early's corps ; Colonel Green Peyton, Adjutant-General Rodes' 
division ; Captain Lewis Randolph, of Rodes' staff; Colonel R. W. 
Hunter, Adjutant-General Gordon's division; Colonel Carr, In- 
spector-General Breckinridge's division, captured near Cross Keys, 
Valley of Virginia ; Major Brethard, artillery ; Major S. V. South- 
all, Adjutant-General of Artillery, wounded at Monocacy; Captain 
Percy, Inspector of Artillery ; Major Moorman, of artillery ; Lieu- 
tenant Long, Engineer Corps, killed at Cedar creek while rallying 
fugitives ; Lieutenant Hobson, of artillery, killed at Monocacy ; 
Dr. McGuire, Medical Director of Early's corps; Dr. Strath, Chief 
Surgeon of Artillery; Major Turner, Chief Quartermaster of Artil- 
lery; Major Armstrong, Chief Commissary of Artillery. Besides 
these there are many others, whose names are not in my posses- 
sion, worthy of the highest distinction. 

In operations of the character above described long lists of 
casualties may naturally be expected, in which the names of the 
bravest, noblest and truest are sure to be found. While it is im- 
possible for me to make separate mention of these, memory dic- 
tates the names of Rodes and Ramseur. From Richmond to the 
memorable campaign of the Wilderness they bore a conspicuous 
part, and their names rose high on the roll of fome. Rodes fell in 
the battle of Winchester, at the head of his splendid division, and 
Ramseur was mortally wounded at Cedar creek in his heroic at- 
tempt to retrieve the fortune of the day. Their fall was a noble 
sacrifice to the cause for which they fought, and their memory will 
ever remain green in the hearts of their countrymen. 

A. L. Long. 


■ Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 123 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park, Twelfth Alabama Reg-iiiient. 

[Continued from February Number.] 

March 7th to 12th^ 1865 — A number of prisoners, mainly from 
the privates' pen, have signified a wilhngness to take the hated oath 
of allegiance, and are now kept in separate barracks, clothed in 
blue suits and given better rations. The}'- are called ''Galvanized" 
men, and sometimes " Company Q." These weak and cowardly 
men are willing to betray their own country and people, and swear 
to support a government which they can but detest. Such men 
could not have been of any real value to the South, but rather 
skulking nuisances, and they are to be pitied as well as despised. 
They are either ignorant and deluded, or actuated by self-interest 
or want of principle. They regard their personal comfort and safety 
more than the good of their relatives and friends and their native 
land. Many prisoners seem to have thrown aside all modesty. We 
have to wash our hands, faces and feet in the sluggish ditch-water 
which runs through the campus, and a good many strip to their 
waists and bathe themselves, utterly regardless of the presence of 
hundreds of fellow prisoners passing constantly near them. The 
water is brackish and covered with green scum. Men stand in a 
row along the banks, and all wash at one time. The dirty off- 
scouring from each man flows to his neighbor, and is used again. 
Some throw back the water with their hands and seek a cleaner 
supply. The whole scene is sickening. 

Beer, made of fermented corn meal and cheap or mean molasses, 
and weak lemonade are sold at various stands, made of boxes, in 
the pen, and are bought by those able to do so. I doubt their 
cleanliness, and have touched but few glasses. Want of proper 
medicine and attention, combined with boiled fresh beef and thin, 
watery soup, keep many ill with constant diarrhoea. There are no 
night- vessels, and at all times of these cold, wintry nights officers 
are forced to go to the rear, several hundred feet distant. Fresh 
boiled beef, without vegetables, seems to cause and aggravate the 
very prevalent disease. The Yankee surgeons know it, but order 
no change of diet. Such meanness is despicable in its littleness 
and barbarity. It is known that Ahl and Wolfe have spies among 
the prisoners, who mingle freely with them, seek their confidence 
and then basely betray them. They listen to and watch every 
one, and promptly act the ignoble parts of eavesdroppers and tale- 

124 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

bearers. Think of a Government that will thus establish a cunning 
and cruel system of espionage over helpless victims, writhing under 
their strong, relentless grasp ! Surely the Confederate War Secre- 
tary would not descend to such a small business as Secretary 
Stanton does ! Sentinels walk on the parapet above the lofty- 
fence which separates the pens of the officers and privates, and 
can watch both pens from their elevated positions. But despite 
their vigilance notes are frequently thrown over the parapet, and 
communication is thus kept up across the intervening barrier. 
These notes are tied to a small rock, or piece of coal, and some- 
times a prisoner is struck on the face or person, causing some in- 
jury or hurt ; but no one gets angry at the unintentional blow, and 
the note is promptly delivered to the party addressed. The notes 
from the privates abound in complaints against SchcepfF, Ahl, 
Wolfe and their guards, and of great scarcity of rations. Their 
treatment must be hard and cruel. 

March \?>th to 15th — About 100 officers and 1,000 men have been 
sent off for exchange, and 500 officers arrived from Fort Pulaski, 
near Savannah, and Hilton Head, South Carolina. These sickly, 
limping, miserable looking men were chosen from the prisoners 
last August to be sent to Sullivan's Island near Charleston, and 
placed under fire of the Confederate batteries, in retaliation, it was 
said, for the placing of Federal prisoners in the city under the fire 
of the Yankee batteries. The Yankees had been shelling the city, 
killing women and children, and the Confederate General, to put a 
stop to such brutalit}^, threatened to expose his prisoners to the tire 
if it were not discontinued. At first, in May, fifty officers were 
chosen by lot and sent to Charleston, but finding General Beauregard 
had not put his threat into execution, they were exchanged. Then? 
in August, 600 more were sent, and subjected to the harshest treat- 
ment, exposed in the sickly, malarial season to the severest hard- 
ships. For forty-three days they lived on ten ounces of meal and 
four ounces of pickles per day. Not a vegetable nor a pound of 
meat was issued to them, and consequentl}'- that depressing and 
dreaded disease (scurvy) became general among them. Their lean, 
emaciated persons were covered with livid spots of various sizes, 
occasioned by effusion of blood under the cuticle. They looked 
pale, languid and low spirited, and suffered from general exhaustion, 
pains in the limbs, spongy and bleeding gums. All this was caused 
by their rigid confinement and want of nourishing food. They 
were not given food sufficient to supply the elements necessary to 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 125 

repair the natural waste of the system. Nearly one out of every 
six died from this inhuman treatment, and on their arrival at Fort 
Delaware, for the second time, over one hundred out of five 
hundred were sent to the hospital. The feet and legs of many 
were so drawn by the fearful disease as to compel them to walk on 
their toes, their heels being unable to touch the ground, and they 
used either sticks in each hand, or a rude crutch, sometimes two of 
them, to aid them in hobbling along. Several, unable to walk at 
all, were carried on stretchers to the hospital. Our hard fare and 
rough treatment at Fort Delaware has been princely compared 
Avith that inflicted upon these scurvy-afflicted Fort Pulaski sufferers. 
Captain Thomas W. Harris, a Methodist minister, of the Twelfth 
Georgia infantry ; Lieutenant W. H. Chew, of Seventh Georgia 
cavalry — both old collegemates of mine; Captain A. C. Gibson, of 
the Fourth Georgia ; Captain J. W. Fannin, of the Sixty-first Ala- 
bama, formerly a private in my company, and Captain L. S. Chit- 
wood, of Fifth Alabama, among the new arrivals, are all old 
acquaintances and friends of mine. Fift3'-nine officers and several 
hundred men, belonging to Wharton's command in the Valley of 
Virginia, captured by Sheridan, were brought to the fort, and 
several officers from Fort La Fayette, including General R. L. Page, 
arrived soon after. The latter were captured at Fort Morgan, near 

March IQth — Miss Eliza Jamison, my fair unknown friend of 
Baltimore, sent me five dollars, promised to correspond with me 
herself, and enclosed a bright, sparkling letter, full of wit and 
humor, from a young lady friend of hers, signed " Mamie," offering 
to " write to me once in awhile to cheer me in my prison life." 
Miss Eliza Jamison thus describes "Mamie": "She is full of 
mischief and fun, but very discreet and particular. She is 
small, has very dark hair, beautiful black and very expres- 
sive eyes, small and pretty. Her nose is large and her worst 
feature. She is smart and entertaining, and I think one of the 
nicest little bodies in the world ; I am sure you will think the 
same." " Mamie " writes fluently and elegantly, and tells me she 
recently lost her youngest brother, twenty years old, in the Southern 
army. She will not allow Miss Jamison to give me her address, 
which is really tantalizing. Mr. J. W. Fellows, of Manchester, New 
Hampshire, writes he has sent me twenty-five dollars, but it has 
never been received. Such a handsome remittance would be a 
God-send to me now. I suppose the letter examiner pocketed it. 

126 Southei'n Historical Society Papers. 

March 17th and 18th. — Captain Browne, Captain Hewlett, Lieu- 
tenant Arrington and I changed our quarters to Division 27, and 
are messing together. Twenty-seven is known as the " Kentucky- 
division," as most of its inmates are from that State and belonged 
to Morgan's cavalry, having been captured during the famous Ohio 
raid, and for awhile confined in the Ohio State Penitentiary, their 
heads shaved, and dressed in felon's garb. A majority of them 
are of fine personal appearance, intelligent, social and well dressed. 
They receive money from relatives at home, and live well from the 
sutler's stores. Lieutenant William Hays, of Covington, Ky., 
better known as " Doctor " Hays, having been a practicing physi- 
cian at home, is chief of the division. He has lost one eye, but is 
a handsome man, very polite, and universally popular. He acts 
as postmaster also. We luckily found bunks next to a window on 
the second tier, and quite near the stove, in the centre of the room. 
The light from the window is excellent for reading and writing 
purposes, and I shall not lose the opportunity. On the other side 
of the window are the bunks of Lieutenant Joe G. Shackelford 
and Lieutenant H. C. Merritt, of the Third Kentucky cavalry, 
Avith Lieutenant J. D. Parks and Lieutenant S. P. Allensworth, of 
Second Kentucky cavalry. Shackelford is just across from my 
bunk. He is a tall, well built, plain spoken, honest fellow. He 
has been in prison over twenty months, but remains unterrified 
and resolute in his allegiance to the Confederacy. I enjoy his 
strong, expressive language much. Browne, Arrington and Fannin 
play chess nearly all day. I play it very indifferently, and prefer 
reading. Colonel R. C. Morgan, a younger brother of General 
John H. Morgan, Captain C. C. Corbett, a Georgian in the Four- 
teenth Kentucky cavalry. Lieutenant M. H. Barlow (the wit of 
the room), and Lieutenant I. P. Wellington, both of the Eighth 
Kentucky cavalry, are among the inmates of 27. Colonel R. W. 
Carter, of the First Virginia cavalry, a large, military-looking man, 
and Captain R. T. Thom, of General Page's staff, are also inmates 
of the division. Captain David Waldhauer, of the Jeff. Davis 
legion from Savannah, and commander of the "Georgia Hussars," 
occupies a bunk near mine. He has lost his right arm. I find 
him to be a very agreeable gentleman. Lieutenant J. E. Way, of 
the same cavalry legion, is with Captain Waldhauer. He is a 
very amiable and modest officer. 

March 19th. — To my surprise I received a letter from Abe Good- 
game, a mulatto slave belonging to Colonel Goodgame of my regi- 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 127 

ment, who was captured in the Valley, and is now a prisoner con- 
fined at Fort McHenry, having positively refused to take the oath. 
He asks me to write to his master when I am exchanged, and tell 
him of his whereabouts, and that he is faithful to him. I replied 
to Abe in an encouraging way, and showed his letter to several 
officers of my brigade. The blatant Abolitionists of the North 
would scarcely be convinced of the truth of this negro slave's 
fidelity to his master, if they were to see it. They are totally ig- 
norant of the real status of the divine institution of slavery, and 
would be shocked at such an evidence of love for and faithfulness 
to his master as this slave exhibits. Abe is an honest, industrious 
negro, and I am sorry for him. His captors, not understanding 
nor appreciating his devotion to principle and affection for his 
master and his Southern home, will, I fear, treat him with great 
severity, work him unmercifully and feed him scantily. I have 
not heard a word nor received a line from home since my capture. 
To-day, five long, weary, dreary, miserable months ago, occurred 
the battle of Winchester, and I have not heard from my beloved 
mother since then. I know letters are written to me, but no doubt 
they are destroyed through the whims and caprice of some venom- 
ous clerk, who wickedly throws them aside or burns them. All 
letters written or received by jDrisoners are opened and examined 
by some careless and heartless upstart official, who has or assumes 
full power and authority to destroy any he may whimsically ob- 
ject to.* 

* Louisiana " Confederate " will please accept my most gi-atef ul thanks for the handsome 
and highly-appreciated present received safely from New Orleans, January 22d, ultimo. It 
was sweet and most welcome. K. E. P. 

128 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Letter from General A. S. Jolmstoii. 

[Anything from the lamented hereof Shiloh will be read with interest, and 
the forthcoming memoir of him by his gifted son (Colonel William Preston 
Johnston) is looked for with peculiar pleasure, in the hope that it will contain 
much of the inner life of the great chieftain. 

The following autograph letter to General Cooper is of historic value as 
showing the condition of things in Kentucky, in October, 1861, and General 
Johnston's opinions as to what the future movements of the enemy would 

Headquarters Western Department, 

Bowling Green, Ky., October 17, 1861, 

General — I informed you by telegraph on the 12th, that in con- 
sequence of information received from General Buckner of the 
advance of the enemy in considerable force, I had ordered forward 
all my available force to his support. Hardee's division and Terry's 
regiment have arrived here; and in advance our force may be esti- 
mated at twelve thousand men. Correct returns cannot be obtained 
until after abetter organization. Two Tennessee regiments (Stanton's 
from Overton county) and one from Union city are yet to arrive, 
and may reach this in two or three days, and give an increase of 
about two thousand men. 

I cannot expect immediately any additional force under the call 
of last month on the Governors of Tennessee and Mississippi. 

The men will doubtless present themselves promptly at the ren- 
dezvous, but I cannot suppose any considerable portion will be 

When I made the call, I hoped that some might come armed. I 
cannot now conjecture how many will do so. 

The call was made to save time, and in the hope that by the 
time they were organized and somewhat instructed, the Confederate 
Government would be able to arm them. 

As at present informed, I think the best effort of the enemy will 
be made on this line, threatening perhaps at the same time the 
communications between Tennessee and Virginia, covered by Zol- 
licoflfer, and Columbus, from Cairo by the river, and Paducah by 
land, and may be a serious attack on one or the other, and for this 
their command of the Ohio and all the navigable waters of Ken- 
tucky, and better means of land transportation, give them great 
facilities of concentration. 

As my forces at neither this nor either of the other points 

Letter from General A. S. Johnston. 129 

threatened are more than sufficient to meet the force in front, I 
cannot weaken either until the object of the enemy is fully pro- 

You now know the efforts I anticipate from the enemy and the 
line on which the first blow is expected to fall, and the means 
adopted by me with the forces at my disposal to meet him. 

I will use all means to increase my force and spare no exertions 
to render it effective at every point ; but I cannot assure you that 
this will be sufficient, and if reinforcements from less endangered 
or less important points can be spared, I would be glad to receive 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) A. S. Johnston, 

General Confederate States Army. 
•General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond. 

130 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 

By Lamak Hollyday. 

The July (1876) number of the Southern Historical Society 
Papers contains a letter from General J. A. Early on the " Relative 
Strength of the Armies of Generals Lee and Grant," in which he 
says "that State (Maryland) furnished to the Confederate army 
only one organized regiment of infantry for one year, and several 
companies of artillery and cavalry which served through the whole 

The Confederate roster, also published in the October number of 
same Papers, gives credit for only one regiment of infantry, and 
makes no mention whatever of either cavalry or artillery, 

These statements, coming from such high authority, are calcu- 
lated to do great injustice to as gallant soldiers of the Confederate 
army as either shouldered a musket, straddled a horse or rode on 
a caisson. Maryland was represented during the whole war, except 
probably for a few months, by an organized infantry command, 
which won a name for gallantry and discipline second to none in 
the army, and*proved themselves worthy descendants of the Mary- 
land line of Revolutionary fame. 

The following comprise the Maryland organizations in the Con- 
federate service, independent of several companies of infantry and 
several companies of cavalry, merged into regiments of other 
States : 

First infantry — Colonel Arnold Elzey, promoted to Brigadier 
and Major-General ; Colonel George H. Steuart, promoted to Briga- 
dier-General ; Colonel Bradley T. Johnson, promoted to Brigadier- 

Second infantry — Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph R. Herbert. 

First cavalry — Lieutenant-Colonel Ridgeley Brown, killed; Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel G. W. Dorsey. 

Second cavalry — Major Harry Gilmore. 

First battery — Captain R. fenowden Andrews, promoted Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel ; Captain W. F. Dernent. 

Second battery — Captain J. B. Brockenborough, promoted Major; 
Captain W. H. Griffin. 

Third battery — Captain H. B. Latrobe, promoted March 1st, 
1863; killed at Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 22d, 1863; Captain 
John B. Rowan, promoted June 30th, 1863; killed before Nash- 

Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 131 

ville, Tennessee, December 16th, 1864 ; Captain William L. Ritter, 
promoted December 16th, 1864, on the battle-field before Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

Fourth battery — Captain William Brown, killed; Captain W. 
S. Chew. 

First Maryland infantry — The First Maryland infantry was or- 
ganized in June, 1861, and shortly after their organization were 
complimented by General J. E. Johnston, in the following special 
order : 

Headquarters, Winchester, June 22, 1861. 
Special Order. 

The Commanding General thanks Lieutenant-Colonel Steuart 
and the Maryland regiment for the faithful and exact manner in 
which they carried out his orders of the 19th instant at Harper's 
Ferry. He is glad to learn that, owing to their discipline, no pri- 
vate property was injured and no unoffending citizen disturbed. 
The soldierly qualities of the Maryland regiment will not be for- 
gotten in the day of action. 

By order of General Joseph E. Johnston. 

W. H. Whiting, 
Inspector- General. 

General G. T. Beauregard, in his letter to Mr. J. Thomas Scharf 
under dat^ of November 5th, 1873, published in the Baltimore 
Chronicle^ thus speaks of the First Maryland's participation in the 
battle of the first Manassas: 

"At the battle of the first Manassas the First Maryland regiment 
contributed greatlj'' to the success of that battle, by checking the 
flanking movement of the Federals until Early's brigade could get 
into position to outflank them. The officers and men of that Ma- 
ryland regiment behaved with much gallantry on that occasion ; 
and afterwards, while on duty in front of Munson's Hill, near Al- 
exandria, and while in winter quarters about Centreville, they were 
noted for their discipline and good behavior." 

The regiment served under General Jackson in his ever-memo- 
rable Valley campaign, and were thus spoken of by that General 
in his official report: 

"In a short time the Fifty-eighth Virginia regiment became en- 
gaged with a Pennsylvania regiment called the Bucktails, when 
Colonel Johnson, of the First Maryland regiment, coming up in 
the hottest period of the fire, charged gallantly into his flank and 
drove the enemy, with heavy loss, from the field, capturing Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Kane, commanding." 

132 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General Ewell, also, in his official report of the Valley campaign, 
speaks of them in the following highly complimentary language: 

"The history of the Maryland regiment, gallantly commanded 
hy Colonel Bradley T. Johnson, during the campaign of the Valley 
would be the history of every action from Front Royal to Cross Keys. 
On the 6th, near Harrisonburg, the Fifty-eighth Virginia regiment 
was engaged with the Pennsylvania Bucktails, the fighting being 
close and bloody. Colonel Johnson came up with his regiment in 
the hottest period, and, by a dashing charge in flank, drove the 
enemy off with heavy loss, capturing Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, 
commanding. In commemoration of this gallant conduct, I or- 
dered one of the captured bucktails to be appended, as a trophy, 
to their flag. The action is worthy of acknowledgment from a 
higher source, more particularly as they avenged the death of the 
gallant General Ashby, who fell at the same time. Four color- 
bearers were shot down in succession, but each time the colors 
-were caught before reaching the ground; and were finally borne 
by Corporal Daniel Shanks to the close of the action. On the 8th 
instant, at Cross Keys, they were opposed to three of the enemy's 
regiments in succession." 

The order of General Ewell, directing that one of the buck- 
tails captured by the regiment should be appended to their colors, 
is as follows: 

Headquarters Third Division. 
General Orders,! 
No. 30. i 

In commemoration of the gallant conduct of the First Maryland 
regiment on the 6th of June, when, led by Colonel Bradley T. 
Johnson, they drove back, with loss, the Pennsylvania Bucktail 
Rifles, in the engagement near Harrisonburg, Rockingham county, 
Va., authority is given to have one of the bucktails (the insignia of 
the 'Federal regiment) appended to the color-staff" of the First Ma- 
ryland regiment. 

By order of Major-General Ewell. 

James Barbour, 
Assistant Adjutant- Gowal. 

As soon as the Valley campaign was over the regiment was or- 
dered to Staunton, to muster out two companies whose term of 
service had expired, and to receive a new company. They had not 
been there long before they were ordered to again join the main 
army, and took an active part in the Seven Days' fights before 
Richmond; after which they went to Charlottesville; from thence 
to Gordonsville, where, in August, 1862, they were mustered out 
of the service, some of the men joining new infantry companies 


Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 133 

which were then forming, while others entered the cavalry and ar- 
tiller3\ The total length of service of the First regiment was four- 
teen to sixteen months. 


The Second Maryland infantry was organized in the fall of 1862, 
and numbered six companies. Two other companies joined them 
afterward, one in about two months and the other about a year 
after their organization. They were in service up to the surrender 
of General Lee at Appomattox. 

During the fall and winter of 1862-3 they were attached to 
General Jones' cavalry brigade, and were on duty in the Valley of 
Virginia; being constantly on the move, and made two very se- 
vere marches to Moorefield in West Virginia. In June, 1863, they 
joined General Early at Kernstown, and opened the battle at that 
point preparatory to attacking Winchester. That General, in his 
official report of the Gettysburg campaign, thus mentions this fact: 

"I found Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert, of the Maryland line, 
with his battalion of infantry, the battery of Maryland artillery, 
and a portion of the battalion of Maryland cavalry, occupying the 
ridge between Bartonsville and Kernstown, and engaged in occa- 
sional skirmishing with a portion of the enemy, who had taken 
position near Kernstown. * * * I ^ill here state that when 
our skirmishers had advanced to Bower's Hill, Major Goldsborough, 
of the Maryland battalion, with the skirmishers of the battalion 
had advanced into the outskirts of the town of Winchester ; but 
fearing that the enemy would shell the town from the main fort, I 
ordered him back. * * j niust also commend the gallantry of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert and Major Goldsborough, of the Mary- 
land line, and their troops." 

General Ewell also, in his official report of the Gettysburg cam- 
paign, gives additional evidence of the existence of the command. 
He says: "On the 13th, I sent Early's division and Colonel Brown's 
artillery battalion (under Captain Dance) to Newtown, on the 
Valley pike, where they were joined by the Maryland battalion of 
infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert, and the Baltimore light 
artillery. Captain Griffin." 

Immediately after the battle of Winchester, the Second Maryland 
joined General George H. Steuart's brigade, and took an active and 
distinguished part in the battle of Gettysburg, assisted in the cap- 
ture of the Federal breastworks at Gulp's Hill, which they held all 

134 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of the night of 2d July and a part of the next day, losing in killed 
and wounded during the engagement more than half their number. 

Again, at the battle of Cold Harbor, June 3d, 1864, they covered 
themselves with glory. On the afternoon of the day the fight took 
place General Lee telegraphed the Secretary of War as follows : 
" General Finnegan's brigade of Mahone's division and the Mary- 
land battalion of Breckinridge's command immediately drove the 
enemy out with severe loss." General Breckinridge also, in a letter 
dated January 6th, 1874, and published in Scharf's "Chronicles of 
Baltimore," thus mentions the Second Maryland's participation in 
the battle of Cold Harbor : " When I crossed over from the Shen- 
andoah Valley in May, 1864, and joined General Lee on the North 
Anna, near Hanover Junction, a battalion of Maryland infantry 
was sent to me, and it remained under my command until I re- 
turned to the Valley in the following month. It had seen rough 
service, and I think all the field officers were absent from disabling 
wounds. While with me it was commanded by Captain Crane. 
I had occasion to observe this battalion along the North Anna, on 
the Tottopotomy, and in a series of other engagements of greater or 
less importance, ending with the battle of Cold Harbor early in 
June, and I take pleasure in saying that its conduct throughout 
was not merely creditable, but distinguished. Not being incorpo- 
rated in any brigade, it came more frequently under my eye, and 
I presently fell into the habit of holding it in hand for occasions 
of special need. For instance, at Cold Harbor, where a point in 
my line was very weak, and was actually broken for a time by 
General Hancock's troops, the Maryland battalion and Finnegan's 
Florida brigade (the latter borrowed from General Hoke for the 
occasion) aided decisively to restore the situation, and behaved 
with the greatest intrepidity. * * Not in courage only, but also 
in discipline, tone and all soldierly qualities they were equal to any 
troops I saw during the war." 

The following appeared in the Richmond Sentinel a few days after 

the battle of Cold Harbor: 

Near Richmond, June 6th, 1864. 

Mr. Editor — The public have already been informed, through 
the columns of the public journals, of the great results of the late 
engagements between the forces of General Lee and General Grant; 
but they have not yet learned the particulars, which are always 
most interesting, and in some instances, owing to the confusion 
which generally attends large battles, they have been misinformed 
on some points. It is now known by the public that the enemy 

Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 135 

were momentarily successful in one of their assaults on the lines 
held by Major-General Breckinridge's division, which might have 
resulted in disaster to our cause. It will be interesting to all to 
know what turned disaster into victory, and converted a triumphant 
column into a flying rabble. The successful assault of the enemy 
was made under cover of darkness. Before the morning star had been 
hid by the light of the sun, they came gallantly forward in spite 
of a severe fire from General Echols' brigade, and in spite of the 
loss of many of their men who fell like autumn leaves, until the 
ground was almost blue and red with their uniforms and blood. 
They rushed in heavy masses over our breastworks. Our men, con- 
fused by the suddenness of the charge, and borne down by the 
rush of the enemy, retreated, and all now seemed to be lost. At 
this juncture the Second Maryland infantry, of Colonel Bradley T. 
Johnson's command, now in charge of Captain J. Parrar Crane, 
were roused from their sleep. Springing to their arms, they formed 
in a moment and, rushing gallantly forward, poured a deadly fire 
into the enemy and then charged bayonets. The enemy were, in 
turn, surprised at the suddenness and vim of this assault. They 
gave back, they became confused, and General Finnegan's forces 
coming up, they took to flight; but not until nearly a hundred 
men were stretched on the plain, from the fire of the Second Mary- 
land infantry, and many others captured. Lieutenant Charles B. 
Wise, of Company B, now took possession of the guns which had 
been abandoned by our forces, and with the assistance of some of 
his own men and some of General Finnegan's command, poured 
a deadly fire into the retreating column of the enemy. Thus was 
the tide of battle turned, and this disaster converted into a success. 
I am informed that the whole force of the enemy which came 
within our lines would have been captured, had it not been for the 
mistake of an officer who took the enemy for our own men and 
thus checked for a few moments the charge of the Second Mary- 
land infantry. I take pleasure in narrating these deeds of our 
Maryland brethren, and doubt not you will join in the feeling. 

A Virginian. 

The following letter from Brigadier-General William McComb 
will give a general outline of the history of the Second Maryland 
from Cold Harbor to Appomattox, and show the part they took in 
the closing scenes of our struggle for independence : 

GoRDONSViLLE, VIRGINIA, December 16, 1876. 
Mr. Lamar Hollyday : 

Dear Sir — I am glad to learn you propose writing an article 
for the Southern Historical Papers on the Maryland soldiers of 
the Confederate States Army. 

It affords me pleasure to give you some information of a command 
so worthy of notice in your article as the Second Maryland infantry. 

136 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The command reported for duty to the commanding officer of 
Archer's brigade, about the 20th June, 1864. General Archer at 
that time was a prisoner at Johnson's Island, and from exposure there 
contracted a disease which resulted in his death in the fall of 1864. 
In his death the writer lost one of his warmest friends, Maryland 
one of her most gallant sons, the brigade, the best commander it 
ever had, and the Confederacy, one of the bravest officers in the 
army — one competent to fill any position in the corps. He could 
see, decide and act with as much alacrity as any officer I ever knew. 
The writer had the honor of commanding the brigade the greater 
part of the time during his absence and sickness, and was pro- 
moted to take his place after his death, and consequently had a 
good opportunity of observing the conduct of the Second Maryland 
infantry. Many of the officers and men had been either killed or 
disabled before their connection with our brigade, and these officers 
were worthy of much praise for the thorough discipline the com- 
mand had received. The majority of the rank and file were gentle- 
men and had the pride necessary for making good soldiers. This 
was proven by their gallant conduct on many hard fought battle 
fields, as at " Squirel Level" the day the gallent General John 
Pegram was killed, and the morning the lines south of Petersburg 
were broken, particularly in the latter engagement, when over one- 
half of General Heth's division had been withdrawn from the line 
the day before to reinforce the line south of Hatcher's Run, leaving 
our soldiers deployed in the main works at about five paces ; yet 
even under these trying circumstances the Second Maryland and 
the Tennessee troops composing the brigade held every foot of line 
entrusted to them until they received orders to evacuate it. A part 
of said line was broken on the left, but was retaken in less than 
thirty minutes by the Second Maryland, First, Seventh and Four- 
teenth Tennessee regiments, and the writer is happy to say that 
when the order was given (by General Cooke, commanding the 
division) to retreat, there was not the least confusion, although 
the only means of escape was to swim the military dam on 
Hatcher's Run. The entire brigade (except those disabled) swam 
across or crossed on trees, and were ready for duty in the next en- 
gagement, and were ready to fight their way out at Appomattox 
- Courthouse if the word had been given ; but there, as elsewhere, 
they_were willing, as they ever had been, to obey to the letter every 
command given by our great and honored chief, Robert E. Lee. 
* * * * Trusting this communication may be of service to 
you, I remain, yours truly, 

William McComb. 

first maryland cavalry. 

The First Maryland cavalry was organized in November, 1862, 
with four companies, under the command of Major Ridgeiy Brown 
(afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel). Subsequently they were joined 

Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 137 

by three other companies. They served throughout the Avar with 
great honor, and after cutting their way through the Federal lines 
at Appomattox, finally disbanded about the 28th of April, 1865. 

The following letter from Brigadier-General Munford explains 

Clovekdale, Botetourt County. Virginia, 
April 28th, 18G5. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Dorsey, 

Commanding First Maryland Cavalry : 

I have just learned from Captain Emack that your gallant band 
was moving up the Valley in response to my call. I am deeply 
pained to say that our army cannot be reached, as I have learned 
that it has capitulated. It is sad, indeed, to think that our country's 
future is all shrouded in gloom. But for you and your command 
there is the consolation of having faithfully done your duty. 

Three years ago the chivalric Brown joined my old regiment 
with twenty-three Maryland volunteers, with light hearts and full 
of fight. I soon learned to admire, respect and love them for all 
those qualities which endear soldiers to their officers. They re- 
cruited rapidly, and as they increased in numbers, so did their re- 
putation and friends increase, and they were soon able to form a 
command and take a position of their own. Need T say, when I 
see that position so high and almost alone among soldiers, that my 
heart swells with pride to think that a record so bright and glorious 
is in some part linked with mine? Would that I could see the 
mothers and sisters of every member of your battalion, that I 
might tell them how nobly you have represented your State and 
maintained our cause. But you will not be forgotten; the fame 
you have won will be guarded by Virginia with all the pride she 
feels in her own true sons, and the ties which have linked us to- 
gether memory will preserve. You who struck the first blow in 
Baltimore, and the last in Virginia, have done all that could be asked 
of you, and had the rest of our officers and men adhered to our 
cause with the samedevotion, to-day we would be free from Yankee 
thraldom. I have ordered the brigade to return to their homes, 
and it behooves us now to separate. With my warmest wishes for 
your welfare, and a hearty God bless you, I bid you farewell. 

Thomas T. Munford, 
Brigadier- General commanding Division. 


The Second Maryland cavalry was organized in the spring of 
1863, under command of Major Harry Gilmore, with three com- 
panies, three more joining before the close of the war — making a 
total of six companies. 

138 Southern Historical Society Papers. 


The First Maryland Artillery was organized in the summer of 
1861, under command of Captain R. Snowden Andrews, and served 
during the whole war in the Army of Northern Virginia. After 
Captain Anderson was promoted, the battery was more generally 
known as "Dement's battery," Captain W. T. Dement being its 
commander. The following extract from General Ewell's official 
report of the Gettysburg campaign will show of what material this 
battery was composed : 

"Lieutenant C. S. Contee's section of Dement's battery was placed 
in short musket range of the enemy on the 15th June" (at Win- 
chester), "and maintained its position until thirteen of the sixteen 
men in the two detachments were killed and wounded, when Lieu- 
tenant John A. Morgan, of the First North Carolina regiment, and 
Lieutenant R. H. McKim, A. D. C. to Brigadier-General George H. 
Steuart, volunteered and helped to work the guns till the surrender 
of the enemy." 

The Second Maryland {'^Baltimore LigW^) Artillery was organized 
early in the fall of 1861, under the command of Captain J. B. 
Brockenborough, who was promoted to Major in September, 1862. 
After this Captain W. H. Griffin had command of it. They served 
in the Army of Northern Virginia to the close of the war, and were 
looked upon as one of the best batteries in the service. 

The Third Maryland Artillery was organized in January, 1862, at 
Richmond, Virginia, under command of Captain H. B. Latrobe. 
They were sent to the Western army, and served till the close of 
the war. They aided very materially in the capture of the iron- 
clad Federal steamer Indianola, on the Mississippi river. Major 
J. L. Brent, who commanded the expedition against the steamer, 
says, in his official report, a "detachment from the Third Maryland 
artillery were in the expedition, and acted with courage and discip- 
, line when under fire." 

The Fourth Maryland (" Chesapeake ") Artillery was organized in 
the spring of 1862, under command of Captain William Brown, 
who was killed at Gettysburg, after which Captain Chew took com- 
mand. They served in the Army of Northern Virginia, and took 
a prominent part in the gallant defence of Fort Gregg, near Peters- 
burg, an account of which is published in the January (1877) 
number of the Society Papers. 

Two-thirds of Breathed's battery were Mary landers, and it was 
generally spoken of as a Maryland command, but, as a gallant 
member of the battery says, they were glad to get any recruit 

Maryland Troops in the Confederate Service. 139 

"whose nerves were steady and head level." From returns in the 
Adjutant-General's office, Richmond, in the early part of 1863, 
there had been mustered into the service in all the States from 19,- 
000 to 21,000 citizens of Maryland. These facts were obtained from 
the office at that time by Major-General I. R. Trimble. From this 
time until the close of the war this number was being frequently 
added to. These men were all volunteers in the highest sense. The 
difficulties they had to encounter in running the blockade deterred 
many a stout heart from making the effort ; in fact, many who did 
make the attempt were captured by the Federal forces. At a very 
early period of the war Maryland was overrun with Federal soldiers, 
who guarded every avenue to the South, and it was a very hard 
matter to keep the "underground railway" in operation. Large 
sums were paid to get through — in some instances one hundred 
dollars and more. A party who was living in New York when the 
war broke out was one month in making his way from that city to 
Richmond ; for three days was hid in a swamp on the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland, sleeping at night in a potato hole or liouse dug 
in the ground, and finally, in the attempt to cross the Potomac 
river, was intercepted and shot at by some Yankees in a launch from 
a Federal gunboat. He however escaped and jeached the Virginia 
shore in safety, losing all his baggage, and the boat in which he 
crossed was captured. 

Many persons have said if the Marylanders were so anxious to 
enlist in the Confederate service, why did they not do so when 
General Lee's army was in their State. It must be remembered 
that the army only went into the western part of the State, which 
was to Maryland the same as West Virginia was to Virginia, there 
being a large Union element in both sections, and the Federal forces 
took special precaution to prevent recruits coming up from the 
balance of the State, where the devotion of the people to the Con- 
federate cause was undoubted, as evidenced by the large Federal 
force which was stationed there during the whole war to keep them 
in subjection. 

If all these facts are carefully looked at and well considered, it 
will be seen that Maryland did her duty as well as could have been 
expected ""with her surroundings, and as Mr. Jefferson Davis in 
a letter, published in " Scharfs Chronicles of Baltimore," says, " the 
world will accord to them peculiar credit, as it always has done to 
those who leave their hearthstones to fight for principle in the 
land of others." Lamar Hollyday. 

Baltimore, Maryland. 

140 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Comments on tlie First Yoliime of Count of Paris' Civil War in 


By General J. A. Early, 

[The following paper needs no editorial introduction, as evers^thing from 
the pen of this able military critic attracts attention, is read with interest, 
and is noted as of higli historic value. We trust that it will be followed by- 
papers from the same able pen on the succeeding volumes of the Count of 
Paris' histor}'.] 

History of the Civil War in America. By the Comte rte Paris. Translated, with the approval 
of the author, by Louis F. Taslstro. Edited by Henry Coppee, LL. D. Volume I. Phila- 
delphia : Joseph H. Coates &, Co. 1875. 

In reviewing the history of the regular army of the United 
States, the author, on page 24, volume I, makes the following state- 

"The cavalry, which was dishancled after the war of 1812, only 
dates, with the first regiment of dragoons, from the year 1832. The 
second was created in 1836, the third in 1846, as also the mounted 
rifiemen, which being formed solely to serve in the Mexican war, 
made the campaign on foot, notwithstanding their appellation of 
mounted riflemen. In 1855 Congress passed a law authorizing the 
formation of two new regiments of cavalry, and Mr. Jefferson 
Davis, then Secretary of War, took advantage of the fact that they 
had not been designated by the title of dragoons to treat them as a 
different arm, and to fill them with his creatures, to the exclusion 
of regular officers whom he disliked." 

It was the third dragoons which was formed to serve only during 
the Mexican war, and that regiment was disbanded at the close of 
that war. The "mounted rifles," though formed about the same 
time, was formed as a permanent legiment, and was continued in 
the service, with that distinctive appellation, until August the 3d, 
1861, when it was designated the "third cavalry." The three 
mounted regiments, therefore, in the service in 1855, when the first 
and second cavalry were formed, were the first and second dra- 
goons and the mounted rifles. By the act of Congress of August 
3d, 1861, the first and second dragoons were designated respectively 
the first and second cavalry, the mounted rifles the third cavalry, 
and the first and second cavalry respectively the fourth and fifth 

The term "cavaliy," in common parlance, includes all mounted 
troops, but in military phrase "dragoons," "mounted rifles" and 
"cavalry" originally constituted different arms of the service, be- 

Comments on Count of Pa7'iii^ Civil War in America. 141 

cause they were armed differently — dragoons, with muskets and 
sabres, to serve on foot or on horseback, as occasion might require; 
mounted riflemen, with rifles, to move on horseback with celerity, 
but really to serve on foot in action ; and cavalry, with sabres and 
pistols — or short carbines — to serve on horseback in action and in 
the pursuit. Such was the case when the two regiments of dra- 
goons, the mounted rifle regiment and the two cavalry regiments 
were respectively organized. The modern improvements in fire- 
arms, and especially the introduction of breech-loaders, have ren- 
dered useless the distinction between the different kinds of mounted 
troops, as they have destroyed the distinction between heavy and 
light infantry and riflemen serving on foot. When, therefore, the 
two regiments of cavalry were formed in 1855, they were really 
formed as and intended to be a distinctive arm of the service. 

The statement that Mr. Davis, as Secretary of War in 1855, filled 
the new regiments of cavalry "with his creatures,,^'' is, perhaps, a 
mistranslation of the phrase in the original French. The term 
■"creatures," as used in the translation, would be generally accepted 
by all English-speaking people as a term of reproach, indicating 
that the persons appointed by Mr. Davis were his dependents, syco- 
phants and parasites — men who had no claim to respect themselves, 
but were subject to his will and control. To speak of a man as 
the creature of the Almighty Creator conveys no reproach, but to 
call him the creature of another man, is to apply to him one of the 
most opprobrious epithets in the English language. It is therefore 
probable that the translator, in rendering the French phrase into 
English, while giving the literal version, has failed to observe the 
diflference between the idiom of the two languages. It is presumed 
that the idea intended to be conveyed by the author was, that the 
■appointees of Mr. Davis were of his own selection; for it is hardly 
to be supposed that he intended to intimate that such men as 
■Generals George B. McClellan, Edwin V. Sumner, Wm. H. Emory, 
John Sedgwick and George H. Thomas, of the Federal army, and 
Generals Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. John- 
.ston, Wm. J. Hardee and J. E. B. Stuart, of the Confederate army, 
all of whom were among the original appointees to the two regi- 
ments of cavalry organized in 1855, were the creatures of Mr. Jef- 
ferson Davis, in the sense in which that term would be understood 
by Englishmen and Americans. 

The idea that Mr. Davis, in filling the appointments for the new 
regiments, was influenced by dislike of the officers of the regular 

142 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

army, is a novel one. The complaint against him as President of 
the Confederacy was quite common, that in his appointments to 
the army he was too much influenced by his partiality for the 
officers of the old army, and especially for the graduates of West 

When the first dragoons was organized in 1833 (not 1832), a ci- 
vilian, who had served with distinction as colonel of the regi- 
ment of "Mounted Rangers," formed for service in the Black Hawk 
war, was made its colonel, and all the other officers were appointed 
by selection, a considerable number being taken from civil life. 
When the second dragoons was formed in 1836, the lieutenant-col- 
onel was taken from the pay department, and the major, and 
nearly, if not quite all of the company officers were taken from 
civil life. In the case of the eighth infantry, formed in 1838, the 
colonel was appointed by selection, and perhaps the most of the 
other officers by promotion from the other infantry regiments ; and 
this is the sole case in the history of the United States army in 
which the appointments to a new regiment were made entirely 
from among the officers already in service. When the mounted 
rifles was formed in 1846, the colonel and most of the other officers 
were civilians, many of whom had come into service in the Mexi- 
can war as officers of volunteers. 

When the two regiments of cavalry were authorized to be formed 
in 1855, it was with the understanding that all the field officers 
and one-half of the company officers should be taken from the 
army, while the other half of the company officers should be taken 
from civil life. This arrangement was probably adopted in order 
to propitiate the politicians, and insure the passage of the bill 
through Congress. The power and duty of making the appoint- 
ments in fact devolved on Mr. Pierce, the then President, but he 
no doubt entrusted to Mr. Davis, an educated and experienced sol- 
dier, the task of making the selections from the army. How he 
performed that task will be seen from the following list of his ap- 
pointees who bore a part in the late war: 

First Cavalry. 

Colonel — 

Edwin V. Sumner, Major-General Volunteers, United States army, 
commanding corps in the Army of the Potomac. 

Lieutenant- Colonel — 

Joseph E. Johnston, General Confederate States army. 

Comments on Count of Paris' Civil War in America. 143 

Majors — 

Wm. H. Emory, Major-General Volunteers and corps commander 

United States army. 
John Sedgwick, Major-General Volunteers and corps commander 

Army of Potomac. 

Captains — 

Delos B. Sackett, Inspector-General United States army. 
Thomas J. Wood, Major-General Volunteers, United States army. 
George B. McClellan, Major-General commanding United States 

army and Army of the Potomac. 
Samuel D. Sturgis, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 

*Wm. D. DeSaussure, Colonel Confederate States army. 
*Wm. S. Walker, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
*George T. Anderson, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
Robert S. Garnett, Brigadier-General Confederate States army — 

killed in action. 

First Lieutenants — 

Wm. N. R. Beale, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
George H. Steuart, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
James Mcintosh, Brigadier-General Confederate States army — 

killed in action. 
Robert Ransom, Major-General Confederate States army. 
Eugene A. Carr, Brigadier- General Volunteers, United States army. 
*Alfred Iverson, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
*Frank Wheaton, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 


Second Lieutenants — 

David S. Stanley, Major-General Volunteers, United States army. 
James E. B. Stuart, Major- General Confederate States army — mor- 
tally wounded in action. 
Elmer Otis, Major First Cavalry and Colonel by brevet, United 

States army. 
James B. Mclntyre, Major Third Cavalry and Colonel by brevet. 

United States army. 
*Eugene W. Crittenden, Major Fifth Cavalry, United States army. 
tAlbert V. Colburn, Lieutenant-Colonel on staff of General 

fFrancis L. Vinton, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 

fGeorge D. Bayard, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 

army — killed in action. 
fL. L., Major-General Confederate States army, 
t Joseph H. Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel and A. A. General United 

States army. 

144 Southern Iliswrical Society Papers. 

Second Cavalry. 
Colonel — 

Albert Sidney Johnston, General Confederate State army — killed 
in battle. 

Lieutenant- Colonel — 

Eobert E. Lee, General Confederate States army. 

Majors — 

Wm. J. Hardee, Lieutenant-General Confederate States arm3^ 
George H. Thomas, Major-General United States army, command- 
ing the Army of the Cumberland and Department of Ten- 

Captains — 

Earl Van Dorn, Major-General Confederate States array. 
Edmund Kirby Smith, General Confederate States army. 
James Oakes, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States army. 
Innis N. Palmer, Major-General Volunteers, United States army. 
George Stoneman, Major-General Volunteers, United States army. 
*Albert G. Brackett, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry and Col- 
onel by brevet. United States army. 
;{;Charles J. Whiting, Major Second Cavalry, United States army. 

First Lieutenants — 

Nathan G. Evans, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
Richard W. Johnson, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 

Joseph H. McArthur, Major Third Cavalry United States army. 
Charles W. Field, Major-General Confederate States army. 
Kenner Gerrard, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States army. 
*Walter H. Jenifer, Colonel Confederate States army. 
*Wm. B. Royall, Major Fifth Cavalry, Colonel by brevet, United 

States army. 

Second Lieutenants — 

George B. Cosby, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
William W. Lowe, Brigadier-General Volunteers, United States 

John B. Hood, General Confederate States army. 
^Junius B. Wheeler, Major Engineers and Professor of Engineering 

and the Science of War at West Point. 
fA. Parker Porter, Lieutenant-Colonel of staff, United States army. 
■fWesley Owens, Lieutenant-Colonel of staff. United States army, 
t James P. Major, Brigadier-General Confederate States army. 
fFitzhugh Lee, Major-General Confederate States army. 

(Those marked with * taken from civil life — with f graduates of 

Comments on Count of Paris' Civil War in America. 145 

West Point 1855 and 1856— with ;{; formerly in the army, but taken 
from civil life ; all the others taken from the army.) 

These two regiments, from the appointments made during Mr. 
Davis' administration of the War Department, furnished to the 
United States army during the war — 
9 Major-Generals, 
9 Brigadier-Generals, 
1 Inspector-General, and 
12 Field and staff officers. 

31 in all. 

Among the major-generals was one commander-in-chief of the 
army, and afterwards of the Army of the Potomac; one commander 
of an army in Tennessee, and three corps commanders. 

They furnished to the Confederate army — 

5 Full Generals, 

1 Lieutenant-General, 

6 Major-Generals, 

10 Brigadier-Generals, and 

2 Colonels. 

24 in all. 

There were three lieutenants — P. Stockton and J. R. Church, 
first cavalry, and J. T. Sharf, second cavalry — in Confederate States 
army, but there is no record of their rank, probably on the staff. 

In addition, the following persons appointed second lieutenants 
declined, preferring to remain in other branches of the service : 

George B. Anderson, Brigadier-General Confederate States army — 
mortally wounded in battle; N. Bowman Switzer, Colonel Volun- 
teers, United States Army, now Major Second Cavalry and Briga- 
dier-General by brevet. 

Does the whole army besides, as it was at the beginning of the 
war, present such a brilliant record as that presented by Mr. Davis' 
appointees to the first and second cavalry ? 

It is very manifest that, in performing the duty assigned him, 
Mr. Davis filled those two regiments with officers of the very best 
military talent that the army afforded. 

And of his appointees, there are at present in the United States 

army : 

On the retired list — 

Thomas J. Wood, as Major-General. 
Oeorge Stoneman, as Major-General. 
Richard W. Johnson, as Major-General. 
Joseph H. McArthur, as Major. 

146 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

In active service — 

D. B. Sackett, Colonel and Inspector-General. 

J. N. Palmer, Colonel Second Cavalry, and Brigadier-General by 

William. H. Emory, Colonel Fifth Cavalry, and Major-General by 

James Oakes, Colonel Sixth Cavalry, and Brigadier-General by 

S. D. Sturgis, Colonel Seventh Cavalry, and Major-General by 

Frank Wheaton, Colonel Second Infantry, and Major-General by 


D. S. Stanley, Colonel Twenty-second Infantry, and Major-General 

by brevet. 
A. G. Brackett, Lieutenant-Colonel Second Cavalry, and Colonel by 

E. A. Carr, Lieutenant-Colonel Fifth Cavalry, and Major-General 

by brevet. 
Elmer Otis, Major First Cavalry, and Colonel by brevet. 
William B. Royall, Major Fifth Cavalry, and Colonel by brevet. 
Joseph H. Taylor, Major, Adjutant General's Department, and 

Colonel by brevet. 
Junius B. Wheeler, Professor of Engineering and Sciences of War 

at West Point, Colonel by brevet. 

The foregoing exposition shows how unjust, both to Mr. Davis 
and the officers appointed at his instance, is the stricture contained 
in the extract from the book of the Comte de Paris, taken in its 
very mildest form. If the passage in French imports what the 
English translation does, then it is apparent that the Comte has 
been the victim of a shameful imposition by his informant, or he 
has been exceedingly careless in ascertaining his facts and most 
reckless in his assertions. 

On page 73, the author, in speaking of the employment of the 
army on the frontier at the commencement of secession, says : 
" It was in the midst of this active and instructive life that the 
news of the disruption of the Union reached the American army. 
The perfidious foresight of the late Secretary of War, Mr. Floyd J 
had removed the whole of this army far from the States, while his I 
accomplices in the South were preparing to rise against the Fede- 
ral authority. The soldiers had been honored with the belief that 
they would remain faithful to their flag. Under a multitude of 
pretexts, the Federal forts and arsenals had been dismantled by 
the very men whose first duty was to watch over the general inte- 
rests of the nation; and the garrisons which had been withdrawn! 


Comments on Count of Paris^ Civil War in America. 147 

from them, to be scattered over Texas, had been placed under the 
command of an officer who seemed to have been onl}' selected for 
the purpose of betraying them." 

In the chapter on " The Federal Volunteers," page 187, he says : 
" The Federal Government, therefore, was required by law to arm 
and equip the volunteers; but, as it stood in need of everything 
at the moment when all had to be created at once — as its arsenals, 
which would have been insufficient for the emergency even if well 
supplied, had been plundered by the instigators of rebellion, and 
could not even furnish a musket, a coat, or a pair of shoes for the 
improvised defenders — most of the States themselves undertook to 
furnish those outfits for troops which they raised." 

In the chapter on "The Material of War," pages 307-8, he says: 
"The Confederate Government could not count upon the industry 
and commerce of the Rebel States to supply its troops with provi- 
sions, equipments and arms to the same extent as its adversary. 
But at the outset of the war they possessed a very great advan- 
tage. As we have stated elsewhere, Mr. Floyd, Secretary of War 
under President Buchanan, had taken care, a few weeks before the 
insurrection broke out, to send to the South all the arms which the 
Government possessed. He thus forwarded one hundred and fif- 
teen thousand muskets, which, being added to those already in the 
arsenals of Charleston, Fayetteville, Augusta, Mount Vernon, Baton 
Rouge, etc., secured a complete armament for the Confederate 
armies of superior quality." 

Here again the author manifests the exceeding carelessness he 
has exhibited in ascertaining his facts. 

The army of the United States had always been very small in 
time of peace, and after 1855, up to the beginning of the war, con- 
sisted of only eight regiments of infantry, four regiments of artiL 
lery, and five mounted regiments, numbering about ten or eleven 
thousand men in all. The great bulk of that army had been em- 
ployed on the Western frontier as a protection against the Indians 
from time immemorial, and Governor Floyd, as Secretary of War, 
made no change in the policy of the Government in that respect. 
General Twiggs, the officer alluded to as having been selected for 
the purpose of betraying the troops placed under him, had been 
on frontier duty during the greater part of his military life, and 
had been in command in Texas from a period dating long before 
secession was contemplated. The troops under him that are rep- 
resented as having been withdrawn from the Federal forts and ar- 

148 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

senals, to' be scattered over Texas, consisted mainly of the Second 
cavahy, which had been in Texas since 1856 — very shortly after 
its organization. If the author had taken the trouble to look at 
Mr. Buchanan's message to Congress, of January 8th, 1861, he 
would have found in reference to the capture of the forts and arse- 
nals in some of the Southern States this statement: "This pro- 
perty has long been left without garrisons and troops for its protec- 
tion, because no person doubted its security under the flag of the 
country in any State of the Union. Besides, our small army has 
scarcely been sufficient to guard our remote frontier against Indian 
incursions." The truth of these statements of Mr. Buchanan were 
of easy verification, if the author had taken the trouble to make 
the proper inquiries before making such grave charges as he has 
recorded in a work in which he claims to have observed "the 
strictest impartiality." 

He has also recorded as historical facts the absurd statements of 
unscrupulous partizans, made for the purpose of inflaming the 
passions of the Northern populace, that the arsenals had been 
plundered of all the arms belonging to the Government by Gover- 
nor Floyd, and that said arms had been sent South. He says " he 
has examined with equal care the documents that have emanated 
from both parties." If this be true, then it follows, in reference to 
this subject of the removal of arms, that he has given very little 
attention to what has emanated from either party. He has en- 
tirely overlooked two reports made by Mr. Benjamin Stanton, 
of Ohio, Chairman of the Committee on Military Aflairs, to the 
House of Representatives, one on the 9th of January, 1861, and 
the other on the 16th of February, 1861, disproving of the charges 
that were made in regard to the sending of arnre South for the 
purpose of aiding the Secessionists. The majority of the House 
of Representatives was then Republican, with a Republican 
Speaker, and Mr. Stanton and a majority of his committee were 
Republicans, and of course with no bias to induce them to mis- 
state the facts to screen Governor Floyd. 

From those reports, and the evidence accompanying them, it ap- 
pears that the United States had on hand in its arsenals at the 
North — mostly at Springfield — 499,554 muskets of the old percus-^ 
sion and flint-lock patterns, and under orders given by Governor 
Floyd in December, 1859 — several months before Mr. Lincoln was| 
nominated, and when the Democratic party was confident of car- 
rying the next presidential election — 105,000 of these muskets were 

Comments on Count of Paris' Civil War in America. 149 

removed to arsenals in the South, which were comparatively empty, 
and at the same time there were removed to the same arsenals 
10,000 old percussion rifles. These constituted the 115,000 muskets 
which the author says "secured a complete armament for the Con- 
federate armies of superior quality," and left the Federal Govern- 
ment "in need of everything at the moment when all had to be 
created at once," though there was still about 400,000 of the same 
kind of arms left in Northern arsenals. It also appears that in 
1860, under the law for arming the militia, 8,423 muskets and 
1,728 long-range rifles were distributed among the States, and the 
Southern States received of the muskets 2,091, and of the rifles 
758, making 2,849 in the aggregate, though of the States which 
were among the first to secede several received none of either 
kind of arms. Mr. Stanton, in his report, says: "There are a good 
deal of rumors, and speculations, and misapprehensions, as to the 
true state of facts in regard to this matter." 

It does not appear that any cannon were sent South by Governor 
Floyd, but it appears that about the 20th of December, 1860, he 
gave orders for the guns necessary for the armament of the forts 
on Ship Island and at Galveston to be sent to these forts. The 
orders were, however, countermanded by his successor before they 
were carried into effect or a single gun had been sent. 

The author has very probably adopted as true some statements 
of General Scott's, made after he had become a dotard, though it 
is not believed that even he went to the extent of asserting that 
the United States had not "a musket, a coat,. or a pair of shoes for 
the improvised defenders." 

If the United States did not have arms to issue to the volunteers, 
and the States h^d to furnish them, where did the latter get them 
from ? None of the States had any manufactory of arms, and if 
they had to buy them, was their credit any better than that of the 
Federal Government? The statement of the author in regard to 
the inability of the Federal Government to furnish a musket to its 
defenders, is calculated to provoke a smile even from General 
Sherman, who has commended the book for "its spirit of fairness 
and candor." 

That the Federal army, at the first battle of Manassas, was far 
better armed and equipped than the Confederate army which it 
encountered, is a proposition that does not admit of dispute. The 
former army had a portion of its troops armed with minnie mus- 
kets and long-range rifles, while its artillery was more numerous 

150 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and of much better quality than ours. The Confederate troops at 
that battle were armed almost entirely with smooth-bore muskets, 
most of which had been altered to percussion from flint locks, 
though, perhaps, there were a few rifles that had been rescued 
from the flames at Harper's Ferry. All of the artillery used there 
by us, except a few guns brought by the Washington Artillery 
from New Orleans, was furnished by Virginia, and consisted 
mainly of the old-fashioned iron smooth-bore six-pounders, for 
which caissons had to be improvised by using the wheels and beds 
of ordinary wagons. The greater portion, if not all of the per- 
cussion caps used by us in the battle, had been manufactured with 
a machine procured and put in operation in Richmond, by the 
Chief of Ordnance of Virginia, after the secession of that State. 
The duty had been devolved on me to organize and arm the Vir- 
ginia troops mustered into the service at Lynchburg, and I there 
organized, armed and sent to Manassas two regiments of infantry 
and one of cavalry, besides several companies of infantry that 
were sent to other regiments. The infantry was armed with muskets, 
without cartridge boxes, bayonet scabbards or belts, and the cavalry 
was armed partly with double-barrel shot guns, collected from the 
surrounding country, and partly with old flint-lock horseman 
pistols, which were altered to percussion under my orders, while 
the only sabres that could be procured for the men consisted of a 
variety of old patterns of that weapon collected from some com- 
panies belonging to former militia organizations. Upon applica- 
tion to the Confederate Ordnance Department at Richmond, I 
found that it had neither cartridge-boxes, &c., nor cavalry arms to 
furnish to me. Cartridge-boxes, belts and bayonet scabbards were 
not issued to my own regiment until a day or tw6 before the en- 
gagement at Blackburn's ford, on the 18th of July, and they were 
issued to a part of the regiment on the morning of that day, hav- 
ing been manufactured subsequent to the arrival of the regiment 
at Manassas. 

If about such facts as those referred to in tlie extracts given and 
commented on — to wit: the character of the appointments made by 
Mr. Davis to the two regiments of cavalry in 1855, the purpose of 
the employment of the troops on the Western frontier in 1860, the 
sending of arms to the South, and the relative state of preparation 
of the two governments for the war — the author is so much at fault, 
when the evidence to disprove all his statements was easily at- 
tainable, how can we expect him to arrive at correct conclusions 

Comments on Chant of Paris' Civil War in America. 151 

when he treats of the points in dispute in regard to the merits of 
the controversy tliat led to the war, or in regard to the events of 
the war itself ? 

Notwithstanding his own declaration that " he has endeavored 
to preserve throughout his narrative the strictest impartiality," 
and that of the editor of the English version of his book, that "he 
has produced a book displaying careful research, cool judgment, 
and a manifest purpose to be just to all," it is very apparent that 
he has adopted as his own the extreme views of the most embit- 
tered of the Northern Radical Republicans in regard to the South- 
ern people, the character of the government framed by the authors 
of the Constitution, the merits of the controversy that led to the 
war, and the events of that war, so far as he has undertaken to re- 
late them. 

Upon the subject of slavery, he has formed his opinions as to 
the character and conduct of the slaveholders and the condition of 
the slaves, from the work of fiction entitled "Uncle Tom's Cabin," 
by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, that literary ghoul who has 
shocked the moral sense of all decent people in England and 
America by exhuming and gloating over that horrible story about 
Byron and his sister, which, even if true, should have been allowed 
to rest in that oblivion into which it had sunk; and the diary of 
Fanny Kimble, the actress, who, in order to vent her spleen upon 
the husband from whom she had parted, undertook to calumniate 
the people among whom he had been born. The Comte de Paris 
adopts without question the statements of these two female writers, 
one of whom knew nothing and the other very little of the practi- 
cal operation of slavery in the South ; but he gives no considera- 
tion to such testimony as the published letters of Miss Murray, an 
English lady of real refinement and culture— once Maid of Honor 
to Queen Victoria, who visited the United States with strong pre- 
judices against slavery, but, after a sojourn of some months on 
Southern plantations, changed her views, and gave an account of 
the physical and moral condition of the slaves entirely different 
from that given by Mrs. Stowe and Miss Fanny Kimble. 

Considering the source from which he seems generally to have 
obtained the facts whereon to base his opinions, it is not a matter 
of much surprise that his book should contain such passages as 
the following: "It will thus be seen that the States which de- 
fended the Union in 1S61 are those that had made the greatest 
sacrifices to establish it, while those that raised the standard of 

152 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

rebellion against it are also those that had the least right to call 
themselves its founders." Page 7. 

In speaking of the slave of a good master, he says: "In short, 
his owner will take care of him, will not impose any labor above 
his strength, and will administer to his material wants in a satis- 
factory manner, precisely as he will do for the animals that are 
working by his side mider one common lash. But, in order that 
he may enjoy this pretended good fortune, he has to be reduced to 
the moral level of his fellow-slaves and have the light of intelli- 
gence within him extinguished forever; for if he carries that divine 
spark in his bosom he will be unhappy, for he will feel that he is 
a slave." Page 80. 

If the Comte de Paris really believes that this picture represents 
the true condition of the negro slave, under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, what must he think of his Northern friends, who in 
March, 1867, less than two years after the abolition of slavery by 
the result of the war, enacted the Reconstruction Laws, by which 
they disfranchised a large portion of the white people of the South, 
and that the most experienced and intelligent, and conferred suf- 
frage on the recently emancipated slaves — by which the latter were 
entrusted with the formation of constitutions and governments for 
all the Southern States? What does he think of the fact that some 
of those emancipated slaves, within whom "the light of intelli- 
gence " had been " extinguished forever," have even occupied seats 
•in the House of Representatives and in the Senate of the United 
States? Nay, what can he think of the further fact, that the votes 
of the negroes of South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana (where 
they are certainly more ignorant and depraved than in other part 
of the South), as ascertained and declared by certain returning 
boards, composed in one case of half negroes, have recently settled 
the question of the election of a President of the United States, 
against a majority of at least one million of the white votes of the 
country ? 

Either he must be mistaken in his estimate of the effects of 
slavery on the negro's mental and moral faculties, or the people 
whom he so admires, and whom he exalts so far above the people of 
the South in refinement, morals, education, intelligence and civili- 
zation, must be the most unmitigated villains in this wicked world 
of ours. 

In speaking of the classes into which he alleges slavery divided 
the people of the South, he says of the class which he designates 

Comments on Count of Pans' Civil War in America. 15(> 

as "common whites": "This was the jplebs romana, the crowds of 
clients who parade with ostentation the title of citizen, and only- 
exercise its privilege in blind subserviency to the great slave- 
holders, who were the real masters of the country. If slavery had 
not existed in their midst, they would have been workers and 
tillers of the soil, and might have become farmers and small pro- 
prietors. But the more their poverty draws them nearer to the 
inferior class of slaves, the more anxious are they to keep apart 
from them, and they spurn work in order to set off more ostenta- 
tiously their qualities of freemen." Page 87. 

Eeally it is hard to conceive from what source the Comte could 
have derived this information. The census of 1860 shows that in 
all the slave States, except South Carolina and Mississippi, the 
white population exceeded not only the slaves, but the entire col- 
ored population, and in some of them very largely — the white 
population in the eleven States that regularly seceded being 
5,447,199, the free colored 132,760, and the slaves 3,521,110, while 
in Kentucky and Missouri the white population was from four to 
eight times the number of slaves. Now it is well known that the 
slaveholders constituted a very small minority of the white popu- 
lation. How was it, then, that the non-slaveholding whites sub- 
sisted at all, if they owned no land and would not work ? Does 
the Comte mean to intimate that the large slaveholders fed and 
clothed all the whites who were not slaveholders? And yet his 
American editor says: "In a large and philosophic view of Ameri- 
can institutions he has rivalled DeTocqueville." 

To point out all the numerous errors of opinion, speculation and 
fact contained in the published volume of his "History," would 
be an interminable task, and I will close my notice of the author's 
mistakes by calling attention to one more statement on pages 
141-2. He says: "The seceders on their side had not lost a mo- 
ment in Virginia. They were in possession of Richmond when 
the convention was in session; they surrounded it, threatening 
their opponents with death, and extorted from it the ordinance of 
secession, which, however, was passed by a vote of only eighty- 
eight to fifty-five." 

I was a member of the Virginia Convention which adopted the 
ordinance of secession, and voted against its passage; and this is 
the first that I have ever learned of the convention having been 
surrounded by the secessionists, or of the extortion of the ordinance 
from it by threats of death or of any other violence. That ordi- 


154 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

nance was extorted from the convention, however, but it was by 
the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln, and his threat of a war of 
coercion in the seceded States — a war that the great bulk of the 
opponents of secession in the convention believed to be unwar- 
ranted by the constitution. 

The Comte de Paris, in a letter to his American publishers, 
which immediately follows his preface, says : 

"I trust that my account of these great events will, at least, not 
provoke a too bitter controversy; for if I have been obliged to 
judge and censure, I have done so without any personal or partial 
feeling against any one, with a sincere respect for truth and a keen 
sense of the responsibility which I assumed." 

I am disposed to give him credit for entire sincerity in this dec- 
laration, but I must be permitted to say that the most embittered 
partizan of the North could not have done greater injustice to the 
South, in a statement of the causes that led to the late war, than 
he has done in the part of his history that has been published. 

As his book contains statements about the people of the South 
that I know to be entirely without foundation, and that every can- 
did man, even at the North, would declare to be so, and as he has 
also made strictures upon the character of the Southern people, 
their cause and their conduct, that are exceedingly harsh and un- 
just, he must pardon me for saying that it is very apparent that he 
has not had access to truthful sources of information, or, if he has 
had access to such sources, he has turned from them to adopt as 
his conclusions the most unfounded slanders of our bitterest and 
most prejudiced enemies. If he desires to continue his "History 
of the Civil War in America," and to produce a work of real his- 
toric value, he had better consign to the flames all that he has so 
far published, and begin his task de novo, after devoting his atten- 
tion to a thorough investigation of the history of the American 
people, the character of their governments — State and Federal — the 
causes that led to the late conflict, and the events that attended 
that conflict; for it is impossible to eliminate from the first part of 
his work the innumerable errors which it contains without writing 
the whole over again. If he should succeed better with his future 
volumes, and make them accurate, to attach them to the first 
would present a most incongruous conjunction of truth and error. 

J. A. Early. 

The Last Confederate Surrender. 155 

The Last Confederate Surrender. 

By Lt.-Geu. Richard Taylor. 

[The following is one of a series of "chapters of unwritten liistory*' now- 
being published in the Philadelphia Weekly Times. Our readers will thank 
lis for republishing this paper of our distinguished soldier.] 

To write an impartial and unprejudiced account of exciting con- 
temporary events has always been a difficult task. More especi- 
ally is this true of civil strife, which, like all "family jars," evolves 
a peculiar flavor of bitterness. But slight sketches of minor inci- 
dents, by actors and eye-witnesses, may prove of service to the fu- 
ture writer, who undertakes the more ambitious and severe duty 
of historian. The following '"memoir pour servir" has this object: 

In the summer of 1SG4, after the close of the Red river cam- 
paign, I was ordered to cross the Mississippi and report my arrival 
on the east bank by telegraph to Richmond. All the fortified posts 
on the river were held by the Federals, and the intermediate por- 
tions of the stream closely guarded by gunboats to impede and, as 
far as possible, prevent passage. This delayed the transmission of 
the order above-mentioned until August, when I crossed at a point 
just above the mouth of the Red river. On a dark night, in a 
small canoe, with horses swimming alongside, I got over without 
attracting the attention of a gunboat anchored a short distance be- 
low. Woodville, Wilkinson county, Mississippi, was the nearest 
place in telegraphic communication with Richmond. Here, in re- 
ply to a dispatch to Richmond, I was directed to assume command 
of the Department of Alabama, Mississippi, etc., with headquarters 
at Meridian, Mississippi, and informed that President Davis would, 
at an early day, meet me at Montgomery, Alabama. The military 
situation was as follows: Sherman occupied Atlanta, Hood lying 
some distance to the southwest; Farragut had forced the defences 
of Mobile bay, capturing Fort Morgan, etc., and the Federals held 
Pensacola, but had made no movement into the interior. 


Major-General Maury commanded the Confederate forces garri- 
soning Mobile and adjacent works, with Commodore Farrand, Con- 
federate Navy, in charge of several armed vessels. Small bodies of 
troops were stationed at different points through the department, 
and Major-General Forrest, with his division of cavalry, was in 
northeast Mississippi. Directing this latter officer to move his 
command across the Tennessee river, and use every effort to inter- 
rupt Sherman's communications south of Nashville, I proceeded 
to Mobile to inspect the fortifications; thence to Montgomery, to 
meet President Davis. The interview extended over many hoiirs, 
and the military situation was freely discussed. Our next meeting 

156 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

was at Fortress Monroe, where, during his confinement, I obtained 
permission to visit him. The closing scenes of the great drama 
succeeded each other with startling rapidity. Sherman marched, 
unopposed, to the sea. Hood was driven from Nashville across 
the Tennessee, and asked to be relieved. Assigned to this duty I 
met him near Tupelo, North Mississippi, and witnessed the melan- 
choly spectacle presented by a retreating army. Guns, small arms 
and accoutrements lost, men without shoes or blankets, and this in 
a winter of unusual severity for that latitude. Making every effort 
to re-equip this force, I suggested to General Lee, then command- 
ing all the armies of the Confederacy, that it should be moved to 
the Carolinas, to interpose between Sherman's advance and his 
(Lee's) lines of supply, and, in the last necessity, of retreat. The' 
suggestion was adopted, and this force so moved. General WilsoUy 
with a well appointed and ably led command of Federal cavalry, 
moved rapidly through North Alabama, seized Selma, and turning 
east to Montgomery, continued into Georgia. 

General Canby, commanding the Union armies in the Southwest, 
advanced up the Eastern shore of Mobile bay, and invested Span- 
ish fort and Blakely, important Confederate works in that quarter. 
After repulsing an assault, General Maury, in accordance with in- 
structions, withdrew his garrisons in the night to Mobile, and then 
evacuated the cit}^ falling back to Meridian, on the line of the 
Mobile and Ohio railway. General Forrest was drawn in to the 
same point, and the little army, less than eight thousand of all 
arms, held in readiness to discharge such duties as the waning for- 
tunes of the "cause" and the honor of its arms might demand. 


Intelligence of Lee's surrender reached us. Staff officers from 
Johnston and Sherman came across the country to inform Canby 
and myself of their "convention." Whereupon, an interview was 
arranged between us to determine a course of action, and a place 
selected ten miles north of Mobile, near the railway. Accompanied 
by a staff officer, Colonel William M. Levy (now a member of 
Congress from Louisiana), and making use of a "hand car," I 
reached the appointed spot, and found General Canby with a large 
escort, and many staff and other officers. Among these I recog- 
nized some old friends, notably General Canby himself and Admi- 
ral James Palmer. All extended cordial greetings. A few mo- 
ments of private conversation with Canby led to the establishment 
of a truce, to await further intelligence from the North. Forty- 
eight hours' notice was to be given by the party desiring to termi- 
nate the truce. We then joined the throng of officers, and although 
every one present felt a deep conviction that the last hour of the 
sad struggle approached, no allusion was made to it. Subjects, 
awakening memories of the past, when all were sons of a loved, 
united country, were, as by the natural selection of good breeding, 
chosen. A bountiful luncheon was soon spread, and I was invited 

The Last Confederate Surrender. 157 

to partake of patis, champagne-frappe, and other "delights," which 
to me had long been as lost arts. As we took our seats at table, a 
military band in attendance commenced playing "Hail Columbia." 
Excusing himself. General Canby walked to the door. The music 
ceased for a moment, and then the strain of " Dixie " was heard. 
Old Froissart records no gentler act of " courtesie." Warmly 
thanking General Canby for his delicate consideration, I asked for 
*'Hail Columbia," and proposed we should unite in the hope that 
our Columbia would soon be, once more, a happy land. This and 
other kindred sentiments were duly honored in "frapi)e," and after 
much pleasant intercourse, the party separated. 


The succeeding hours were filled with a grave responsibility, 
which could not be evaded or shared. Circumstances had appointed 
me to watch the dying agonies of a cause that had fixed the atten- 
tion of the world. To my camp, as the last refuge in the storm, 
came many members of the Confederate Congress. These gentle- 
men were urged to go at once to their respective homes, and, by 
precept and example, teach the people to submit to the inevitable, 
obey the laws, ancl resume the peaceful occupations on which so- 
ciety depends. This advice was followed, and with excellent effect 
on public tranquility. 

General Canby dispatched that his government disavowed the 
Johnston-Sherman convention, and it would be his duty to resume 
hostilities. Almost at the sanip instant came the news of Johnston's 
surrender. There was no room for hesitancy. Folly and madness 
combined would not have justified an attempt to prolong a hope- 
less contest. 

General Canby was informed that I desired to meet him for the 
purpose of negotiating a surrender of my forces, and that Comn^o- 
dore Farrttnd, commanding the armed vessels in the Alabama river, 
desired to meet Rear Admiral Thatcher for a similar purpose. 
Citronville, some forty miles north of Mobile, was the appointed 
place, and there in the early days of May, 1865, the great war vir- 
tually ended. 

After this, no hostile gun was fired, and the authority of the 
United States was supreme in the land. Conditions of surrender 
were speedily determined, and of a character to soothe the pride 
of the vanquished ; officers to retain side-arms, troops to turn in 
arms and equipments to their own ordnance officers, so of the 
quartermaster and commissary stores; the Confederate cotton agent 
lor Alabama and Mississippi to settle his accounts with the Treasury 
Agent of the United States; muster rolls to be prepared, etc.; trans- 
portation to be provided for the men. All this under my control 
and supervision. Here a curious incident may be mentioned. _ At 
an early period of the war, when Colonel Sidney Johnston retired 
to the south of Tennessee river, Isham G. Harris, Governor of 
Tennessee, accompanied him, taking, at the same time, the coin 

158 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

from the vaults of the State Bank of Tennessee, at Nashville. This 
coin, in the immediate charge of a bonded officer of the bank, had 
occasioned much solicitude to the Governor in his many wander- 
ings. He appealed to me to assist in the restoration of the coin to 
the bank. At my request, General Canby detailed an officer and 
escort, and the money reached the bank intact. This is the Gov- 
ernor Harris recently elected United States Senator by his State. 


The condition of the people of Alabama and Mississippi was at 
this time deplorable. The waste of war had stripped large areas 
of the necessaries of life. In view of this, I suggested to General 
Canby that his troops, sent to the interior, should be limited to the 
number required for the preservation of order, and be stationed at 
points where supplies were more abundant. That trade would soon 
be established between soldiers and people — furnishing the latter 
with currency, of which they were destitute — and friendly relations 
promoted. These suggestions were adopted, and a day or two there- 
after, at Meridian, a note was received from General Canb}^, inclosing 
copies of orders to Generals Granger and Steele, commanding army 
corps, by which it appeared these officers were directed to call on 
me for and conform to advice relative to movements of their troops. 
Strange, indeed, must such confidence appear to statesmen of the 
" bloody-shirt " persuasion. In due time. Federal staff-officers 
reached my camp. The men were paroled and sent home. Public 
property was turned over and receipted for, and this as orderly and 
quietly as in time of peace between officers of the same service. 

What years of discord, bitterness, injustice and loss would not 
our country have been spared had the wounds of war healed " by 
first intention " under the tender ministrations of the hands that 
fought the battles ! But the task was allotted to ambitious partisans, 
most of whom had not heard the sound of a gun. As of old, the 
Lion and the Bear fight openly and sturdily — the stealthy Fox 
carries off the prize. 

Editorial Paragraphs. 159 

Edittirial Ifat^agraphs. 

Colonel Jones' Confederate Roster is concluded in this number. 
We repeat that before publishing it in separate book form, the author will 
throuo^hly revise and correct it, and it will be esteemed a favor if any one 
detecting errors or omissions, will at once write to tliis office, or direct lo 
Colonel Charles C. Jones, Jr., Box 5549, New York city. 

Renewals have been steadily coming in ; but we are compelled to drop 
from our mailing list the names of a number of subscribers from whom we 
have not yet heard. We beg that our subscribers will not only renew 
promptly themselves, but that they will use their influence to induce others 
to do so. 

New Subscribers are being added to our list in, perhaps, as large num- 
bers as we could expect these '• hard times." But we are anxious to extend 
the sphere of our usefulness by greatly increasing our subscription list, and 
we beg our friends to help us in this. It can be done verj^ easily if each sub- 
scriber will endeavor to add another to our list. 

Agents are very much needed by us to push our work in every commu- 
nity. To energetic, efficient, reliable agents, who will make us fi-equent 
reports and prompt returns for all subscribers secured (and we want none 
others), we can pay a liberal commission. And we would be obliged to our 
friends for any help they may afford us in securing suitable agents. 

"The Houdon Statue, its History and Value," is the title of a 
pamphlet by Sherwin McRae, Esq., which was published by order of the 
Senate of Virginia, and for a copy of which we are indebted to Col. James 
McDonald, Secretary of the Commonwealth. The author discusses, ably and 
exhaustively, " Washington— his person as represented by the artists ;" 
gives a full history of the Houdon Statue, and shows beyond all reasonaJjle 
doubt that not Stuart's portrait, nor any one of the many other pictures 
taken of him, but Houdon's Statue is the true likeness of Washington ; 
and that wlien Lafayette said, after seeing this noble work of art, that it was 
^'A facsimile of Washington'' s pirsoa^'''' he but expressed the conviction of 
all who were familiar with the great original. 

Virginia is indeed fortunate in having in her State Capitol this splendid 
work of art, which is, at the same time, a facsimile of the person of her 
illustrious son who led to a successful issue the first Great Rebellion ; and 

160 Southern historical Society Pape7's. 

we should see to it that Yankee enterprise is not pennittod to pahn off some 
otlier picture as tlie true likeness of tlie "Father of IIi< Country." 

The genius of our talented artist (Valentine) has produced busts wliich are 
exact copies of the Houdon Statue, and we should ri^-Joice to see tiiese scat- 
tered widely through the land. 

And now we want a facsimile (not an ideal) of our second Washington — 
the chieftain of the second " Great Rebellion '" — the immortal Lee, who, while 
not successful, will be written down in history as deserving success, and will 
live forever in tlie hearts of all true lovers of liberty. We have this_/ac- 
simile in Valentine's splendid recmnhent Jigxire at Lexington, and hope to 
have it also when tlie "Lee Monument Association" shall have completed 
tlieir work, and placed their equestrian statue at Richmond. 

Contributions to our Archives are still gratefully appreciated. 
Among others we acknowledge the following : 

From Graves Reufroe^ Esq., of Talladega, Alabama — "History and De- 
bates of the Convention of the People of Alabama," begun in Montgomery 
January 7th, 1861, by Hon. William R. Smith, one of the delegates from 
Tuscaloosa. This book contains the speeches made in secret session, and 
many State papers of interest and value, and is a highly prized addition to 
our library, as well as a renewed evidence of the interest taken in our work 
by our young friend, Mr. Reufroe. 

From Mcjor Powhatan Ellis, of Gloucester county, Virginia — Hardee's 
Tactics (Confederate Edition) published at Jackson, Mississippi, ISGl; a 
bundle of war papers, and a number of issues of the Richmond PT/wg' and 
other papers for 1865. These papers contain a large number of important 
official reports, and other matters of great interest and value, and Major 
Ellis has placed the Society under obligation for these as well as for previous 

From J. F. Mayer, Riclimond — "Tlie Unveiling of Divine Justice in the 
Great Rebellion : A Sermon by Rev. T. H. Robinson, of Harrisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania." This production is valuable as a specimen of the barkings of the 
"blood-hounds of Zion." "Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics," an edition 
of Hardee published at Jackson, Mississippi, in 1861. 

From A. Barron Holmes, Esq., Charleston, South Carolina — "Gregg's 
History of the Old Cheraws " ; " Gibbes' Documentary History of South 
Carolina," 1781-82; "History of the South Carolina Jockey Club," by Dr. 
John B. Irving; "The Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina," by M. Tuomey 
and F. S. Holmes; The Post Pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina," by F. S. 
Holmes. (These copies of Profesor Holmes' great work are now out of print, 
as the drawings, lithographs, etc., were all " confiscated " in Philadelphia 
soon after the breaking out of the late war.) 

From Hon. James Lyons, Richmond — His letter to the President of the 
United States in July, 1869, in relation to his right to registration and voting 
in the Virginia election of 1869. 



m II 

Yol. III. 

Riclimond, Ta., April, 1877. 

No. 4. 

Report of Major- General Carter L. Steyenson of the Tennessee 


[We print the following report from General Stevenson's own MS. Its 
value is increased by the fact that this account of the operations of the 
division of this accomplished soldier on that memorable campaign has never 
before been published in any form, so far as we know.] 

Headquarters Stevenson's Division, 
"■In the^field,'" January 20th, 1865. 

Major — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
operations of my division during the recent campaign in Tennes- 

The march from Palmetto to the front of Columbia was without 
incident worthy of mention, except, perhaps, the demonstration 
upon Resaca, Georgia, in which my command acted with spirit in 
the skirmishing which resulted in driving the enemy within their 
works. My loss was numerically insignificant at this point, but 
amongst the killed was numbered the gallant soldier and genial 
gentleman, Colonel F. K. Beck, Twenty-third Alabama regiment. 
By his fall my division lost a chivalrous soldier and his native 
ytate one of her worthiest sons. 

Upon our arrival in front of Columbia, my position in line was 
assigned from the right of the Mount Pleasant pike, the front of 
the division in line of battle. The investment was characterized 
by nothing of interest, as far as my division was concerned. A 
desultory skirmish fire was kept up most of the time. My losses 
here were few. 

On the night of the 27th November, my scouts reported that 
there were indications that the enemy were evacuating Columbia. 
I immediately increased the number of scouts, and about an hour 
before day sent forward the Eighteenth and Third Tennessee regi- 
ments (consolidated), under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
W. R. Butler, He found the reports of the scouts to be correct, 

162 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and occupied the town without opposition. I then moved forward 
my division, except Cumming's brigade (commanded on the cam- 
paign by Colonel E. P. Watkins, Fifty-sixth Georgia), which, by 
General Lee's order, was sent down the river to press those of the 
enemy who had taken that route, and endeavor to save the railroad 
bridge, which, however, had been fired before their arrival. In the 
fort at Columbia we secured a large amount of howitzer and small 
arm amunition and two siege howitzers. Colonel Butler had im- 
mediately upon gaining possession of the town sent a force to the 
ford of Duck river. The enemy's skirmishers were found to be in 
large force on the opposite bank and the enemy in position behind 
works about three-quarters of a mile from the river. He immedi- 
ately moved down his command, and skirmished with them 
briskly. The Sixtieth North Carolina, coming up soon after, was 
sent further up the bank of the river to a point from which they 
obtained a flanking fire upon the enemy. This drove them back from 
the immediate bank of the river. Orders were soon after received 
to discontinue the skirmishing. On the night of that day, General 
Hood, with Cheatham's and Steuart's corps and Johnson's division 
of Lee's corps, crossed Duck river some miles above Columbia, and 
pushed for the enemy's rear, leaving General Lee, with Clayton's 
and my division to occupy the enemy in front until he should 
have reached his position, then to force a crossing of the river and 
attack the enemy as he attempted to extricate himself. The greater 
part of the next day was spent in preparations for this movement. 
The bank of the river was quite steep on the side held by the 
enemy. A pontoon boat, in charge of Captain Ramsay, engineer, 
was taken down the river under a galling fire, launched, and could 
there, under the cover of our artiller}^ and skirmish fire, be used 
without much exposure in ferrying our troops. This was done 
with all practicable rapidity, the troops as they crossed forming 
under the cover of the steep bank to which I have alluded. About 
an hour before sunset I had succeeded in crossing three (3) regi- 
ments of Pettus' brigade, Brigadier- General Pettus in command. 
The Twentieth Alabama regiment (Colonel I. M. Dedman) of his 
brigade had previously been sent up the bank of the river to obtain 
a flanking fire upon the enemy, and the Thirtieth Alabama (Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel J. K. Elliott) was retained on the Columbia side to 
cover the ford in case of any failure. Everything being made 
ready, I directed General Pettus to advance, and his command 
dashed forward at the word, driving the enemy before them by a 

General Stevenson's Report of the Tennessee Campaiifn. 1G3 

charge which elicited the warmest admiration of all who witnessed 
it. Their loss was slight ; that of the enemy so considerable that 
to explain the affair, the commander of the enemy saw fit to attri- 
bute to an entire division an attack made by three (3) of its regi- 
ments. Having driven the enemy within their main line, General 
Pettus halted, selected a position to prevent the enemy from inter- 
rupting the laying of the pontoons, and was subsequently rein- 
forced by the rest of his brigade and by Holtzclavv's brigade of Clay- 
ton's division. The pontoon bridge was then laid with all practi- 
cable expedition. During the night General Pettus reported that 
the enemy was retiring, and he following with his skirmishers. 
This was as anticipated, and orders had already been given by 
General Lee to have everything in readiness to move, coupled with 
the statement that General Hood had advised him that he was be- 
tween the enemy and Nashville, near Spring Hill. At daybreak 1 
put my division in motion, in rear of Clayton's. Upon arriving at 
• Spring Hill, we were informed that from some cause, which has 
not been explained, the enemy had been suflered to pass unat- 
tacked along the road commanded by the troops which the Com- 
manding General took with him. We were then ordered to push 
on to Franklin. My division was halted about dusk in three miles 
of that place, and took no part in the battle. During the night 
the division was put in position, preparatory to an assault, which 
it was announced was to be made by the entire arm}'' at daybreak. 
The enemy, however, evacuated the town before the hour for the 
assault. We then advanced to within a few miles of Nashville, 
and threw up a line of works — my position being on the right and 
left of the Franklin pike. Several new lines were built, but my 
I)Osition with regard to the pike remained unchanged. 

Until the opening of the battles around Nashville, nothing of 
interest transpired in my command, except the part taken by my 
skirmishers, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. l^ibb. Twenty- 
third Alabama, in a demonstration made b}' Lee's corps. The 
enemy's skirmishers were driven by a greatly inferior force from 
all of their entrenched positions. My skirmishers were handsomely 
handled, and did their work with a dash and gallantry which 
deserve praise. Just before this demonstration. Palmer's brigade 
(consolidated from Brown's and Reynold's old brigades), was de- 
tached and ordered to report to Major-General N. B. Forrest in 
front of Murfreesboro'. It remained so detached from the division 
until it reached Bear creak, on this side of Barton's station. 

164 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

On the 15th of December the battle in front of Nashville opened. 
Except some unimportant skirmishing, my division took no part 
in that day's fight; although its position was frequently shifted, 
and the line greatly attenuated, to fill vacancies in the works 
caused by the withdrawal of the troops. On the next day the 
enemy advanced early in heavy force in front of the new line, 
which we had constructed late the previous night, my division 
extending its entire length, part of it in two and part in one thin 
rank, from a short distance to the left of the Franklin pike. The 
skirmishers of the right of Lee's corps, Clayton's and mine main- 
tained their positions so well, though in small force, that, in their 
subsequent accounts, the enemy have seen fit to magnify the affair 
with them into a desperate assault by two corps upon our first line, 
Tivhich was finally successful, but attended with heavy loss. Soon 
afterward their forces advanced to the assault, principally upon a 
part of General Clayton's line and upon Pettus' brigade of my di- 
vision — exposing, in their assault upon Pettus, their flank to a fire 
from Cumming s brigade. Their success the previous day had em- 
boldened them, and they rushed forward with great spirit, only to 
1)6 driven back with dreadful slaughter. Finding at last that they 
€0uld make no impression upon our lines, they relinquished their 
attempts, and contented themselves with keeping up an incessant 
fire of small arms at long range, and an artillery fire which I have 
never seen surpassed for heaviness, continuance and accuracy. 
This state of things continued until evening — doing, however, but 
little damage, my men keeping closely in the trenches, and per- 
fectly cool and confident. 

Towards evening General Lee sent me information "that things 
were going badly on the left," and that "it might be necessary to 
retire under cover of the approaching night." I at once hurried 
off orders for the artillery horses — which had been removed some 
distance to the rear to protect them from the fire of the enemy's 
artillery, under which they could not have lived half an hour — to 
be brought up. [It is proper to observe that about the middle of 
the day mist and rain arose, which entirely prevented my seeing 
anything that was going on beyond my own line.] The messen- 
gers had hardly gone for the horses before the break which, com- 
mencing some distance beyond the left of Lee's corps, extended to 
my line. Seeing it, the men on my left commenced leaving the 
works; but, at the call of their officers, returned at once, and held 
the line until the enemy were in fifty steps of them on their flank 

General Stevenson's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 1G5 

and pouring a fire into them from the flank and rear. When tlie 
true situation of affairs became apparent, and it was evident that 
the whole army, with the exception of my division and Clayton's, 
had been broken and scattered, the order for their withdrawal was 
given — an eff"ort being made to deploy skirmishers from my left 
brigade, at right angles to the works, to cover in some measure the 
movement. Amidst the indescribable confusion of other troops, 
and with the enemy pouring in their fire upon their flank and 
from the front (having rushed towards the break and then forward, 
when they perceived that the troops on my left had broken), it was 
impossible to withdraw the command in order, and it became con- 
siderably broken and confused. Many of them were unable to 
get out of the trenches in time and were captured. All this hap- 
pened in as short a time as it has taken to describe it. The artil- 
lery horses of Rowan's battery on the left of my line could not be 
brought up in time, and one of the guns of Cuput's battery was 
lost by being driven at full speed against a tree and the carriage 
broken. The different brigade and regimental commanders had 
sent off" their horses, there being no protection for them near the 
breastworks, and being thus unable to move about more rapidly 
than the men, were prevented from reforming their commands as 
quickly as could have been desired and extricating them from the 
throng of panic-stricken stragglers from other commands who 
crowded the road. This was done at last, and the line of march 
taken up for Franklin. On the way I received orders from General 
Lee to leave Pettus" brigade at Hollow Tree Gap, to assist in bring- 
ing up the rear, and to proceed with Cumming's brigade and bi- 
vouac near the battle-field at Franklin, leaving guards upon the 
road to stop the stragglers of the army. The next morning, by 
General Lee's order, I returned with Cumming's brigade to Frank- 
lin, and was there joined by General Pettus with his brigade, which 
had that morning before reaching Franklin captured a stand of 
colors. Soon after crossing the Harpeth, Lieutenant-General Lee 
was wounded. When about three miles from Franklin, General 
Lee moved off" with the rest of the corps, and directed me to take 
command of the cavalry, commanded by Brigadier-General Chal- 
mers, which, with my division, was to constitute the rear-guard. 

The enemy did not press us heavily until we arrived near John- 
son's house, five or six miles north of Spring Hill. Here I formod 
my line, having about seven hundred (TOO) intantry, with the cav- 
alry on my flanks. The enemy advanced rapidly upon mo, at- 


166 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

tacking me in front. I found it impossible to control the cavalry, 
and, with the exception of a small force on the left, for a short time, 
to get them into action. I may as well state that at this point, as 
soon as the enemy engaged us heavily, the cavalry retired in dis- 
order, leaving my small command to their fate. The enemy, per- 
ceiving the shortness of my line, at once threw a force around my 
left-flank, and opened fire upon it and its rear. This was a critical 
moment, and I felt great anxiety as to its effect upon my men, who, 
few in numbers, had just had the shameful example of the cavalry 
added to the terrible trial of the day before. I at once ordered 
Colonel Watkins to prepare to retire fighting by the flank, and 
General Pettus to move in line of battle to the rear, with a regi- 
ment thrown at right angles to his flank, thus forming three (3) 
sid-es of a square. Watkins drove the enemy in his front in con- 
fusion, moved at the order which was given on the instant of suc- 
cess by the flank, and charged those on his flank and drove them 

I halted again in about half a mile, formed a line upon each 
side of the pike, Pettus on the right, Watkins on the left, each 
with a regiment formed on his flank perpendicularly to his line to 
the rear, and having made these dispositions moved agaii to the 
rear. The enemy soon enveloped us in front, flanks and rear, 
but my gallant men, under all their charges, never faltered, never 
suffered their formation to be broken for an instant, and thus we 
moved driving our way through them, fighting constantly until 
within a short distance of Spring Hill, where we found that 
Major-General Clayton, hearing of our situation, had turned and 
moved back to our assistance. Here I halted for a time, and 
Holtzclaw's brigade of Clayton's division was formed upon Wat- 
kins' left flank in the manner which I have described. While here 
the enemy made several attacks, and opened upon us with artillery, 
but were readily repulsed. This was some time after dark. We 
finally moved off, and after marching about a mile further, finding 
that the enemy had evidently become disheartened and abandoned 
his attacks, I placed the whole command again upon the pike and 
marched in the ordinary manner until I reached the bivouac of 
the remainder of the corps. 

I desire here to record my acknowledgments to the officers and 
men of Holtzclaw's brigade, commanded on the occasion by Colo- 
nel Jones, for the timely aid which they so gallantly afforded. 
Lieutenant-General Lee was pleased to acknowledge, in grateful 

General Sterensoii's Report of the Tennessee Campaign. 1G7 

and complimentary terms, the services of my division upon this 
occasion, and I make no vain boast when I, too, thank them for 
their conduct, and declare that never did a command in so perilous 
a position extricate itself by the force of more admirable coolness, 
determination and unflinching gallantry. 

On that night I was directed by Lieutenant-General Lee to 
assume command of his corps during his disability. 

I am greatly indebted to my staff: Major John J. Reeve, Assist- 
ant Adjutant-General; Surgeon H. M. Crupton, Medical Director; 
Major J. E. McEleath, Assistant Quartermaster ; Major J. H. F. 
Mayo, C. S.; Major H. M. Mathews, Ordnance Officer; Captain G. D. 
Wise, Assistant Inspector-General ; Captain Charles Vidor, Assistant 
Quartermaster ; Lieutenant H. T. Botts, Aid-de-Camp ; Lieutenant 
G. A. Hayard, Aid-de-Camp; also Captain W. H. Sikes, Forty- 
fifth Tennessee regiment, and Lieutenant W. E. McElwee, Twenty- 
sixth Tennessee regiment, temporarily on duty at my headquarters, 
for their most efficient and valuable services, and for their untiring 
efforts to assist me during this arduous and trying campaign. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. L. Stevenson, 

Major- General. 
Major J. W. Ratchp'ORD, 

Assistant Adjutant- General, Lee's Corps. 


168 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

The Peace Commission of 1865. \ 

By Hon. R. M. T. Hunter. 

[We have already published in the Southern Magaziiie a paper from Judge 
Campbell on the Hampton Roads Conference. The following, from the pen 
of the distinguished Vice-President of our Society, has recently appeared in the 
Philadelphia Weekly Times as one of their series of "chapters of unwritten 
history," but our readers will thank us for reproducing it.] 

At the beginning of the year 1865, the country had become 
much exhausted by the exertions and ravages of the war. Scarce 
a household but had lost some member of its family in the bloody 
conflicts of the war, to whose chances parents had hitherto con- 
signed the lives of their children without doubt or hesitation. In 
General Lee's skill and patriotism universal confidence was reposed, 
and, among many disposed by nature to be sanguine, hopes of 
final success were still entertained. But among the considerate, 
and those who had staked and lost both family and fortune in the 
war, feelings of despondency were beginning to prevail. Particu- 
larly was this the case among the older class of legislators. The 
vacant ranks in our armies were no longer promptly filled, as at 
the commencement of the war, and an exhibit of our resources, 
made by Judge Campbell, our Assistant Secretary of "War, to 
General Lee, exhibited only a beggarly account of empty regiments. 
Propositions to call out boys of not more than sixteen years of age, 
and to place negroes in the army, were already being discussed. 
The prospects of success from such expedients were regarded as 
poor, indeed. The chances for the fall of Fort Fisher seemed im- 
minent, as well as that of the complete closure of the ports through 
which we had been bringing into the Confederacy food, clothing 
and munitions of war. These dangers, beginning to be visible, 
were producing a most depressing effect on our Confederate Con- 
gress. When these sources of supply should be cut oft', where then 
would be our resources to prolong the contest? The talk, too, for 
peace began to be more earnest and open than it had been hitherto. 
Influential politicians on the other side, formerly of great weight 
in the party contests of the country, and still bound to leading 
men of the Confederacy by old associations, were openly exerting 
themselves for peace, and appealing to men who used to act with 
and confide in them to unite with and work with them to procure 
a peace. F. P. Blair, an old Democratic leader during the time of 

The Peace Commission of 1865. 169' 

General Jackson's election to the Presidency and his administration, 
and, indeed, through the whole period succeeding it up to the 
election of President Lincoln, adhered to the Government party, 
and labored earnestly for its success. Finding that things were 
going much further than he had anticipated, and becoming alarmed 
for the consequences, he interposed earnestly in the cause of peace, 
and procured the opportunity to visit Richmond, where he saw 
many old friends and party associates. Here his representations 
were not without effect upon his old Confederates who for so long 
had been in the habit of taking counsel with him on public affairs. 
He said what seemed to many of us to have much truth, that the 
disparity of resources was so great in favor of the Federals as 
would make a much further resistance on the part of the Con- 
federacy impracticable. The United States, he said, if necessary 
for their purpose, could empty the population of Europe upon the 
Southern coasts by the offer of the lands of the dispossessed 
Southern landholders, and they would come in such number that 
any attempt at resistance would be hopeless. If the resistance,, 
too, were protracted much further, such a temper would be exerted 
among the adherents of the Government that they would not object 
to the exchange, but be quite willing for it. Believing this to be 
the disposition of our opponents, and that a real danger was to be 
apprehended from a continuance of the war, my own attention was 
now more seriously directed to peace than heretofore. It turned 
the thoughts of many Confederates toward peace more seriously 
than ever before since the commencement of the war. But the 
very fjict of the existence of such disposition on the part of the 
United States Government, showed how small were the chances for 
a peaceful and friendly settlement of existing differences between 
the parties. 


The talk about peace became so earnest and frequent in the 
capital of the Confederacy, and the indications of a desire for it 
among many members of the Confederacy became so plain and 
obvious, that President Davis and his friends began to feel that it 
was expedient that the Confederate Government should show some 
desire for peace on fair terms. To show no sense of responsibility 
for the terrible conflict then waging, and no desire for peace on any 
terms, would injure the Confederate Government in the eyes of its 
own people. The intrinsic difficulties in the way of a fliir accom- 
modation were scarcely appreciated, and the desire for change so 

170 Southern Historical Society Pa'pers. 

universal in the human heart was manifest. Many were alarmed 
at the talk of conscribing negroes, and mothers, who had shrunk 
from nothing heretofore, were beginning to flinch at the prospect 
of seeing their bo3's of sixteen years of age, or under, exposed to 
the horrors and hardships such as would then be incurred in mili- 
tary service. Accordingly, the President, in January, 1865, deter- 
mined to appoint three Commissioners and proposed a conference 
between them and others to be appointed by the United States 
Government, on the subject of peace, at some place to be agreed 
upon between the Governments. The persons appointed were A. 
H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederate States, Judge John 
A. Campbell, Assistant Secretary of War, and R. M. T. Hunter, 
Confederate Senator from the State of Virginia. These were ex- 
pected to meet President Lincoln and Secretar}' Seward at Old 
Point, and prepare for the conference. General Lee was directed 
to pass the Commissioners through his lines to City Point, from 
which place it was supposed that General Grant would transfer 
them to the place of meeting at Old Point. Instructions were 
delivered to them directing, among other things, that they were to 
treat on the basis of "two countries," thus precluding any idea of 
reunion, a provision which subsequently gave rise to difficulties in 
arranging the meeting, and it was rumored that Mr. Benjamin, 
Secretary of State, foreseeing this, had endeavored in vain to have 
it stricken out. We were dispatched at once to Petersburg, and it 
having gotten out that a Commission of Peace was on its way to 
Norfolk, we were received everywhere along the line with marks 
of great interest and curiosit3^ Of course we did nothing volun- 
tarily to create expectations ; and seeing no prospect of negotiating 
for a settlement of the difficulties between the parties, under our 
instructions, we did nothing so well calculated to exasperate the 
difference, as would have been the case had false hopes of peace, 
wantonly created, been unexpectedly disappointed. But we were 
not insensible to the manifestations of interest in the question in 
Petersburg, or that Judge Joynes, on taking leave of us said, as he 
shook hands, that if we returned with any fair hope of peace, we 
would be thanked b}'' every man, woman and child in the city. 


When we reached Petersburg an intense state of excitement was 
soon raised in regard to the Commission. This excitement was 
increased by unexpected delays in passing the Commissioners over 

Tlie Peace Commission of 1865. 171 

the enemy's line. This delay was the cause of some wonder to 
ourselves, until, in subsequently passing over, we observed the lean 
state of General Lee's defences, and how poorly our lines were 
lined with defenders. The ground between the two armies was 
covered with spent minnie balls, and it was obvious that if no 
more carnage had ensued it was not for the want of mutual ill-will 
and attempts between the combatants. A short time brought us to 
the river, over which we were conducted to the boat which received 
us, and subsequently conducted us to the place of meeting. Here 
we were courteously received by General Grant and his officers, 
and Ave had abundant means to compare the resources of the re- 
spective and opposing lines. Many of the officers in General 
Grant's lines loudly expressed their desire for peace, wishes which 
we did not hesitate to reciprocate. Among them^ was General 
Meade, who told us he was near being arrested in Chicago at the 
commencement of the war for expressing such desires, and the 
opinion that the contest would result like the Kilkenney cat fight; 
and who now, said he, will say that such an opinion was absurd ? 
Some of us said he had heard the conjecture that General Lee had 
already fought as many pitched battles as Napoleon in his Italian 
campaigns. General Meade said he did not doubt but he had, for 
many of his skirmishes, as they were called, would have ranked 
as battles in Napoleon's campaigns. The officers were courteous 
in their comments on their enemies, and many of them seemed 
mindful of old acquaintanceship and old ties. But soon General 
Grant began to receive returns to his telegrams from President 
Lincoln and Mr. Seward. A copy of our instructions was trans- 
mitted to President Lincoln, and now commenced our troubles. 
The President and his secretary answered promptly that they could 
not negotiate on the basis of two countries. President Lincoln 
said he could negotiate on no hypothesis but one of reunion. We 
were bound by positive instructions on our side, and could make 
no relaxation of those instructions on that head. As these diffi- 
culties seemed to increase by the persistency on both sides, all 
parties were annoyed by the hitch. Not only General Grant's 
officers, but we ourselves were anxious to know if there was any 
chance of settlement and on what terms. It was interesting to us 
to know whether the other party was aware of our real situation, 
but nothing occurred to satisfy us on that point ; and yet with the 
system of spies and deserters on both parts, and the notoriety of 
our state of destitution at home, it seemed impossible to suppose 

172 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that the enemy were not sufficiently aware of our condition to 
make their knowledge in that particular an important element in 
the negotiation. 


As the difficulties of meeting seemed to increase, the impatience 
of the bystanders to bring the parties together grew very rapidly. 
One of General Grant's officers assured us that Mrs. Grant had 
expressed her opinion openly that her husband ought to send us 
on, and permit no vital difficulties to break up the interview. She 
said we were known to be good men, and she believed that our 
intentions were praiseworthy, and she doubted not but that some- 
thing good would result if we and Mr. Lincoln could be brought 
together ; but that if Mr. Seward were allowed to intervene between 
us he would break up all prospect of a settlement of the difficulties 
by his wily tactics. She seemed to have a poor opinion of his 
purposes or management. She impressed us very favorably by her 
frankness and good feelings, but somehow the difficulties were 
removed, and after a delay of about twenty-four hours, steam was 
gotten up and we were on our way to the place of meeting. We 
all moved under some excitement; we were all desirous of a fair 
settlement, and neither expected nor wished unequal advantages or 
an unfair adjustment. We were no diplomatists, unused in the 
practices of negotiation ; immense events might be in store for us ; 
great possibilities of change ahead of us, and possibly through us 
seeds might be sown from which new destinies might spring or 
changes effected which might alter the course of empire itself. We 
would probably soon know what would be the effect of our own 
action or how it would result for our country. These were dreary 
thoughts to any men, but particularly to those who felt the load of 
a peculiar responsibility for the turn which events might take. 
We had formed no particular scheme of negotiatiorii, no definite 
line of policy by which exciting dispositions on both sides might 
be molded to satisfactory results. Mr. Stephens seemed possessed 
with the opinion that secession might be recognized as a conserva- 
tive remedy by the Northern population, as subsequent conversa- 
tions proved. He made it evident, too, that he believed the Monroe . 
doctrine might be made the cement of union among our populations. 
He acted on the principle that by a union to drive the French out 
of Mexico, our people could be reunited at home. The extent to 
which he carried these opinions was strange indeed. Judge Camp- 
bell seemed to repose his hopes on an armistice to be formed by 


The Peace Commission of 1865. 173 

General Grant and General Lee, and certain conditions to be 
declared between them on which this armistice should exist. The 
intercourse which would subsist during the armistice, it was thought, 
would hurry about peace and good feeling and the renewal of old 
habits of communion, and profitable trade would restore good 
feeling and the old habits of trade, and bring on old feelings 
generated by the intercourse dictated by self-interest and old asso- 
ciation. It was believed, too, that arrangements brought on by 
General Grant and General Lee to restore old intercourse would be 
tolerated, which would be rejected if proposed by any one else. 


We met Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward aboard the steamer, and 
soon the conference was commenced by Mr. Stephens, who seemed 
impressed with the idea that secession was the true conservative 
remedy for sectional difference, and appeared to be animated by 
the hope that he could convince the President and Secretary of 
the truth of this view. Never was hope more mistaken. Although 
polite, neither countenanced the idea for a moment. He next 
proposed another subject upon which he seemed to rely with even 
more confidence. He revived the old Monroe doctrine, and sug- 
gested that a reunion njigbt l>e formed on the basis of uniting to 
drive the French out of America, and uniting to organize this 
continent for Americans. This was received with even less favor 
than I expected. Both expressed their aversion to any occupancy 
of Mexico by the French, but if they felt any doubt, expressed 
none as to the capacity of the United States Government to drive 
the French away. Mr. Blair, while in Richmond, talked of this as 
a probable basis of reunion. Mr. Lincoln was evidently afraid 
that he had uttered sentiments for which he could not be responsi- 
ble, and earnestly disclaimed having authorized his mission — 
whether this was true I had my doubts then and now. It is im- 
possible but that Mr. Lincoln must have felt anxiety on the subject 
of peace. If he knew of our destitution he gave no sign of it, but 
he did notipress the peace as I had supposed he would. He dis- 
tinctly affirmed that he would not treat except on the basis of 
reunion and the abolition of slavery. Neither Lincoln nor Seward 
showed any wise or considerate regard for the whole country, or 
any desire to make the war as little disastrous to the whole country 
as possible. If they entertained any such desires they made no 
■ exhibition. Their whole object seemed to be to force a reunion 

174 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and an abolition of slavery. If this couM be done, they seemed 
to feel little care for the distress and suffering of the beaten party. 
Mr. Lincoln, it is true, said that a politician on his side had declared 
that $400,000,000 ought to be given by way of compensation to the 
slaveholders, and in this opinion he expressed his concurrence. 
Upon this Mr. Seward exhibited some impatience and got up to 
walk across the floor, exclaiming, as he moved, that in his opinion 
the United States had done enough in expending so much money 
on the war for the abolition of slavery, and had suffered enough 
in enduring the losses necessary to carry on the war. "Ah, Mr. 
Seward," said Mr. Lincoln, " you may talk so about slavery, if 
you will ; but if it was wrong in the South to hold slaves^ it was 
wrong in the North to carry on the slave trade and sell them to 
the South (as it is notorious that they did, he might have added), 
and to have held on to the money thus procured without compen- 
sation, if the slaves were to be taken by them again." Mr. Lincoln 
said, however, that he was not authorized to make such a proposi- 
tion, nor did he make it. It was evident that both the President 
and Secretary were afraid of the extreme men of their jDarty. 
Certain objects were to be secured, and when once obtained it was 
no consideration with their party whether the sufferings of the 
conquered party were to be mitigated or any relief was to be afforded. 
And yet to statesmen and benevolent men, it was obvious that both 
parties were to be benefited by affording the conquered party some 
relief for their prostration. The reaction of the sufferings of the 
South upon the North has been obvious enough for many years. 
The English Government in its scheme of West India emancipa- 
tion saw the necessity of some relief to all parts of the country. 
It ought to have been obvious enough to wise and considerate 
statesmen that some relief was the policy here, too. But the North, 
when placed in power, seemed to be insensible to these views, and 
desired to punish those who had been defeated in the contest. To 
do this they seemed willing to make their losses irretrievable. 


The armistice was promptly opposed by the President and Secre- 
tary of State. If the only objects were to re-establish the Union 
and abolish slavery, they were right. If, however, they had any 
desire for the general good, and to procure relief for parties suffer- 
ing, as ought to have been felt by men fit to govern such a country 
and to understand its wants, their views would have been different. 

The Peace Commission of 1865. 175 

AVe had tried to intimate to General Grant before we reached Old 
Point, that a settlement generally satisfactory to both sides could 
be more easily effected through him and General Lee by an armis- 
tice than in any other way. The attempt was in vain. Lee had 
too much principle probably to have yielded to such a suggestion, 
and if Grant would have suffered no principle to restrain him if 
he had seen his way clear, he had not the ability to weigh truly 
his responsibility or to understand his opportunities. Generals 
who are so often accused and blamed for usurping power often see 
the best way out of difficulties. Had Caesar or Napoleon been in 
command of the Union forces there is little doubt but that some 
settlement would have been made to have relieved us of much of 
our difficulty. When a general knows what to do he is often more 
reliable than the politicians in civil war. England, probably, was 
better managed by Cromwell than would have been done by the 
general voice of her civilians. Politicians often make more fatal 
inroads on the bulwarks of national liberty than military com- 
manders. It is doubtful whether a Government formed by the 
Roman Senate would have been better than Scylla's, and Napoleon's 
constitutions were probably preferable to what the civilians would 
have given them. Civil wars often produce emergencies which 
create new and unexpected wants, and in these I have no doubt 
but that Napoleon was a more reliable counsellor than Lieges. 
Complications are sometimes produced by the sword that can only 
be cut by the sword. In this very case some compensation for the 
negroes taken away would have been both just and politic. 
Through a truce or armistice it might have been effected, but 
otherwise it seems not. 

With regard to the Monroe doctrine, out of which I feared some 
complications might arise, as Blair had seemed to favor it very 
much, I took occasion to say to Mr. Lincoln that I differed much 
from Mr. Stephens, and so in my opinion did many of our people, 
who would be found unwilling to kindle a new war with the French 
on any such pretence. That for one I laid no such claims to the 
right of exclusive possession of the American continent for the 
American people, as had been done by others. That many of us 
Avould be found unwilling to have a war upon a mere question of 
policy rather than of honor or right. That although we would 
hear and communicate whatever was said to us on this question, 
we were not instructed to treat upon it. Nor for one was I pre- 
pared to do so. I asked him, however, to communicate the terms, 

176 Southern Htsiorical Society Papers. 

if any, upon which he would negotiate with u?. He said he could 
not treat with us with arms in our hands ; in rebellion, as it were, 
against the Government. 


I did not advert to the fact that we were with arms in our hands 
upon this occasion when we came to treat with him, but I replied 
this had been often done, especially by Charles I, when at civil 
war with the British Parliament. He laughed, and said that 
"Seward could talk with me about Charles I, he only knew that 
Charles I had lost his head." I said not for that, but because he 
made no satisfactory settlement at all. But it was of no use to 
talk with him upon this subject. It was evident that both he and 
:Seward were terribly afraid of their constituents. They would hint 
at nothing but unconditional submission, although professing to 
disclaim any such demand. Reunion and submission seemed their 
sole conditions. Upon the subject of a forfeiture of lands, Mr. 
Lincoln said it was well known that he was humane and not dis- 
posed to exact severe terms. It was then that I expressed myself 
more freely on the subject of the negotiation and the condition of 
afiairs. It seemed, I said, that nothing was left us but absolute 
submission both as to rights and property, a wish to impose no 
unnecessary sacrifice on us as to landed property on the part of 
one branch of our Government, but no absolute assurance as to 
this. I might have said it was the expression of an absolute de- 
termination not to treat at all, but to demand a submission as 
absolute as if we were passing through the Candine forks. 

Such a rebuke to negotiation after a civil war of half this mag- 
nitude in any European nation, probably would have called down 
the intervention of its neighbors ; nor is it probable that the 
parties to a civil war in any civilized European nation could have 
met for purposes of adjustment without some plan of relief or 
amelioration on the part of the stronger in favor of the weaker. 
Mr. Seward, it is true, disclaimed all demand for unconditional 
submission. But what else was the demand for reunion and 
abolition of slavery, without any compensation for negroes or 
even absolute safety for property proclaimed to have been forfeited? 

Cavalry Operations in May, 18G3. 177 

Ciivalry Operations in May, 1863— Report of General J. E. B. Stuart. 

Headquarters Cavalry Division, 
Army Northern Virginia, 
* May 8th, 1863. 

General — In anticipation of the detailed reports, I have the honor 
to submit the folloAving sketch of the operations of the cavalry 
immediately preceding and during the battles of the Wilderness 
and Chancellorsville, 

The enemy had more than a week previously concentrated a 
large body, two or three divisions of cavalry, along the bank of the 
upper Rappahannock, whose efforts to hold a footing on the south 
bank had been repulsed with loss by the two brigades with me, 
commanded respectively by Brigadier-Generals Fitzhugh and W. 
H. F. Lee. Finally, infantry appeared at Kelly's and Rappahan- 
nock bridge, but were so inactive that there was nothing inconsistent 
in the supposition that their appearance was a feint. About dark, 
however, on Tuesday night (28th), the enemy crossed below the 
bend of the river at Kelly's, in boats, opposite our videttes, and 
before the force posted to defend the ford could be sent to the point, 
had crossed in such numbers as to make an attempt at resistance 
futile. The part}^ crossing at once threw over a pontoon bridge, 
and moved directly up the river, compelling our forces to abandon 
the ford at Kelly's and separating our communication with the 
lower pickets. General W. H. F. Lee, near Brandy, on receiving 
this intelligence, sent a regiment (Thirteenth Virginia cavalry) at 
once to meet the advance of infantry, which was checked a mile 
above Kelly's. I received information of this move about 9 P. M. 
at Culpeper, and made arrangements to have the entire cavalry and 
artillery force in Culpeper on the ground at daylight — directing, in 
the meantime, the enemy to be so enveloped with pickets as to see 
what route he took from Kelly's and keep him in check. General 
W. H. F. Lee selected a fine position between Brandy and Kelly's 
and awaited the advance ; General Fitz. Lee being held in reserve 
at Brandy, with a regiment at Stevensburg. The enemy did not 
advance that way seriously, though Chambliss, with the Thirteenth 
Virginia, was skirmishing all the forenoon with the enemy's in- 

A Prussian officer of General Carl Schurz's staff was captured, 
who reported that two corps of the enemy were certainly across the 

178 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

river : how many more were to follow, he did dot know. He esti- 
mated the force in this column at 20,000 men. He seemed frank 
and candid, as well as communicative. 

About 1 P. M., I received a report from the pickets towards 
Madden's that the enemy was moving a large infantry force in that 
direction. Leaving Chambliss in front of the enemy where I was, 
I marched the remainder of the command, Fitz. Lee in advance, 
directly to Madden's, where we pierced the enemy's column while 
it was marching, and scattered it, taking possession of the road 
and capturing a number of prisoners, which enabled us to develope 
their strength and designs, as we captured prisoners from three 
army corps — Eleventh (Howard's), Twelfth (Slocum's), Fifth 
(Meade's) ; and soon after learned that the column had marched 
direct for Germana ford. 

These items were telegraphed to the Commanding General. 
Colonel J. Lucius Davis, near Beaver Dam, had been telegraphed 
early that day to move his force at once to occupy and hold the 
Rapidan fords, but I had no assurance that the order would be 
obeyed with sufficient promptness to accomplish the object; and as 
there was no cavalry on the left flank of the main army, it was 
indispensably necessary to move around, get in front of the enemy 
moving down upon Fredericksburg, delay him as much as possible, 
and protect our left flank. Besides, while in the execution of this 
design, I received instructions from the Commanding General to 
give necessary orders about public property along the railroad, and 
swing round to join his left wing, delaying the enemy as much as 
possible in his march. 

The brigade of General Fitz. Lee was put en route, in a jaded and 
hungry condition, to Raccoon ford, to cross and move round to the 
enemy's front. General W. H. F. Lee, with the two regiments — 
Ninth and Thirteenth — under his command, was directed to move 
by way of Culpeper, to take up the line of the upper Rapidan, and 
lookout for Gordonsville and the railroad. Couriers had been by 
directions sent to Eley's and Germana to notify our parties there 
of the enemy's advance, but were captured and consequently the 
parties there received no notice ; but by the good management of 
Captain Collins, however, now Major of Fifteenth Virginia cavalry, 
the enemy was checked for some time at Germana, and his wagons 
and implements saved, though some of his men were captured. A 
strong party of sharpshooters was left to hold the road of the 
enemy's march as long as possible, and then follow us, which was 

Cavalry Operations in May, 1863. 179 

done till the enemy advanced about eleven at night and compelled 
them to retire. Dispatches captured showed that trains of wagons 
and beef cattle accompanied the expedition, and the men were 
already supplied with five days' rations in haversacks. These items 
placed it beyond doubt that the enemy were making a real move- 
ment to turn Fredericksburg. 

Crossing the Rapidan that night, the main body of cavalry was 
halted for rest a few hours, having marched more than half the 
night; and one regiment (Colonel Owen's) was sent on to get be- 
tween the enemy and Fredericksburg and impede his progress. 
Early next day (Thursday, 30t-h), Owen, having reached the Ger- 
mana road on the Fredericksburg side, kept in the enemy's front, 
while the remainder kept on the enemy's right flank, and opened 
on his column en route at Wilderness tavern, delaying his march 
till 12 M., and causing several regiments of infantry to deploy in 
line of battle to meet us. Hearing that the enemy had already 
reached Chancellorsville b}^ the Eley's Ford road, I directed my 
march by Todd's tavern for Spotsylvania Courthouse. Night 
overtook us at Todd's tavern, and being anxious to know what the 
Commanding General desired me to do further, I left the command 
to bivouac here, and proceeded with my staff towards his head- 
quarters near Fredericksburg; but had not proceeded a mile before 
we found ourselves confronted by a party of the enemy double our 
own, directly in our path. I sent back hastily for a regiment, 
which, coming up (Fifth Virginia cavalry. Colonel Tyler), attacked 
and routed the part3^ But in the meantime another body of the 
enemy's cavalry came iii rear of the Fifth. Receiving notice of 
this, I gave orders to withdraw the Fifth from the road, and sent 
for the brigade to push on at once. This was done, and by the 
bright moonlight a series of charges routed and scattered this ex- 
pedition, which had penetrated to within a mile or two of Spotsyl- 

It has been since ascertained that this expedition was by no 
means an insignificant affair, and, but for the timely arrival of this 
cavalry on the spot and its prompt and vigorous action, might 
have resulted disastrously. Artillery as well as trains were pass- 
ing Spotsylvania, unprotected, at the time. With very little rest, 
and without waiting for rations or forage, this noble little brigade, 
under its incomparable leader, Avas in the saddle early next morn- 
ing, and moving on Jackson's left fiank during the entire day (May 
1st), swinging around to the left to threaten the enemy's rear. On 

180 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the morning of May 2cl, the cavahy of this brigade was disposed 
so as to clear Jackson's way in turning the enemy's right flank; 
this was done in the most successful manner, driving off the 
enemy's cavalry wherever it appeared, and enabled Jackson to 
suprise the enemy. 

In the subsequent operations attending the battle and glorious 
victory, the cavalry did most essential service in watching our flanks 
and holding the Eley's Ford road in the enemy's rear, Wickham 
and Owen being on the extreme right. The horse artillery kept 
pace, and in the battle of the Wilderness led the attack of artillery. 

Too much praise cannot be awarded the brave men who thus 
bore fatigue, hunger, loss of sleep, and danger without a murmur. 

The operations of Brigadier-General W. H. F. Lee, with his hand- 
ful of men, are embraced in the memoranda furnished by him. 
His report is not only satisfactor}^ but gives evidence of sagacity 
and good conduct throughout, and of great efficiency on the part 
of his command. 

The result shows that the disposition made of these two com- 
mands was absolutely necessary. Jones' brigade was entirely out 
of reach, and Hampton was south of James river recruiting. 

That Stoneman with a large cavalry force was allowed to penetrate 
into the heart of the State, though comj^aratively harmless in 
results, is due to the entire inadequacy in numbers of the cavalry 
of the Army of Northern Virginia. The enemy has confronted us 
with at least three divisions of cavalry, more or less concentrated, 
which we opposed with one division, spread from the Chesapeake 
to the Alleghan}^ yet had not the approach of a battle below made 
it necessary to divide the force of the two Lee's, I feel very confident 
it would have been prevented, though with great sacrifice of life> 
owing to disparity of numbers. 

With the Commanding General, who is aware of all the facts, 
we are content to rest our vindication, if the pursuit of the plain 
path of duty needs vindication. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. E. B. Stuart, 

Major- General. 
Brigadier-General R. H. Chilton, 

A, A. and I. General^ Army of Nurtkern Virginia. 

Cavalry Operations in May, 1863. 181 

Memoranda of the operations of Brigadier- General W. 11. F. Lee's 
command during General Stoneman's raid into Virginia. 

Wednesday, April 29th, 1863— Chambliss' Thirteenth Virginia 
cavalry, with one piece of artillery, was left at Kelly's; Payne, with 
one hundred men of Second North Carolina cavalry, had gone to 
Germana ; I, with the Ninth, went to Willis Madden's with Gene- 
ral Stuart; left hira that night and went to Culpeper Courthouse 
with the Ninth Virginia cavalry ; Chambliss joined me there that 

Thursda}'-, 30th — Marched from Culpeper to Rapidan station, 
with Ninth and Thirteenth Virginia cavalry, and one piece of 
artillery ; left one squadron in Culpeper, which fell back before the 
enemy and joined me at Rapidan ; enemy appeared that evening. 

Friday, May 1st — Engaged all day with one or two brigades of 
cavalry ; one charge made by Colonel Beale, with one squadron to 
draw them out ; took 30 prisoners, but could not bring them off — 
was pressed ver}^ hard; had orders from General Lee to burn the 
bridge, and fall back to Gordonsville ; burnt the bridge, but held 
my position all day ; enemy commenced moving towards night in 
force on my left ; withdrew at night and marched towards Gor- 

Saturday, 2d — Reached Gordonsville at 11 A. M.; heard on my 
arrival that a large body of the enemy was at Trevilian's depot 
and Louisa Courthouse ; sent the Ninth Virginia in that direction ; 
their videttes were driven in by the enemy; they charged and 
drove them three miles, killing and wounding a number, and took 
thirty-two prisoners, one lieutenant; my loss Avas three or four 
wounded ; four prisoners taken represented three different regiments ; 
went to their assistance with Thirteenth Virginia and two pieces 
artillery ; met Colonel Beale falling back ; took a position and waited 
their approach; they did not advance ; learned that General Stone- 
man with his whole corps was at Louisa Couthouse, moving towards 
James river; supposed his object was to tear up railroad; they 
not comming on, my men and horses being worried out by four 
days' fighting and marching, left out my pickets and withdrew to 

Sunday, 3d— Received information from my scouts that the 
enemy were leaving Louisa and moving in direction of Columbia ; 
knowing their object was to destroy the aqueduct, I started after 
them; arrived there at night; heard they had left in a great hurry. 

182 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

pursued all night ; at day-break, having traveled sixty or seventy 
miles, and the enemy being three hours ahead of me, halted: my 
videttes reported enemy about one mile in advance; had exchanged 
words, and they said they belonged to Fifth regulars ; knew the 
party I was pursuing was Wyndham's. 

Monday, 4th — Started forward and came upon him drawn up in 
road ; one squadron of Ninth cavalry was ahead, a few hundred 
yards; charged; enemy charged at same time; fought hand to 
hand four or five minutes ; routed the party ; killed six ; wounded 
a number; took thirty-three prisoners, among them Captain Owens 
and Lieutenant Buford. Captain Owens reported that his regiment 
was not all present, but that he was on picket ; that General 
Buford was only three miles distant. My horses and men being 
jaded, and having only about eigth hundred men, I determined not 
to pursue; continued back to Gordonsville, having traveled seventy 
or eighty miles. 

Tuesday, 5th — Rested, having sent out scouting parties ; heard 
by telegram from Richmond that the enemy were (Everywhere. 

Wednesday, 6th — Having received information that the enemy 
were recrossing the railroad, moved down upon his left flank ; 
came upon his rear at North Anna river; took seventeen or eigh- 
teen prisoners ; their rear guard had crossed the river and torn up 
the bridge. It had been raining all day and river was past fording. 
Hearing' that this was only one party, and that another column 
was moving lower down, went in that direction ; found they had 
all crossed North Anna river and destroyed bridges behind them. 
Moved that night in direction of Louisa Courthouse, bivouacked 
within three miles of Courthouse. 

Thursday, 7th — Went to Trevilian's depot ; moved at 3 P. M. 
for Orange Courthouse ; scouts reported that enemy had' crossed 

(Signed) W. H. F. Lee, Brigadier-General. 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 183 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park, Twelfth Alabama Regiment. 

[Continued from March Number.] 

March 20th, 1865 — I have suffered severely for several days from 
cold and hoarseness, with an occasional fever, and Dr. Hays, Chief 
of our Division, advised and obtained an order for my transfer to 
the hospital. I reluctantly consented to go, for I had a feeling 
recollection of my unkind treatment in other Yankee prison hos- 
pitals, and shrank from a renewal of my very unpleasant acquaint- 
ance with them. Thoughts of Knowles of West's Hospital, and of 
Heger of Point Lookout Hospital, have caused me to dread my 
treatment at the Fort Delaware Hospital. Growing worse, however, 
I went, and was registered in ward 11. All of my clothing was 
taken from me, and I was clad in shirt and drawers of coarse 
texture, belonging to the hospital, and which had probably been 
frequently used before by smallpox and other diseased patients. 
My crutches were also taken from me. " Doctor " Miller, a youth of 
perhaps twenty years, diagnosed my disease and pronounced it 
" remittent fevor." He prescribed pills. Judging by Miller's man- 
ners and appearance, he must be some medical student practicing 
to gain experience solely, or he has but recently graduated. The 
accommodations are as good as could be expected in a place con- 
ducted without regard to system, and where the patients are under 
the charge of such young and totally inexperienced physicians. 
At the head of each bunk or bed a card is suspended against the 
the wall, having on it the name and rank of the patient, character 
of his disease, and number of his bed. Corn mush, without salt 
or milk, composed my supper. 

March list — Meals are quite scanty in quantity and uninviting 
in quality, and the officers from Hilton Head and Fort Pulaski, 
afflicted with scurvy, are constantly complaining of hunger, and 
wishing for meal hour to arrive. Mush made of yellow corn meal 
is the usual supper. The poor fellows suffering from scurvy are a 
sad sight, as they walk in their hospital garb of shirt and drawers 
(which are oftentimes either too large and long, or too tight and 
short for the wearers), from their beds to the stove. Their legs and 
feet are so drawn as to compel them to walk on tiptoe, their heels 
being unable to reach the floor. How necessary a few vegetables 
are to these helpless sufferers. The "best Government the world 

184 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ever saw," however, is either too poor or too mean to furnish 

March 22d to 2ith — Among others whose beds are near mine are 
Colonel S. M. Boykin, of the Twentieth South Carolina infantry, a 
very dignified and intelligent middle aged gentleman from Camden, 
South Carolina, and Captain James W. McSherry, of Thirty-sixth 
Virginia infantry, from Martinsburg, Virginia. The latter is a 
physician of talent and fine standing, but preferred to serve the 
South as an officer of the line to accepting a place as surgeon. 
Captain M. is a cousin of my excellent friend Miss Anna L. 
McSherry, and is a bold and outspoken denouncer of the Yankees. 
He has scurvy badly. My bed is near the stove, and I have frequent 
talks with those who come around it to warm themselves, or to 
interchange opinions about the situation. 

March 25th and 26th — I find myself much improved, my fevers 
being slight and rare and hoarseness disappearing. Smallpox, that 
most loathsome of diseases, has made its appearance in our ward. 
Colonel Montgomery, of Georgia, was sick with it for several days, 
with high fever, his face and body being broken out with pimples, 
but was not removed until several officers, fearing infection, urged 
his removal from their vicinity to the pest-house. Lieutenant Birk- 
head, of North Carolina, who lay next to me, showed me his hands, 
neck and face covered with pimples, yesterday, and asked me what 
was the matter. I took his hand and wrist in mine, and laughingly 
pronounced it "smallpox," little dreaming that I was correct. To- 
day our young doctor decided it was a genuine case of smallpox, 
and ordered his removal to the smallpox hospital. I never saw 
nor heard of poor Birkhead again. Deaths from smallpox, pneu- 
monia, scurvy, fevers, dysentery, and various other diseases, are 
alarmingly frequent. There is honor and glory in death on the 
field of battle, amid the whistling of bullets, the shrieks of shells, 
the fierce roar of cannon, and the defiant shouts of the brave com- 
batants, but the saddest, most solemn and painful of deaths is that 
within prison walls, far from home and loved ones. The picture 
of his loved home flits across the dying soldier's mind; dear faces 
seem to look down upon him, but no gentle hands ease his pain, no lov- 
ing lips whisper words of peace and comfort, — the suffering forms 
of his sick and wounded comrades are all the friends he sees, their 
groans all the prayers he hears. As he fights his last fight with 
the grim monster, no doubt he sees floating aloft the flag he has so 
often followed — he hears his commander's cheering words urging 

• Diary of Captain Robert E. Farh. 185 

his men on to the fray; but they will urge him on no more, and 
never again will he behold the proud banner he has loved so well. 
With the roar of the cannon and rattling of musketry falling upon 
his ear, or with a fair vision of his dear childhood's home before 
his mind, and a prayer he lisped in days gone by at his mother's 
knee, his eyes close, his breath ceases, and the brave prisoner's life 
is ended. Horrid war has given another noble heart to death, and 
taken the sunshine from another happy home. The dead prisoner 
is carried to the "dead-house," stripped of his clothing, placed by 
strangers and enemies in a rough, unpainted pine coffin, hoisted 
in an old cart, and hurried to the burial ground, like the carcass of 
some dumb brute, without the presence or ministrations of a single 
friend. They are carried across the bay, when not sunk within it, and 
buried on the Jersey shore. The graves are seldomed marked, or 
it is done in a very careless manner, easily erased in a short time 
by the action of the elements. 

March 27th — All the paroled prisoners have had their " checks" 
redeemed or " cashed," and it is said a boat will carry them to 
Dixie soon. Oh ! that I could be of the lucky number. 

March 28th — I received a very kind letter from that true friend 
and noble woman. Miss McSherry, to-day, enclosing $12, which was 
paid me in checks. Her generous, disinterested kindness, com- 
mands my sincere admiration and warmest gratitude. Miss Mary 
Alburtis, of Martinsburg, also wrote me very kindly. 

March 29ih — Letters to day from Miss Nena Kiger and Miss 
Mollie Harlan, and wrote two letters to friends in Winchester, and 
two to Martinsburg. The only newspaper we are permitted to 
buy or receive is the ^^ Philadeliohia Inquirer,''^ a very bitter, boastful 
and malignant sheet, full of falsehoods about the Southern people 
and Confederate armies. Its price to our Yankee guards is five cents, 
to the sick and penniless prisoners is ten cents. A young " galvan- 
ized " man — i. e., one ready to take the oath when allowed — named 
C, who claims to be from both Alabama and Kentucky, is one of 
the nurses in our ward. He had not the courage, fortitude and 
patriotic principle requisite to remain true to the land of his birth, 
and has signified his willingness to repudiate his first pledge, and 
swear allegiance to the Yankee Government. I have talked with 
C, and remonstrated with him upon his disgraceful conduct, but 
he seems resolved upon his course. 

March SOth and SlsiS— My first letter from Dixie since my capture, 
19th September, over six months ago, came to-day and rejoiced me 

186 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

greatly. It was from the Hon. David Clopton, member of the 
Confederate Congress, once a private in my company, and after- 
wards Quartermaster of the Twelfth Alabama. It was dated Rich- 
mond, Virginia, March 6th, and gave me some interesting news. 
He told me brother James was in Tuskegee when he heard from 
him last, about the first of February; that General Grimes, of 
North Carolina, was in command of Rodes' old division, and General 
Battle was at home on account of his wound. He had not heard 
of any casualties in my company lately. The letter closed by 
wishing I might be exchanged soon. Captain Clopton was a 
member of the United States Congress before the war, and is a 
leading lawyer of Alabama, as well as an amiable. Christian gentle- 
man and fine scholar. 

April 1st, 1865 — Sunday — Chaplain William. H. Paddock, of the 
United States army, stationed at Fort Delaware, passed through 
the ward, and learning that he was a minister, I asked for and was 
given a Bible, on the inside cover of which was pasted the following 
printed card, the blanks of which I have filled out: 

"Bible House, Baltimore, Maryland, March, 1865. 

" From the Maryland State Bible Society, to Captain Robert E. 
Park, soldier in company " F," Twelfth regiment, Alabama Volun- 
teers. Should I die on the battle field or in the hospital, for the 
sake of humanity, acquaint my mother, Mrs. S. T. Park, residing 
at Greenville, Georgia, of the fact, and where my remains may be 

Chaplain Paddock seems a very genteel, good man, but his visits 
to the prisoners must be very rare, as to-day is the first time I 
have ever seen or heard of him. Perhaps the soldiers of the gar- 
rison require all his time and attention. The Inquirer gives news 
of the battle of Fort Steadman, which occurred on the 26th 
ultimo, and in which that unreliable sheet states that General 
Gordon made a desperate but unsuccessful attempt to capture the 
fort, but was repulsed with great loss. Gordon is cautious as well 
as gallant, and I believe he gained a victory. General Gordon 
began service as captain of the " Raccoon Roughs," a company in 
the Sixth Alabama of my brigade, from Jackson county, Alabama, 
was successively elected major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and 
promoted brigadier-general, major-general, and I hear is now com- 
manding Early's old corps, with the rank of lieutenant-general. 
In his case, real merit has been promptly and properly rewarded. 
The confronting lines near Petersburg are stretched out over thirty 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 187 

miles, and the papers report numerous deserters, who relate doleful 
tales of scarcity, hardships and despondency within the Confede- 
rate lines. How chafing and irritating this protracted confinement 
in a Yankee bastile is to a Confederate soldier, who sees and keenly 
feels the great necessity for his presence in the Southern army by 
the side of his old comrades, now sorely pressed and well nigh 
overwhelmed by vastly superior numbers, and suffering from want 
of sufficient food and too great loss of sleep and necessary rest. If 
I could be released from this loathed imprisonment, I would gladly 
report on my crutches for duty with my company in the trenches 
around beleaguered Petersburg, the heroic " Cockade City." For, 
while I could neither charge nor retreat, should either be ordered, 
yet I could cheer by my words and inspire by my presence those 
who might be dispirited or despondent. 

April 2d and Zd — The appalling news of the evacuation of Rich- 
mond and Petersburg has reached us, and the Yankee papers are 
frantic in their exultant rejoicings. We have feared and rather 
expected this dreaded event, for General Lee's excessive losses 
from battle, by death and wounds, prisoners, disease and desertion, 
with no reinforcements whatever, taught us that the evacuation of 
the gallant Confederate capital was inevitable. I suppose our peer- 
less chieftain will retreat to Lynchburg, or perhaps to North Caro- 
lina, and there unite his shattered forces with the army of General 
Joseph E. Johnston. "There's life in the old land yet," and Lee 
and Johnston, with their small but veteran armies united, having 
no longer to guard thousands of miles of frontier, will 3'et wrest 
victory and independence for the Confederacy from the immense 
hosts of Yankees, Germans, Irish, English, Canadians and negroes, 
ex-slaves, composing the powerful armies under Grant and Sher- 
man. Would that the 7,000 or 8,000 Confederates now confined at 
Fort Delaware, and their suffering but unconquered comrades at 
Johnson's Island, Point Lookout, Camp Chase, Camp Douglas, 
Rock Island, Elmira and other places could join the closely 
pressed, worn out, starving, but ever faithful and gallant band now 
retreating and fighting step by step, trusting implicitly in the su- 
perb leadership of their idolized commander and his brave lieuten- 
ants Longstreet, Ewell, Early, Gordon, Hampton, Pickett and the rest. 
How quickly the tide of battle would turn, and how speedily glo- 
rious victory would again perch upon our banners ! It is very 
hard, bitter, indeed, to endure this cruel, crushing confinement, 
while our comrades need our aid so greatly. Still I realize the fact 

188 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

that while painful and harrowing to one's feelings to be pent up 
within despised prison walls during such tr3dng times, it is no dis- 
grace to be a prisoner of war, if not captured under dishonorable 
circumstances. Lafayette languished in prison, and so did Louis 
Napoleon, the present Emperor of France, and his illustrious 
uncle, the First Napoleon, and so did St. Paul, and so have the 
great and good of all ages. We are but mortals, and must yield 
to the fiat of remorseless destiny. There are here many splendid 
specimens of physical, mental and moral manhood, and in them 
we see the age of chivalry revived. Three-fourths of the officers 
are under thirty years of age; many are of the first order of talent, 
and will make their marks in after life. A large number are gradu- 
ates of colleges and universities, and many have had the advantage 
of extensive travel over Europe and America, and are gentlemen 
of culture and refinement. Some, of course, in so large a body, 
gathered from so many States, are coarse and unrefined, illiterate 
men, promoted doubtless on account of their gallantry in battle, or 
through the partiality of their ignorant companions. A vast ma- 
jority are brave, gallant and dashing soldiers, and are deserving of 
special mention in my Diary. Superior power has incarcerated 
these men in a loathsome prison, indignities and insults are daily 
heaped upon them, and they have no ability to resent them. Star- 
vation sometimes almost drives them to reluctant submission, but 
the whole Yankee Government, with its immense army of more 
than a million men, cannot shake their confidence in the truth 
and justice of their cause, nor crush their resolute, undaunted 
spirits. For future reference I have bought a small blank book, 
and am getting the autographs of many acquaintances, with their 
militflry rank, name of their commands, and their home address. 
A great many officers in the pen, and a few in the hospital, have 
these autograph books, and are assiduous in collecting names. 

April 4th — Mrs. Emma R. Peterkin, Mrs. Meeteer, and other la- 
dies from Philadelphia, visited the hospital and our ward to-day 
by special permissibn. They brought us some vegetables, fruit, 
etc. Their gentle presence and kindly words of sympathy infused 
new life into us, and was a most delightful and charming incident 
in our cheerless prison experience. One of the ladies came to my 
bed, spoke of her friendship for Mrs. Professor LeConte, of Athens, 
Georgia, and gave me some nice fruit. She also gave me hastily a 
recent number of Ben Wood's excellent Democratic paper, the 
"iYeio York News.^^ This is a real treat, as Ben Wood is a "Rebel 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 189 

sympathizer," and tells the plain truth about the Yankee defeats. 
His paper is forbidden in prison, lest the prisoners should gather 
some crumbs of comfort and items of truth from its bold utter- 
ances. After reading it, it was passed from couch to couch, and read 
with great eagerness. These sweet, gentle hearted women, with 
their winning smiles and cheerful words, proved well springs of 
joy to us, and brought to mind tender thoughts of our homes and 
loved ones. Their coming was like a fairy visitation to the sick, 
wounded and mentally distressed soldiers, lying on their weary 
couches of pain. May God bless and protect them, and may the 
noble virtues of these good women be visited in drops of tenderest 
mercy upon their children, and their children's children, even to 
the third and fourth generation. 

190 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Field Letters from Stuart's Headquarters. 

[The following autograph letters, for which we are indebted to Major H. 
B, McClellan, formerly of General J. E. B. Stuart's staff, are worth preserv- 
ing in our Papers., and will be of interest to others as well as to those who 
"followed the feather "of tlie gallant and lamented Chief of Cavalry of 
Army Northern Virginia.] 

Headquarters, Crenshaw's Farm, 19th August, 1862. 
General J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry : 

General — I desire you to rest your men to-day, refresh your 
horses, prepare rations and everything for the march to-morrow. 
Get what information you can of fords, roads, and position of 
enemy, so that your march can be made understandingly and with 
vigor. I sent to you Captain Mason, an experienced bridge builder, 
&c., whom I think will be able to aid you in the destruction of the 
bridges, &c. When that is accomplished, or while in train of ex- 
ecution, as circumstances permit, I wish you to operate back 
towards Culpeper Courthouse, creating such confusion and con- 
sternation as 3'ou can, without unnecessaril}^ exposing your men, 
till you feel Longstreet's right. Take position then on his right, 
hold yourself in reserve and act as circumstances may require, I 
wish to know during the day how you proceed in your prepara- 
tions. They will require the personal attentions of all your officers. 
The last reports from the signal stations yesterday evening were 
that the enemy was breaking up his principal encampments, and 
moving in direction of Culpeper Courthouse. 
Very respectfully, &c., 
(Signed) R. E. Lee, General. 

Official : 

E. Channing Price, First Lieutenant and A. D. C. 

Headquarters, 19th August, 1862, 4| P. M. 
General J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry : 

General — I have just returned from Clarke's mountain. The 
enemy as far as I can discover is retreating on the road to Fred- 
ericksburg. His route is certainly north of Stevensburg, and is 
thought to be through Brandy station over the Rappahannock by 
Kelly's ford. You will therefore have. to bear well to your right 
after crossing the Rapidan, unless you can get other information. I 
propose to start the troops at the rising of the moon to-morrow 

Field Letters from Stuart''s Headquarters. 191 

morning, which will give the men and horses a little rest, and I 
believe we shall make more than by starting at night. It is so late 
now that they could not get off before. The order for to-morrow 
you will consider modified as above. If you can get information 
of the route of the enemy, you will endeavor to cut him off; other- 
wise, make for Kelly's ford over the Rappahannock. Send back 
all information you can gather. I shall cross at Sommerville ford, 
and follow in the route of the troops towards Brandy station. If 
you can get off earlier than the time I have appointed to advantage^ 
do so. 

Very respectfully, &c., 
(Signed) R. E. Lee, General. 

Official : 

R. Channing Price, First Lieuteyiant and A. D. C. 

Respectfully recommended that Colonel Thomas T. Munford be 
appointed brigadier-general, and assigned to the command of the 
brigade now commanded by him as colonel. My reasons for this 
recommendation are that no colonel in the brigade has been as 
deserving. He is a gallant soldier, a daring and skilful officer, and 
is throughly identified with the brigade as its leader. As a parti- 
zan he has no superior. While others not in the brigade might 
command a higher tribute for ability and military genius, yet 
when I consider the claims of the Colonel for this promotion, and 
the gallant service he has rendered, I am constrained to ask that 
he receive this merited reward. The assignment of a junior to 
this position would be prejudicial to the best interests of the 


Most respectfully, 

J. E. B. Stuart, 
Major- General Commanding Cavalry. 
October 24th, 1862. 

Headquarters Cavalry Division, 
November 11th, 1S62. 

General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector- General C. S. A.: 

General — I have the honor to renew my application for the 
promotion of Major John Pelham to the rank of lieutenant-colonel 
of artillery in my division. He will now have five batteries ; and 
always on the battle field, batteries of other divisions and the reserve 

192 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

are thrown under his command, which make tlie position he holds 
one of great responsibility, and it should have corresponding rank. 
I will add that Pelham's coolness, courage, ability and judgment, 
evinced on so many battle fields, vindicate his claims to promotion. 
So far as service goes he has long since won a colonelcy at the 
hands of his country. He is a native of Alabama, a graduate at 
West Point. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. E. B. Stuart, 3Tajor- General. 

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, 
January 31st, 1863. 

Major-General J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry Division: 

General — I have read with great pleasure the report of 
Colonel Butler, commanding Second South Carolina cavalry, of 
the gallant conduct of Sergeant Mickler and his party in the skir- 
mish in the streets of Brentsville, on 9th instant. Colonel Butler 
says well '' that they are entitled to the notice and thanks of their 
officers and the country." I have forwarded the report to the Sec- 
retary of War, with the recommendation that these men be pro- 
moted for "gallantry and skill" when the opportunity offers. 
Should such an opportunity occur, it will give me pleasure to pre- 
sent their names to the Secretaiy. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully. 
Your obedient servant, 

R. E. Lee, General. 

Headquarters Cavalry Corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia, April 4th, 1864. 


General — I wish you to bear in mind a few considerations for 
your government as the commander of the outposts on the lower 

Keep out scouts who will be competent and certain of commu- 
nicating to you any movement of a large body of infantry (which 
of course will be preceded by a large force of cavalry), down the 
Rappahannock on the north side, with the view to a change of base 
or extension of line to the Acquia railroad. Endeavor to secure 
accurate information and telegraph it clearly, avoiding the possibility 


Field Letters from Stuart'' s Headquarters. 193 

of ambiguity for wliich telegrams are noted. It is very important 
also to state time and place of enemy's movement. Should the 
enemy endeavor to cross the river anywhere in your front, it is 
desirable to prevent it, it is possible to delay it, and to the accom- 
plishment of these alternatives, preferably the former, devote every 
effort, and if needed send for Hart's battery near Milford. Bear 
in mind that your telegrams may make the whole army strike tents, 
and night or day, rain or shine, take up the line of march ; endeavor 
therefore to secure accurate information. 

Should the enemy cross at Eley's or Germana, you should move 
at once to meet him, feel his force, endeavor to penetrate his designs, 
and report back by telegram giving his progress, and watch his 
direction of march, in doing which do not let a feigned movement 
deceive you. It is probably that a corresponding move will be 
made by a part or all of our main body, to connect your reconnois- 
sance with which will be highly desirable. The enemy's main body 
will, in the event of such a move, either march directly for Fred- 
ericksburg, or move uj) the turnpike or plank road towards Vidiers- 
ville, as before. In the former case, endeavor to impede his march 
with artillery and dismounted men, so as to give us a chance to 
strike his flank. In the latter case, close up and harass his rear, as 
Eosser did so handsomely before. Above all, Vigilance, Vigilance, 

Very respectfully, 

J. E. B. Stuart, Major- General. 
Brigadier-General J. K. Ciiambliss, Commanding., 8f-c. 


Headqtjakters Army Northern Virginia, 
23cl April, 1864. 
Major-Ceneral J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding C. C: 

General — The Commanding General directs me to inform 
you, that in view of the reports of your scouts and those of General 
Imboden, he is disposed to believe that Averill contemplates making 
another expedition either to Staunton or the Virginia and Tennessee 
railroad simultaneously with the general movement of the Federal 
army. The reduction of the enemy's force on the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad, in the lower valley, has induced the General to 
direct General Imboden, if he finds it practicable, to endeavor to 
anticipate the movement of Averill, and disconcert his plans by a 
demonstration against the railroad and the force guarding it in 

194 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Martinsburg and the lower valley. Should General Imboden at- 
tempt this, General Lee thinks that his end might be promoted by 
the co-operation of Colonel Mosby, and he directs that you will 
notify the latter to communicate with General Imboden, and, if 
possible, arrange some plan for a combined movement. Great care 
should be taken to prevent your letter to Mosby from falling into 
the hands of the enemy. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Charles Marshall, 
Lieutenant- Colonel and A. D. G. 


Zagonyt's Charge toith FremonCs Body Guard. 195 

Za^onyi's Charg-e with Freiuont's Body-Guard— A Picturesque 

By Colonel William Preston Johnston. 

In some recent studies on the late civil war, the attention of the 
writer has directed itself to the amazing exaggeration of certain 
fighters, and the equally wonderful credulity of certain writers. 
This was quite notable in the war in Missouri in 1861. The follow- 
ing instance will illustrate this class of cases. Its extreme im- 
probability rests not more upon its explicit denial by the Confede- 
rates engaged, than on the internal evidences of inveracity. The 
writer has no individual interest in the question, except that of 
historical truth. But if this communication shou'ld tend to elicit 
the exact facts in this case, or to start similar inquiries in other 
cases, it will do something towards giving a solid basis to our war 
history, which should not rest upon fiction. 

Among the stories that have been repeated until they have ac- 
quired currency and are liable to pass into history, unless contra- 
dicted, one of the most conspicuous in the Missouri campaign is 
the myth of " the charge of Zagonyi." Major Zagonyi, a Hunga- 
rian, the commander of Fremont's body-guard, gained great credit 
for the prodigious prowess of his command from his report of a 
charge in which he led 150 of them against 2,200 Confederates, 
whom he routed and slaughtered fearfully. His story is told in 
the Report on the Conduct of the War (part 3, page 186) and is 
vouched for by General Fremont (ibid, page 72); and, altogether, 
makes a very amusing piece of war literature. 

This fierce hussar beholds the enemy in line of battle ; he charges 
down a lane 200 yards, in which forty of his men are unhorsed. 
He continues thus: 

"I formed my command, which at the time was hardly more 
than 100 men, and with them I attacked the enemy, and in less 
than five seconds the enemy were completely broken to pieces and 
running in every direction. My men were so much excited that, 
ten or fifteen of them would attack hundreds of the enemy ; and 
in that single attack, I lost fifteen men killed — that was all I lost 
in dead ; and the enemy's dead men on the ground were 106. 

" Question. How did you kill them — with sabres or with re- 

" Answer. Mostly with the sabre. We Hungarians teach our 

196 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

soldiers never to use the revolver, as they are of very little use. 
The sabre is the only arm the cavalry need, if they are well drilled. 
There were no swords of my men that were not bloody; and I saw 
swords from which the blood was running down on the hand. 
The men were drilled very well. I had only six weeks from the 
time I had the first man sworn in service to the time we started 
for the field; but in those six weeks I brought them forward so far 
as I ever thought I should be able to do." :ic * * * 

" By Mr. Chandler — Question. How many did you have wounded 
besides the fifteen killed?" 

"Answer. I had twenty-eight wounded," etc. * * 

" Question. Do you know the number of the wounded of the 
enemy? " 

" Answer. No, sir; I do dot, but I heard that it was a great many ; 
and that a great many of them would die, because they had mostly 
received heav}' cuts on the head. All the dead were cut in the 
head. Some of the enemy behaved themselves very bravely indeed, 
but they were not able to hold up against this tremendous charged 

Zagonyi says in the course of two pages of testimony : " I found 
that the enemy, instead of having only 300 or 400, had 1,800 or 
1,900." " After the battle was over, I found out there was indeed 
2,200." " The probability was that there were 1,900 of the enemy." 

In spite of the combined oriental exuberance and suspicious 
Falstaffian minuteness of this witness, not only less respectable 
annalists, but the Comte de Paris substantially accepts and adopts 
his story as a true narrative. The writer is assured, however, by 
those conversant with the facts, that Zagonyi's rhodomontade was 
merely the cloak for a disaster. He was ambuscaded by militia, 
not more numerous than his own command, and severely handled, 
with the loss of only two or three of his opponents. 

If his story, or similar military reports, had been true, it was the 
wildest extravagance on the part of the United States to keep 
60,000 or 80,000 men on foot in Missouri, as was the case at that 
time. Fremont's body-guard should have been increased to 2,000 
or 3,000 men and permitted " to charge with sabres " wherever the 
Confederates could be found " in line of battle." Instead of this, 
an ungrateful Republic, while it embalmed these heroes in its history, 
somewhat contumeliously discharged them from its service. What 
is the truth of it? 

VV. P. J. 

Disaission of the Prison Question. 197 

The Nation on Our Discussion of tlie Prison Question. 

Our readers will remember that we devoted the numbers of our 
Papers for March and April of last year (1876) to a discussion of 
the " T)'eatment of Prisoners during the War between the States.^' We 
sent copies of the numbers containing this discussion to all of the 
leading newspapers of the country, and wrote them a private letter 
enclosing proof-sheets of our summing iqj, and asking of them such 
review as they might think proper. • Our »Southern papers gene- 
rally published fall and most complimentary notices of the discus- 
sion ; but the Northern press, so far as we learned, were silent, 
except a few such ill-natured paragraphs as the one which ap- 
peared in the New York Tribune, to the effect that the "country 
wanted peace," and they did not see why we could not let it have 
the peace after which it longed. 

Among other papers to which we sent our articles was The Na- 
tion, from which we hoped to have had a review. It was silent, 
however, until in its issue of April 5th, 1877 (twelve months after 
our publication), it honors us with a notice which, while ably and 
very adroitly put, utterly fails, we think, either to fairly represent 
our argument or to meet the issues involved. At all events, we are 
willing for our readers to judge between us, and we give herewith 
in full The Nation's review : 


The Southern Historical Society has just published the report of 
its Secretary on the treatment of prisoners by Ihe South in the late 
war — a subject spoken of by us only a few weeks ago (vol. xxiii, p. 
385). The report of such a society is entitled to consideration 
from its source; but we regret to say that its treatment is not judi- 
cial, and that it adds but little to our knowledge of the matter. 
The evidence of abuses at the largest Southern prisons — Ijibby, 
Bell Isle, and especially Andersonville — is so extensive and so ex- 
cellent (including the statements of both the investigating officers 
sent by the Confederate Government) that general denials by the 
author, or persons like General Lee, who do not appear to have 
had any personal knowledge of the matter, will hardly receive 
the attention the Secretary seems to expect, particularly as it appears 
plainly enough from the report that there is only too much foun- 
dation for the charges. The author, however, seems to think that 
any weakness on this point is fully covered if he can show that 
the North was responsible for the stoppage of exchange and that 
Southerners suffered in Northern prisons, having the impression, 

198 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

apparently, that if that were the case no responsibility could after- 
wards rest on the South ; and this seems, curiously enough, to be 
the position of nearly all the Southern writers who have referred 
to the matter. Instead of frankly acknowledging and regretting 
these wrongs, they defend them. Extraordinary as it may seem, 
this Historical Society justifies the preparations made to blow up 
the thousand and odd Union officers in the Libby prison at the 
time when the near approach of Dahlgren threatened Richmond ; 
and no doubt the order of Winder at Andersonville to the same 
effect appears to these Southern historians in the same light. 

After this our readers will not be much surprise to learn that 
Winder was a gallant hero and Wirz a saintly martyr, though the 
immediate responsibility for the fearful mortality rests upon them 
beyond a question. It appears plainly enough from this report 
that the mortality at Andersonville was almost wholly from diar- 
rhcea, dysentery, gangrene, scurvy, and allied diseases, produced 
principally by overcrowding, filth, exposure, bad water, and insuf- 
ficient food, and that all of these, except possibly the last, were 
easily remediable. There was an abundance of land and timber 
for extending the limits of the prison, crowded with more than 
four times the number it could healthily hold. Shelter there was 
none. Colonel Persons, during the brief j>eriod of his command 
at the first opening of the prison in the spring of 1864, collected 
lumber for barracks, but General Winder refused to -use it, and 
compelled even the sick in hospital to lie on the ground in such a 
state that the Confederate surgeons on duty reported that the con- 
dition of the hospital " was horrible." This refusal to provide 
shelter was as unnecessary as the overcrowding. When, on the 
death of General W^inder in the spring of 1865, General Imboden 
took command, he seems to have had no trouble in erecting dwell- 
ings for 1,200 or 1,500 men within a fortnight by the labor of the 
prisoners, and he mentions the want of shelter as one of the 
principal causes of the death-rate of the previous year. Here 
again we find it difficult to put ourselves in the position of an 
historian who thinks that this refusal of General Winder and 
Lieutenant Wirz to furnish shelter was justified by an attempt to 
escape made by one of the first parties allowed to go outside the 
stockade months before. Yet this is seriously said of a prison 
where in five months about ten thousand men died in an average of 
less than twenty thousand confined, and in October the deaths were 
one-fourth of the average number there (1,560 in average 6,200). 
The drainage and water-supply stand in the same position. Both 
were foul, when they might easily have been fine. These things 
were so needless and so fatal that we can well believe Colonel 
Chandler, who reported officially to the Confederate Government, 
at the time when men were dying at the rate of over one hundred 
a day, that General Winder advocated " deliberately and in cold 
blood the propriety of leaving them in their present condition until 
their number had been sufficiently reduced by death to make the 


Discussion of the Prison Question. 199 

present arrangement suffice for their accommodation." With such 
an object before him, there is little reason to doubt the evidence of 
the bad quality and the insufficient amount of food furnished. 
The Secretary, in his report, quotes three witnesses (Frost, Jones 
and Park), to the effect that the same rations were issued to the 
guard — a disputed point not perhaps very important to settle, as it 
is not denied that there were abundant supplies at Americus and 
elsewhere in the vicinity, in a region which Sherman found so well 
supplied, and that our men were starving to death on the rations 
of unbolted corn-meal alone that were issued to them, while the 
gifts of charitable neighbors were not allowed to be distributed to 

The responsibility of General Winder and Lieutenant Wirz for 
all this cannot be rationally denied ; but we could wish for our 
national credit that it went no further. Unfortunately, the injudi- 
cious authors of this report will not allow us to believe so. Early 
in 1864, soon after the general reduction in rations to the prisoners 
of war in the hands of the Confederates, attention was drawn to 
their sufferings. Colonel Persons appealed to the courts for an 
injunction on the Anderson ville prison as a public nuisance, Plon. 
H. S. Foote, aroused by the Secretary of War's recommendation 
that no more meat be issued to the prisoners, called the attention 
of the Confederate House of Representatives to their sufferings, 
and asked investigation. General Howell Cobb, who had com- 
mand of the department, investigated the hospitals, and, in the face 
of outspoken reports from the surgeons in charge, reported that 
action was not required. Dr. Jones, however, who was specially 
sent there by the Government for scientific investigation, made a 
report which, though one-sided and long-winded, showed plainly 
■enough the state of things. Colonel Chandler, who was sent by 
the Secretary of War, Colonel Seddon, to investigate the charges, 
briefly reported in August, 1864, that it was "a place the horrors 
which it is difficult to describe, and which is a disgrace to civiliza- 
tion," and recommended the removal of General Winder. General 
Cooper, the Inspector-General, endorsed this report, writing that 
" Andersonville is a reproach to us as a nation." J. A. Campbell, 
the Assistant Secretary of War, urgently endorsed the report. Gen- 
eral Bragg and General Ransom and others agitated for Winder's 
removal. Judge Ould made the mortality of the prisoners the 
ground for a strong appeal to the United States for a renewal of 
exchange. And this ivas all. Mr. Davis not only refused to remove 
General Winder, but extended his authority to all the Confederate 
prisons, which powers he held until his death in the following year. 
The apologists for President Davis have always contended that he 
was not aware of the "horror"; and singular as it may seem that 
a ruler who always made himself personally familiar with even 
the details of the War Office, should not have known of an in- 
vestigation of such a nature, made in consequence of action of the 
House, pressed by the principal departments, and made the basis 


200 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

of diplomatic action with the United States, the wrong was so great 
that we hesitated to believe that Mr. Davis could sanction or defend 
it. But it appears from this report that Mr. Davis knew General 
Winder's character, and — we quote his own words in his letter of 
June 20, 1867 — " was always, therefore, confident that the charge 
was unjustly imputed " and that everything was done that could 
have been expected. We must confess to a feeling of regret that 
an injudicious advocate has thought it necessary to publish a letter 
that shows the man whom half of our nation for years delighted 
to honor, as always knowing the charges and defending the course 

The Secretary expends a considerable space upon stories of wrongs 
by Northern soldiers, most of which are probably true, but it is 
hardly Avorth while to analyze in detail the confused assemblage. 
Many of the incidents were the unavoidable atrocities of border 
warfare, not connected with the prisons discussed, and most of the 
others were exceptional, occurring under officers who were speedily 
removed, or under unusual circumstances, as appears by the ac- 
counts of others in the same report, showing a generally different 
state of affairs. That sad abuses occurred occasionally is evident 
enough, but that there was any general ill-treatment for which 
the Government was responsible there is no reason to believe, except 
certain suspicious statistics of prison mortality made up from state- 
ments of Secretary Stanton as to the number of prisoners taken, 
and a report of Surgeon Barnes giving the total number of deaths. 
The result of the calculation is startling, for it shows a rate of 
mortality in the Confederate prisons, excluding Andersonville, only 
about one-half of that in the Northern. Bearing in mind the great 
sacrifice of life at Belle Isle and Libby, and the loose way in 
which the estimate is made from diverse and inaccessible sources, 
it seems suspicious in the extreme. It has been impossible to 
learn anything about it from the present Adjutant-General's office, 
where the applicant will find himself turned off with some ambig- 
uous statement that the mortality on one side is roughly estimated 
at 12 per cent., and on the other side at 16 per cent.; and if he asks 
on which side it was twelve and which sixteen, be refused further 
information on the ground that to answer such requests " would 
require the entire clerical force of the office for about three years." 
It is to be hoped that under the new Administration this stain on 
the national honor may be removed. But meanwhile our reputa- 
tion suffers most seriously from the charge, as any one who re- 
members the flings of foreign journals will recall with mortifica- 

Now we respectfully ask any one interested in the matter to read 
what we published on this question, and we feel entirely confident 
that any fair-minded man will agree with us that the above -notice 
of The Nation is an unfair representation of both our argument 
and the spirit in which we wrote. Our discussion was not a " re- 

Discussion of the Prison Question. 201 

port on the treatment of prisoners by the South in the late war," 
else it might have assumed a different form, and perhaps have 
been more "judicial." But the slanders against the South, which 
had gone so long unanswered that they had " run riot over both 
facts and probabilities," were repeated on the floor of the House of 
Representatives by Mr. Blaine, who charged that "3/r. Davis was 
the author, knoioingly, deliberately, guiltily and wilfully, of the gigantic 
murder and crime at Andersonville.^^ We felt called on to defend our 
Government from these charges, and our argument was not that 
there were no " abuses " in Southern prisons — that there was no 
evidence of cruelty to prisoners on the part of individuals, and by 
no meaas that there were not great sufferings and fearful mortalit}' 
among the Federal prisoners at the South ; but we pursued a line 
of argument clearly indicated in the following brief summing up, with 
which we closed our discussion, and which, we respectfully sub- 
mit. The Nation might have given to its readers, if it had been 
itself disposed to be ^'judiciaV' in its treatment of this question. 
We closed our discussion as follows : 

We think that we have established the following points : 

1. The laws of the Confederate Congress, the orders of the War 
Department, the regulations of the Surgeon-General, the action of 
our Generals in the field, and the orders of those who had the im- 
mediate charge of the prisoners, all provided that prisoners in the 
hands of the Confederates should be kindly treated, supplied with 
the same rations which our soldiers had, and cared for when sick 
in hospitals placed on precisely the same footing as the hospitcds for 
Confederate soldiers. 

2. If these regulations were violated in individual instances, and 
if subordinates were sometimes cruel to prisoners, it was without 
the knowledge or consent of the Confederate Government, which 
always took prompt action on any case reported to them. 

3. If the prisoners failed to get their full rations, and had those 
of inferior quality, the Confederate soldiers suffered in precisely the 
same way, and to the same extent, and it resulted from that system 
of warfare adopted by the Federal authorities, which carried deso- 
lation and ruin to every part of the South they could reach, and 
which in starving the Confederates into submission brought the 
same evils upon their own men in Southern prisons. 

4. The mortality in Southern prisons (fearfully large, although 
over three per cent, less than the mortality in Xorfhern jrrisons), resulted 
from causes beyond the control of our authorities — from epidemics, 
&c., which might have been avoided, or greatly mitigated, had not 
the Federal Government declared medicines "contraband of war" — 
refused the proposition of Judge Quid, that each Government 
should send its own surgeons with medicines, hospital stores, Szc, 

202 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

to minister to soldiers in prison — declined his proposition to send 
medicines to its own men in Southern prisons, without being re- 
quired to allow the Confederates the same privilege — refused to 
allow the Confederate Government to buy medicines for gold, 
tobacco or cotton, which it offered to pledge its honor should be 
used only for Federal prisoners in its hands — refused to exchange 
sick and wounded — and neglected from August to December, 1864, 
to accede to Judge Quid's proposition to send transportation to 
Savannah and receive toithout equivalent from ten to fifteen thousand 
Federal prisoners, notwithstanding the fact that this offer was ac- 
companied with a statement of the utter inability of the Confede- 
racy to provide for these prisoners, and a detailed report of the 
monthly mortality at Andersonville, and that Judge Ould, again 
and again, urged compliance with his humane proposal. 

5. We have proven, by the most unimpeachable testimony, that 
the sufferings of Confederate prisoners in Northern "prison pens," 
were terrible beyond description — that they were starved in a land 
of plenty — that they were frozen where fuel and clothing were 
abundant — that they suffered untold horrors for want of medicines, 
hospital stores and proper medical attention — that they were shot 
by sentinels, beaten by officers, and subjected to the most cruel 
punishments upon the slightest pretexts — that friends at the North 
were refused the privilege of clothing their nakedness or feeding 
them when starving — and that these outrages were perpetrated not 
only with the full knowledge of, but under the orders of E. M. 
StantOxN, U. S. Secretary of War. We have proven these things 
by Federal as well as Confederate testimony. 

6. We have shown that all the suffering of prisoners on both 
sides could have been avoided by simply carrying out the terms 
of the cartel, and that for the failure to do this the Federal authori- 
ties alone were responsible; that the Confederate Government 
originally proposed the cartel, and were always ready to carry it 
out in both letter and spirit; that the Federal authorities observed 
its terms only so long as it was to their interest to do so, and then 
repudiated their plighted faith, and proposed other terms, which 
were greatly to the disadvantage of the Confederates ; that when 
the Government at Richmond agreed to accept the hard terms of 
exchange offered them, these were at once repudiated by the Fede- 
ral authorities ; that when Judge Ould agreed upon a new cartel 
with General Butler, Lieutenant-General Grant refused to approve 
it, and Mr. Stanton repudiated it; and that the policy of the Fede- 
ral Government was to refuse all exchanges, while they " fired the 
Northern heart" by placing the whole blame upon the "Rebels," 
and by circulating the most heartrending stories of "Rebel bar- 
barity " to prisoners. 

If either of the above points has not been made clear to any 
sincere seeker after the truth, we would be most happy to produce 
further testimony. And we hold ourselves prepared to maintain, 
against all comers, the truth of every proposition ive have laid down in 


Discussion of the Prison Question. 203 

■this discussion. Let the calm verdict of history decide between the 
Confederate Government and their calumniators. 

We regret that The Nation did not attempt to meet these points 
fairly and squarely, instead of seeking to break their force by an 
ingenious (though we are willing to hope unintentional) misrep- 
resentation of what we wrote. 

But as it has not thought proper to pursue this course, let us 
briefly examine some of the points in its review. The sneer at the 
testimony of "persons like General Lee, who do not appear to 
have had any personal knowledge of the matter," shows an utter 
misapprehension of the object for which we introduced such testi- 

We gave the statements of ex- President Davis, General R. E. 
Lee, Vice-President A. H. Stephens, and others high in authority 
among the Confederates, not to show that there was not suffering 
among the prisoners, but to show that the Confederate Government 
always ordered that the prisoners should be kindly treated, and 
that they sought to have these kind intentions carried out. 

We did not attempt to justify cruel treatment to Federal prison- 
ers on the ground " that the North was responsible for the stop- 
page of exchange, and that Southerners suffered in Northern 
prisons." We might not have introduced the treatment of Con- 
federates in Northern prisons at all, in this discussion, but for the 
fact that Mr. Blaine (to whom we were replying) threw down the 
gauntlet, and declared that there was no cruel treatment of Con- 
federate prisoners at the North — indeed, that they were much 
better cared for than when in the Confederacy — and we felt called 
on, therefore, to show that the Federal authorities were themselves 
guilty of the atrocities which they (falsely) charged against the 

The statement that " this Historical Society justifies the prepa- 
rations made to blow up the thousand and odd Union officers in 
the Libby Prison at the time when the near approach of Dahlgren 
threatened Richmond," is not capable of even a fair inference from 
anything which we wrote. We simply published in full, without 
note or comment, the report of the committee of the Confederate 
Congress, presented March 3d, 1865, in which they give the circum- 
stances under which the authorities of Libby Prison acted (Dahl- 
gren approaching Richmond for the avowed purpose of liberating 
over 5,000 prisoners and sacking the city, after murdering the 


204 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Confederate President, Cabinet, &c.) If The Nation desires to dis- 
cuss that question, we presume it could be accomodated, but we 
expressed absolutely no opinion xvhatever on it. Nor did we intimate 
the opinion that " Wirz was a saintly martyr.''^ We simply showed 
that the charges against him were not proven — that his so-called- 
" trial " was the veriest mockery of justice — that much of the testi- 
mony against him was afterwards proven to be perjured — and that 
the witnesses for the defence were summarily dismissed (without 
being heard) by the prosecution. Nor did we deem it incumbent 
upon us to enter into any defence of General Winder, distinctly 
averring that "if it could be proven beyond all doubt that the 
officers at Andersonville were the fiends incarnate that Northern 
hatred pictures them to be, there is not one scintilla of proof that 
the Government at Richmond ordered, approved or in any way 
countenanced their atrocities." But we did publish incidentally 
letters from Secretary Seddon, ex-President Davis, Adjutant-Gene- 
ral S. Cooper, Colonel George W. Brent and General G. T. Beaure- 
gard, and the testimony of Federal prisoners themselves, going to 
show that the charges against him were false. 

The Nation then proceeds to ring the same old charges on the 
horrors of Andersonville which we have heard for years, and utterly 
ignores the testimony which we introduced on the other side. We 
gave the statements of Mr. L. M. Park, of La Grange, Georgia (for 
whom we vouched as a gentleman of unimpeachable character), 
who was on duty at Andersonville nearly the whole of the time it 
was a prison, and who gives the most emphatic testimony to the 
effect that the water used by the prisoners was the same as that 
used by the guards, and was not " foul," as has been repre- 
sented — that the failure to erect barracks was from want of mills 
to saw the lumber, want of timber, and lack of even a supply of 
nails — that the rations issued to the prisoners were precisely the 
same as those issued to the guard — that the mortalit}^ among the 
guard was as great, in proportion to numbers, as among the pris- 
oners — and that the causes of the mortality were utterly beyond 
the control of the Confederate authorities. 

We published also an able and exhaustive paper from Dr. Joseph 
Jones, of New Orleans (a gentleman who stands in the very front 
rank of his profession), who ofhcall}'' investigated and reported on 
the causes of mortality at Andersonville, and who, while admitting 
and deploring the fearful death rate, fully exonerates the Confede- 
rate authorities from blame in the matter. We also gave a number 


Discussion of the Prison Quedion. 205 

of orders, letters, &c., from the Confederate authorities, showing 
that they were doing all in their power to mitigate the sufferings 
of the prisoners, and the emphatic testimony of Dr. Randolph 
Stevenson, the surgeon in charge of the hospital, to the following 
effect : 

"The guards on duty here were similarly affected with gangrene 
and scurvy. Captain Wirz had gangrene in an old wound, which 
he had received in the battle of Manassas, in 1861, and was absent 
from the post (Andersonville) some four weeks on surgeon's certifi- 
cate. (In his trial certain Federal witnesses swore to his killing certain 
prisoners in August, 1864, lohen he (Wirz) ivas actnally at that time absent 
on sick leave in Angusta, Georgia.) General Winder had gangrene of 
the face, and was forbidden by his surgeon (I. H. White) to go in- 
side the stockade. Colonel G. C. Gibbs, commandant of the post, 
had gangrene of the face, and was furloughed under the certificate 
of Surgeons Wible and Gore, of Americus, Georgia. The writer 
of this can fully attest to effects of gangrene and scurvy contracted 
whilst on dut}^ there; their marks will follow him to his grave. 
The Confederate graveyard at Andersonville will fully prove that 
the mortality among the guards was almost as great in proportion 
to the number of men as among the Federals." 

The paper of General Imbodcn, wliich we published, fully cor- 
roborates the above statements. 

But we gave the testimony of Mr. John M. Frost, of the Nine- 
teenth Maine regiment, the resolutions of the Andersonville pris- 
oners adopted September 23d, 1864, the testimon}^ of Prescott 
Tracy, of the Eighty-second regiment, New York volunteers, and 
of another Andersonville prisoner — all going to established in the 
most emphatic manner the points we made. The Nation ignores 
most of this testimony, and uses what it alludes to very much as 
Judge Advocate Chipman did Dr. Jones' report in the Wirz trial — 
i. e., uses it to prove that great suffering and mortality existed at 
Andersonville, but suppresses the part ivhich exonerates the Confederate 
authorities from the charges made against them. 

Even at the risk of wearying our readers, we must (for tlie bene- 
fit of those who have not seen our previous papers on this subject), 
repeat our comments on the testimony we introduced : 

It appears, then, from the foregoing statements that the prison at 
Andersonville was established with a view to healthfuhicss of loca- 
tion, and that the great mortality which ensued resulted chiefly 
from the crowded condition of the stockade, the use of corn bread, 
to which the prisoners had not been accustomed, tlie want of va- 
riety in the rations furnished, and the want of medicines and hos- 

206 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

pital stores to enable our surgeons properly to treat the sick. As 
to the first point, the reply is at hand. The stockade at Anderson- 
ville was originally designed for a much smaller number of pris- 
oners than were afterwards crowded into it. But prisoners accu- 
mulated — after the stoppage of exchange — in Richmond and at 
other points; the Dahlgren raid — which had for its avowed object 
the liberation of the prisoners, the assassination of President Davis 
and his Cabinet, and the sacking of Richmond — warned our autho- 
rities against allowing large numbers of prisoners to remain in 
Richmond, even if the difficulty of feeding them there was removed; 
and the only alternative was to rush them down to Andersonville, 
as enough men to guard them elsewhere could not be spared from 
the ranks of our armies, which were now everywhere fighting over- 
whelming odds. We have a statement from an entirely trustworthy 
source that the reason prisoners were not detailed to cut timber 
with which to enlarge the stockade and build shelters is, that this 
privilege was granted to a large number of them when the prison 
was first established, they giving their parole of honor not to at- 
tempt to escape ; and that they violated their paroles, threw away their 
axes, and spread dismay throughout that whole region by creating the 
impression that all of the prisoners had broken loose. This experiment 
could not, of course, be repeated, and the rest had to suffer for the 
bad faith of these, who not only prevented the detail of any num- 
bers of other prisoners for this work, but made way with axes which 
could not be replaced. In reference to feeding the prisoners on 
corn bread, there has been the loudest complaints and the bitterest 
denunciations. The}^ had not been accustomed to such hard fare 
as "hog and hominy," and the poor fellows did suffer fearfully 
from it. But the Confederate soldiers had the same rations. Our sol- 
diers had the advantage of buying supplies and of receiving occa- 
sional boxes from home, which the prisoners at Andersonville 
could have enjoyed to an even greater extent had the United States 
authorities been willing to accept the humane proposition of our 
Commissioner of Exchange — to allow each side to send supplie& 
to their prisoners. But why did not the Confederacy furnish bet- 
ter rations to both' our own soldiers and our prisoners? and why 
were the prisoners at Andersonville not supplied with ivheat bread 
instead of corn bread ? Answers to these questions may be abun- 
dantly found by referring to the orders of Major-General John 
Pope, directing his men "to live on the country"; the orders of 
General Sherman, in fulfilling his avowed purpose to " make 
Georgia howl " as he "smashed things generally " in that "great 
march," which left smoking, blackened ruins and desolated fields ta 
mark his progress ; the orders of General Grant to his Lieutenant, 
to desolate the rich wheat-growing Valley of Virginia; or the re- 
ports of General Sheridan, boasting of the number of barns he had 
burned, the mills he had destroyed, and the large amount of wheat 
he had given to the flames, until there was really more truth than 
poetry in his boast that he had made the Shenandoah Valley "such a 

Discussion of the Prison Question. 207 

waste that even a crow flying over would be compelled to carry his 
own rations." We have these and other similar orders of Federal 
Generals in our archives (we propose to give hereafter a few choice 
extracts from them), and we respectfully submit that, for tlie South 
to be abused for not furnishing Federal prisoners with better ra- 
tions, when our own soldiers and people had been brought pain- 
fully near the starvation point by the mode of warfare which the 
Federal Government adopted, is even more unreasonable than the 
course of the old Egyptian task-masters who required their captives 
to " make brick without straw." And to the complaints that the 
sick did not have proper medical attention, we reply that the hos- 
pital at Andersonville v/as placed on precisely the same footing as the 
hospitals for the treatment of our own soldiers. We have the law of the 
Confederate Congress enjoining this, and the orders of the Surgeon- 
General enforcing it. Besides, we have in our archives a large 
budget of original orders, telegrams, letters, &c., which passed be- 
tween the officers on duty at Andersonville and their superiors. 
We have carefully looked through this large mass of papers, and 
we have been unable to discover a single sentence indicating that the 
prisoners were to be treated otherwise than kindl}^, or that the hos- 
pital was to receive a smaller supply of medicines or of stores than 
the hospitals for Confederate soldiers. On the contrary, the whole 
of these papers go to show that the prison hospital at Andersonville 
was on the same footing precisely with every hospital for sick or 
wounded Confederates, and that the scarcity of medicines and hos- 
pital stores, of which there was such constant complaint, proceeded 
from causes which our authorities could not control. 

But we can make the case still stronger. Whose fault was it 
that the Confederacy was utterly unable to supply medicines for 
the hospitals of either friends or foe ? Most unquestionably the re- 
sponsibility rests with the Federal authorities. They not only 
declared medicines "contraband of war"— even arresting ladies 
coming South for concealing a little quinine under their skirts— but 
they sanctioned the custom of their soldiers to sack every drug 
store in the Confederacy which they could reach, and to destroy 
even the little stock of medicines which the private physician might 
chance to have on hand. 

When General Milroy banished from Winchester, Virginia, the 
family of Mr. Lovd Logan, because the General (and his wife) 
fancied his elegantly furnished mansion for headquarters, he not 
only forbade their carrying with them a change of raiment, and 
refused to allow Mrs. Logan to take one of her spoons with which 
to administer medicine to a sick child, but he most emphatically^ 
prohibited their carrying a small medicine chest, or even a. Jciv phials of 
medicine which the physician had prescribed for immediate use. I os- 
siblv some ingenious casuist may defend this policy; but who will 
defend at the bar of history the refusal of the Federal authorities 
to accept Judge Quid's several propositions to allow surgeons Irom 
either side to visit and minister to their own men in prison— to 

208 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

allow each to furnish medicines, etc., to their prisoners in the hands 
of the other — and finally to purchase in the North, for gold, cotton, 
or tobacco, medicines for the exclusive use of Federcd prisoners in the 
South? Well might General Lee have said to President Davis, 
in response to expressions of bitter disappointment when he re- 
ported the failure of his efforts to bring about an exchange of pris- 
oners : " We have done everything in our power to mitigate the suffering of 
prisoners, and there is no just cause for a sense of further responsibility on 
our party 

The Nation says: "We find it difficult to put ourselves in the 
position of an historian who thinks that this refusal of General 
Winder and Lieutenant Wirz to furnish shelter was justified by an 
attempt to escape made by one of the first parties allowed to go 
outside the stockade months before." Now this, as the reader can 
readily see by glancing at the sentence, is very different from what 
we wrote. We did not justify "a refusal of General Winder and 
Lieutenant Wirz to furnish shelter''^ (on the contrary, if these "judi- 
cial" gentlemen of The Nation will stop their bald assertions and 
prove that there was such a "refuscd,^^ we will join them in strong 
condemnation of it), but we cited this incident to account for the 
fact that details of prisoners were not made for the purpose for some 
time after the first parties violated their paroles and threw away 
implements which could not be replaced. That these details were 
made afterwards, our testimony abundantly shows. 

We might have mentioned several other reasons for the delay in 
providing more comfortable quarters for the prisoners at Anderson- 
ville: 1. It was always expected to very greatly reduce the number 
by the establishment of other prisons which were being prepared 
as rapidly as the means at hand would allow. 2. It was hoped 
that the United States authorities would surely consent to an ex- 
change of prisoners when the Confederates agreed to their own 
hard terms, which Judge Ould had finally done. 3, And when 
our Commissioner proposed in August, 1864, to deliver at Savannah 
from ten to fifteen thousand prisoners which the Federal authori- 
ties might have withoiit equivalent by simply sending transportation 
for them, it was reasonably supposed that Andersonville would be 
at once relieved of its over-crowding, for it was not anticipated that 
the United States Government would be guilty of the crime of 
allowing its brave soldiers to languish, suffer and die from August 
until December when "the Rebels" opened the doors of the prison 
and bade them go without conditions. 4. We ought to have 
brought out more clearly in our discussion the bearings of the 

Discussion of the Prison Question, 209 

difficulties of transportation which the Confederates encountered the 
last year of the war, npon this question of properly providing for 
their prisoners. Any one who will even glance through tlie papers 
on the "Resources of the Confederacy" which we have published, 
will see how the breaking down of the railroads and the utter in- 
adequacy of transportation put our armies on starvation rations 
even when there were enough in the depots to supply them; and, 
of course, the supplies for the prisoners were cut down in the same 

But we might safely rest this whole question of the relative 
treatment of prisoners North and South on the official figures of 
Secretary Stanton and Surgeon-General Barnes, w^hich were thus 
presented by Hon. B. H. Hill in his masterly reply to Mr. Blaine : 

" Now, will the gentleman believe testimony from the dead? The 
Bible says, 'The tree is known by its fruits.' And, after all, what 
is the test of suffering of these prisoners North and South? The 
test is the result. Now, I call the attention of gentlemen to this 
fact, that the report of Mr. Stanton, the Secretary of War — you 
will believe him, will you not? — on the 19th July, 1866 — send to 
the Library and get it — exhibits the fact that of the Federal pris- 
oners in Confederate hands during the war, only 22,576 died, while 
of the Confederate prisoners in Federal hands 26,436 died. And 
Surgeon-General Barnes reports in an official report — I suppose 
you will believe him — that in round numbers the Confederate 
prisoners in Federal hands amounted to 220,000, while the Federal 
prisoners in Confederate hands amounted to 270,000. Out of the 
270,000 in Confederate hands 22,000 died, while of the 220,000 
Confederates in Federal hands over 26,000 died. The ratio is this: 
more than twelve per cent, of the Confederates in Federal hands 
died, and less than nine per cent, of the Federals in Confederate 
hands died. What is the logic of these facts according to the gen- 
tleman from Maine? I scorn to charge murder upon the otFicials 
of Northern prisons, as the gentleman has done upon Confederate 
prison officials. I labor to demonstrate that such miseries are 
inevitable in prison life, no matter how humane the regulations." 

These figures (compiled not by Confederates, but by those who 
had no love for "Rebels" — compiled from documents to which ive 
are denied all access — compiled in the regular course of official duty, 
and with scarcely a thought of the tale they would tell when col- 
lated and compared) are an end to the controversy so far as show- 
ing that if the Confederates were cruel to prisoners, it does not lie in the 
mouths of the United States authorities, or their apologists, to condemn 
them. Let them first purge themselves of the charge before they try 

210 Southern Historical Society Frqjers. 

to blacken the Confederacy with it. No wonder that attempts have 
been made to explain away these figures, and even to deny their 
authenticity — one bold man charging that "Jeff. Davis manufac- 
tured them for Ben. Hill's use"; but all such attempts have proven 
ludicrous failures. 

Mr. Elaine, with full time to prepare his repl}^ and all of the re- 
ports at hand, did not dare to deny their authenticity, but only en- 
deavored to break their force by the following lame explanation: 

"Now, in regard to the relative number of prisoners that died in 
the North and the South respectively, the gentleman undertook to 
show that a great many more prisoners died in the hands of the 
Union authorities than in the hands of the Rebels. I have had 
conversations with surgeons of the army about that, and they say 
that there were a large number of deaths of Rebel prisoners, but 
that during the latter period of the war they came into our hands 
very much exhausted, ill-clad, ill-fed, diseased, so that they died in 
our prisons of diseases that they brought Avith them. And one 
eminent surgeon said, without wishing at all to be quoted in this 
debate, that the question was not only what was the condition of 
the prisoners when they came to us, but what it was when they 
were sent back. Our men were taken in full health and strength; 
they came back wasted and worn — mere skeletons. The Rebel 
prisoners, in large numbers, were, when taken, emaciated and re- 
duced; and General Grant says that at the time such superhuman 
efforts were made for exchange there Avere 90,000 men that would 
have reinforced the Confederate armies the next day, prisoners in 
our hands who were in good health and ready for fight. This con- 
sideration sheds a great deal of light on what the gentleman states." 

This explanation (?) cuts the throat of the whole argument to 
prove Confederate cruelt}'^ to prisoners, for if the Confederacy could 
make no better provision for its own soldiers in the field, how could 
it be expected to provide for its prisoners? And it is, at the same 
time, a very severe reflection upon the "patriot soldiers" of the 
North who (though hale, hearty, well equipped and well fed) not 
iinfrequently found greatly inferior numbers of these "emaciated 
and reduced" skeletons more than a match for their valor. 

But The Nation evidently sees the force of these figures, and 
makes an attempt to break it, which is certainl}'" adroit, whatever 
we may think of its candor. It says: 

That sad abuses occurred occasionally is evident enough, but 
that there was any general ill-treatment for which the Government 
was responsible there is no reason to believe except certain suspi- 
cious statistics of prison mortality made up from statements of 

Discussion of the Prison Question. 211 

Secretary Stanton as to the number of prisoners taken, and a report 
of Surgeon Barnes giving the total number of deaths. The result 
of the calculation is startling, for it shows a rate of mortality in 
the Confederate prisons, excluding Andersonville, only about one- 
half of that in the Northern. Bearing in mind the great sacrifice 
of life at Belle Isle and Libby, and the loose way in which the esti- 
mate is made from diverse and inaccessible sources, it seems suspi- 
cious in the extreme. It has been impossible to learn anything 
about it from the present Adjutant-General's office, where the appli- 
cant will find himself turned off with some ambiguous statement 
that the mortality on one side is roughly estimated at 12 per cent, 
and on the other side at 16 per cent; and if he asks on Avhich side 
it was twelve and which sixteen, be refused further information on 
the ground that to answer such requests "would require the entire 
clerical force of the office for about three years." It is to be hoped 
that under the new Administration this stain on the national honor 
may be removed. But meanwhile our reputation suffers most se- 
riously from the charge, as any one who remembers the flings of 
foreign journals will recall with mortification." 

Now, we tell The Nation, in all candor, that "this stain on the 
national honor" cannot be wiped out by prevailing on the new 
Administration (if it could succeed in doing so) to have a new set 
of figures prepared for the 'purpose. Secretary Stanton's report of the 
number of prisoner's who died on both sides during the war was 
made July 19th, 1866; Surgeon-General Barnes' report of the num- 
ber of deaths on both sides was made the next year, we believe — 
and the National Intelligencer, in an editorial of June 2d, 1869, col- 
lated and compared the figures of the two reports. Southern and 
foreign papers took hold of these figures and used them as a tri- 
umphant vindication of the Confederacy. Now who doubts that 
if they were wrong the Departments at Washington would liave 
corrected them — even if it had required their " entire clerical force 
for three years " — and who doubts that they have not been corrected 
simply because they are fully as favorable to the Federal side as 
they can be honestly made? These figures have passed into history, 
and they will be believed, even though the suggestion of The 
Nation should hereafter be adopted and other figures be cooked up 
to serve a purpose. 

But after all the gist of this whole discussion rests upon the 
simple question, Did the Confederate Government order, sanction, or 
negligently permit cruelty to prisoners / We think we proved beyond 
all reasonable doubt that it did neither. 

The Nation tries to fix responsibility on Mr. Davis by a series of 
assertions, for which we respectfully demand the -proof. It will be 


212 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

difficult to get any one at all familiar with the high character of 
General Howell Cobb to believe the assertion that he refused to do 
anything to mitigate the condition of things at Andersonville " in 
the face of outspoken reports from the surgeons in charge." We 
gave the famous Chandler report, and accompanied it with letters 
from Hon. R. G. H. Kean, former Chief Clerk of the Confederate 
War Department, and ex-Secretar}^ Seddon, showing conclusively 
that so far from failing to notice the statements in reference to 
Andersonville which Colonel Chandler made, not only did the 
Adjutant-General and the Assistant Secretary of War put the strong 
endorsements upon the report which we quoted, but the Secretary 
(Mr. Seddon) at once demanded of General Winder an explanation, 
which he gave, emphatically denying Colonel Chandler's charges — 
and that Colonel Chandler's request for a court of inquiry would 
have resulted in the fullest investigation, but that the active cam- 
paign then in progress rendered it utterly impracticable to hold the 
court until the matter was, unfortunately, ended by the death of 
General Winder. We showed, moreover, that Mr. Seddon at once, 
on the reception of the Chandler report, sent Judge Ould down the 
rive, under flag of truce, to say to the Federal authorities, in sub- 
stance: You have broken the cartel — you refuse now to stand by 
3'our own proposition to disregard all former paroles, and exchange 
man for man of prisoners actually in hand — you have refused my 
proposition that surgeons from each side be allowed to visit and 
provide for the prisoners — you refuse to exchange even the sick and 
wounded — you have declined my proposition to allow us to purchase 
hospital stores and medicines for the use of your own prisoners, 
paying you for them in cotton, tobacco or gold, and allowing you 
to send your own agents to distribute them, and now I tell you 
again that your men in our prisons are dying by the hundred from 
causes which are utterly beyond our control, and I am authorized 
by my Government to propose that if you will send transportation 
to Savannah we will at once deliver into your hands, without equiva- 
lent, from ten to fifteen thousand of your suffering soldiers. We 
affirmed, moreover (what we are prepared to prove), that so far 
from Mr. Davis' making the Chandler report the ground of the 
promotion of General Winder, Jie did not see the report at the time, and 
never even heard of its existence (he was in a casemate at Fortress 
Monroe when it was produced at the Wirz trial), until some one told 
him of it in 1875. 

Judge Advocate Chipman labored to connect Mr. Davis with 

Dlsctission of Lite Prison Question. 213 

this report during the Wirz trial, and yet, notwithstanding the fact 
that he had at his beck and call a band of trained perjurers, and 
Mr. Davis was in a distant prison and in ignorance of what was 
going on, the effort utterly failed. Equally futile was every other 
effort to connect Mr. Davis with the responsibility for the sufferings 
at Andersonville, until, in despair of any other evidence, an attempt 
was made to bribe poor Wirz by offerring him, a short time before 
his execution, a reprieve if he would implicate Mr. Davis. He 
indignantly replied : " Mr. Davis had no connection tvith me as to what 
was done at Andersonville. I would not become a traitor against 
him or anybody else, even to save my life." We brought out the 
proofs of all these facts. Moreover we published the letter of 
Chief-Justice George Shea, to the New York Tribune, giving an 
account of his investigation of this question in behalf of Mr. 
Horace Greeley and other gentlemen who were unwilling to go on 
Mr. Davis' bail bond until the charge against him of cruelty to 
prisoners was cleared up. Judge Shea went to Canada and had 
access to certain Confederate archives which had escaped capture, 
and he investigated all of the "evidence" which the "Bureau of 
Military Justice " had at Washington. The result was that he was 
not only convinced himself, but succeeded in convincing such men 
as Governor Andrew, Horace Greeley, Gerritt Smith, Vice-President 
Wilson and Thaddeus Stevens, that the charge against Mr. Davis 
of even connivance at cruelty to prisoners was utterly to ithout founda- 

The United States authorities did not dare to bring Sir. Davis to 
trial on this or on any other charge, simply because, after the most 
industrious efforts, they could find no testimony which created 
even a reasonable presumption of guilt. But these "judicial" gen- 
tlemen of The Nation undertake to convict where the "Bureau of 
Military Justice" hesitated, and affect to regard Mr. Davis' letter in 
reference to General Winder (a garbled clause of which they give 
and pervert) as settling his complicity with the "crime of Ander- 

The Nation has not thought proper to meet our argument, which 
proved, beyond all reasonable doubt, that for the suspension of the 
cartel and the stoppage of exchange, the United States authorities 
alone were responsible. We traced the history of the exchange 
question, and gave the most indubitable proofs that the Confederates 
were ahoays ready to exchange, but that so soon as Gettysburg and 
Vicksburg gave the United State Government a large excess of 

214 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

prisoners actually in hand (though a large part of them should 
have been at once released to meet paroles already held by the 
Confederates), it at once adopted as its cold-blooded war policy to 
refuse all further exchange of prisoners, ivhile they satisfied the North by 
charging bad faith and cruelty to prisoners on the part of ^Hhe Rebels.'''' 

The Nation seems to think that the question of exchange had 
nothing to do with the treatment of prisoners. Certainly the refusal 
of the United States authorities to exchange would not have justi- 
fied the Confederates in cruelty to prisoners, and so far from contend- 
ing for any such absurdity, we have proven that there ivas no such 
cruelty on the part of our Government. But we do insist that the 
suspension of exchange threw upon our hands thousands of pris- 
oners Avhom we were unable to provide with suitable food, clothing? 
quarters or medicines — that the Federal authorities were again and 
again informed of the fearful mortality which existed among the 
prisoners, and of our inability to prevent it — and that inasmuch as 
the}^ not only refused to exchange, but even to accept the several 
humane propositions we made to mitigate the sufferings of prisoners, 
and obstinately pursued their " attrition " policy of " crushing the 
rebellion" — they {and they alone) are responsible before God and 
at the bar of history for all of the suffering and mortality which 
existed at Andersonville and the other prisons at the South, and 
the still greater suffering and mortality of Elmira and the other 
prisons at the North. 

The Nation also finds it convenient to ignore the testimony we 
adduced from Federal soldiers, officers, surgeons and citizens which 
traced the cruel treatment which our men received directly to E. 
M. Stanton, Secretary of War. On the other hand, we defy proof 
of an order, letter or intimation of any sort whatever from Mr. 
Davis, or any member of his cabinet, directing, permitting or in 
any way conniving at cruelty to prisoners. There are other points 
to which we have not space even to allude. But if The Nation 
really desires to get at the truth of this whole question, we would 
be most happy to discuss with it in full each one of the six points 
we claimed to have proven, and to print in our Papers everything it 
has to say on the subject, if it will reciprocate. 

GarneWs Brigade at Gettysburg. 215 

Garnett's Brigade at Gettysburg. 

[The following letter explains tlie report which follows, and which will 
be an addition to our series of reports on that great battle.] 

Charlottesville, Virginia, March 23d, 1875. 
To the Secretary of the Soidliern Historical Society : 

Dear Sir — In looking up some old papers a few days ago, I 
found the inclosed report of the part taken by Garnett's brigade 
(first Cocke's, then Pickett's, then Garnett's, and lastly Hunton's) in 
the battle of Gettysburg. 

I am not sure who is the author of the report, as it is unsigned, 
but am under the impression that Lieutenant-Colonel Charles S. 
Peyton, of the Nineteenth Virginia infantry, wrote or dictated it. 
Colonel Peyton (at that time Major of the Nineteenth Virginia) 
was the senior field ofHcer who escaped from the charge on Cemetery 
Hill and took command of the brigade after the battle. Colonel 
Henry Gantt was badly wounded in two places, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ellis was killed, as is reported in these papers. Major 
Peyton was afterwads promoted to the vacant lieutenant-colonelcy. 
He had lost an arm at second Manassas, but returned to duty as 
soon as he was sufficiently recovered to do so, and did good service 
during the charge at Gettysburg. He was slightly wounded in the 
leg, but not disabled to such an extent as to prevent taking com- 
mand of the brigade. 

I was Adjutant of the Nineteenth Virginia during the greater 
part of the war, and presume that the report fell into my hands in 
that way, although I had entirely lost sight of it. 
Very respectfully, 

Charles C. Wertenbaker. 

Headquarters Garnett's Brigade, 
Camp Near Wtlliamsport, Maryland^ July 9th, 1863. 

Major C. Pickett, A. A. G. Fickeifs Division: 

Major — In compliance with instructions from division head- 
quarters, I have the honor to report the part taken by this brigade 
in the late battle near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3d, 1863. 

Notwithstanding the long and severe marches made by the troops 
of this brigade, they reached the field about 9 o'clock A. M., in 
high spirits and in good condition. At al)0ut 12 M. we were 

216 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

ordered to take position behind the crest of the hill on which the 
artillery, under Colonel Alexander, was planted, where we lay during 
a most terrific cannonading, which opened at I2 o'clock P. M. and 
was kept up without intermission for one hour. During the shelling 
we lost about twenty killed and wounded ; among the killed was 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ellis, of the Nineteenth Virginia, whose bravery 
as a soldier, and his innocence, purity and integrity as a Christian, 
has not only elicited the admiration of his own command, but 
endeared him to all who knew him. 

At 21 P. M. the artillery fire having to some extent abated, the 
order to advance was given, first by Major-General Pickett in person, 
and repeated by General Garnett. With promptness, apparent cheer- 
fulness and alacrity, the brigade moved forward at " quick-time." 
The ground was open, but little broken, and from 800 to 1,000 yards 
from the crest whence we started to the enemy's line. The brigade 
moved in good order, keeping up its line almost perfect, notwith- 
standing it had to climb three high post and rail fences, behind 
the last of which the enemy's skirmishers were first met and im- 
mediately driven in. Moving on, we soon met the advance line 
of the enemy, lying concealed in the grass on the slope, about one 
hundred yards in front of his second line, which consisted of a 
stone wall, about breast high, running nearely parallel to and about 
thirty spaces from the crest of the hill which was lined with their 

The first line referred to above, after offering some resistance, was 
completely routed and driven in confusion back to the stone wall- 
Here we captured some prisoners, which were ordered to the rear 
without a guard. Having routed the enemy here. General Garnett 
ordered the brigade forward, which was promptly obeyed, loading 
and faring as they advanced. 

Up to this time we had suffered but little from the enemy's 
batteries, which apparently had been much crippled previous to 
our advance, with the exception of one posted on the mountain 
about one mile to our right, which enfiladed nearly our entire line, 
with fearful effect, sometimes having as many as ten men killed and 
"wounded by the bursting of a single shell. 

From the point it had first routed the enemy, the brigade moved 
rapidly forward towards the stone wall, under a galling fire, both 
from artilleiy and infantry, the artillery using grape and canister. 

We were now within about seventy-five paces of the wall, un- 
supported on the right and left ; General Kemper being some fifty 

GarneWs Brigade at Gettysburg. 217 

or sixty yards behind and to the right, and General Armistead. 
coming up in our rear. General Kemper's line was discovered to 
be lapping on ours, when, deeming it advisable to have the line 
extended on the right to prevent being flanked, a staff officer rode 
back to the General to request him to incline to the right. General 
Kemper not being present (perhaps wounded at the time), Captain 
Fr}'' of his staff immediatel}'- began his exertions to carry out the 
request, but in consequence of the eagerness of the men in pressing 
forward, it was impossible to have the order carried out. 

Our line, much shattered, still kept up the advance until within 
about twenty paces of the wall, when for a moment they recoiled 
under the terrific fire that poured into our ranks both from their 
batteries and from their sheltered infantry. 

At this moment General Kemper came up on the right and 
General Armistead in rear, when the three lines, joining in concert, 
rushed forward with unyielding determination, and an apparent 
spirit of laudable rivalry to plant the Southern banner on the walls 
of the enemy. 

His strongest and last line was instantly gained, the Confederate 
battle flag waved over his defences, and the fighting over the wall 
became hand to hand and of the most desperate character, but 
more than half having already fallen, our line was found too weak 
to rout the enemy. We hoped for a support on the left (which 
had started simultaniously with ourselves), but hoped in vain. 
Yet, a small remnant remained in desperate struggle, receiving a 
fire in front, on the right and on the left, many even climbing over 
the wall and fighting the enemy in his own trenches, until entirely 
surrounded, and those who were not killed or wounded were cap- 
tured, with the exception of about 300, who came off slowly but 
greatly scattered— the identity of every regiment being entirely 
lost, every regimental commander killed or wounded. 

The brigade went into action with 1,287 men and about 140 
officers, as shown by the report of the previous evening, and sus- 
tained a loss, as the list of casualties will show, of 941 killed, 
wounded and missing, and it is feared from all the information 
received that the majority of those reported missing are either 
killed or wounded. 

It is needless, perhaps, to speak of conspicuous gallantry where 
all behaved so well. Each and every regimental commander dis- 
played a cool bravery and daring that not only encouraged their 
own commands, but won the highest admiration from all those who 

218 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

saw them. They led their regiments in the fight, and showed by 
their conduct that they only desired their men to follow where 
they were willing to lead. 

But of our cool, gallant, noble brigade commander, it may not 
be out of place to speak. Never had the brigade been better 
handled, and never has it done better service on the field of battle. 

There was scarcely an officer or man in the command whose 
attention was not attracted by the cool and handsome bearing of 
General Garnett, who, totally devoid of excitement or rashness, 
rode immediately in rear of his advancing line, endeavoring by his 
personal efforts and by the aid of his staff to keep his line well 
closed and dressed. 

He was shot from his horse while near the centre of the brigade? 
within about twenty-five paces of the stone wall. This gallant 
officer was too well known to need further mention. 

Captain Linthicum, A. A. G., Lieutenant Jones, A. D. C, and 
Lieutenant Harrison, acting A. D. C, did their whole duty and won 
the admiration of the entire command by their gallant bearing on 
the field while carrying orders from one portion of the line to the 
other where it seemed almost impossible for any one to escape- 
The conduct of Captain Shepard, of the Twenty-eighth Virginia, 
was particularly conspicuous. His son fell mortally wounded at 
his side. He stopped but for a moment to look on his dying son, 
gave him his canteen of water, and pressed on with his company 
to the wall, which he climbed and fought the enemy with his 
sword in their own trenches, until his sword was wrenched from his 
hands by two Yankees. He finally made his escape in safety. 

In making the above report, I have endeavered to be as accurate 
as possible, but have had to rely mainly on others for information 
whose position gave them better opportunity for witnessing the 
conduct of the entire brigade, than I could have, being with and 
paying my attention to my own regiment. 

I am. Major, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

, Major Commanding. 

Ninth Virginia Cavalry and the Dahlgren Raid. 219 

Part Taken by the Kintli Yirgiuia Cavalry in Repelling the Dahlgren 


By General R. L. T. Beale. 

[We have held this paper with the purpose of publishing it in connection 
with the full liistoiy of the Dahlgren raid, which we have in course of pre- 
paration, but we have concluded to give it in the form in which it has been 
sent by its gallant author]. 

An Extract from a Narrative of the Movements of the Ninth Regiment 
Virginia Cavalry in the Late War — Written from Notes taken at the 
time by its Colonel, R. L. T. Beale. 

Near the close of February, a third order was received to report 
^vithout delay at Hanover Junction for orders. We marched upon 
this, as we did upon the two previous occasions, sixty miles in 
twenty-four hours. Reaching the Junction, we found no orders ; 
but learning here that the enemy, under General Kilpatrick, were 
making a raid upon Richmond, so soon as a supply of ammunition 
was drawn our march was directed to Taylorsville. At this point, 
a general officer commanding some infantry inforrried us the enemy 
had been repulsed by General Hampton's command, and must re- 
treat towards the Rapidaii, and w^e would probably encounter them 
near Ashland. To Ashland our march was directed. In some two 
miles of this point, reliable intelligence was obtained that the main 
body of the enemy was near Old Church, but that a party of some 
four hundred had moved upon the road to Hanover Courthouse. 
Our line of march was now directed to that point, reaching it about 
dark, only to learn our enemy had passed without halting. 

Rest and food for men and horses were now much needed, and 
the command bivouacked around a church a few hundred yards 
from Hanover Courthouse. Before our meal of cold bread was 
over, a prisoner, taken under such suspicious circumstances as to 
induce the belief that he was a Yankee, was sent in by the picket. 
He w^as subjected to a rigid examination by the Colonel, who got 
from him information not very agreeable. The man had been 
captured in the morning, and after hard usage, made his escape in 
the evening from a body of cavalry, which he said was commanded 
by a Colonel Dahlgren. They had passed in sight of Hanover 
Courthouse, moving to Indiantown ferry, over the Pamunkey, 
where about one-fourth of the party crossed the river, the remain- 
ing three-fourths moving down the south bank towards Old Church. 

220 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

He also said he heard that the force which crossed had orders to 
inarch by Saluda to Gloucester Point. In this route the direct road 
would lead to our camp in Essex. 

A tried soldier was summoned at once and provided with authority 
to impress horses, was charged with an order to the senior officer at 
camp, and required to deliver it by dawn of the morning. So soon 
as the horses had eaten, the bugle sounded to horse, and we moved 
down the south side of Pamunkey. Before dawn our advance was 
halted by a picket near Old Church. 

It proved to be that of Colonel Bradley T. Johnson. We halted 
for breakfast, then marched to Tunstall's Station, to which point 
Colonel Johnson moved to ambush. We saw only the half extinct 
fires of the Yankee camp and evidences of ruin to the helpless 
families near the road, and after a bootless chase, returned in the 
evening to bivouac at the intersection of the New Castle and New 
Kent roads, one mile from Old Church, to await the return of a 
courier sent to General Hampton in the morning. Whilst seated 
around our camp-fire, a courier — Private Bobbins, of New Kent — 
rode in, and asked for Colonel Beale. He bore a dispatch from 
Lieutenant James Pollard, of Company H, who was absent from 
camp when we marched, and a package of papers. From the dis- 
patch we learned that Pollard, hearing of a party of the enemy in 
the county, hastily collected twelve of his men, and crossing the 
Mattaponi, took position on the south bank at Dunkirk to dispute 
their passage over the bridge. After waiting some time, he learned 
the enemy had found a boat and crossed at Aylett's, two miles 
lower down. He immediately pursued them, and availing him- 
self of his perfect familiarity with the country, succeeded before 
nightfall in getting in front of them. On reaching the road of the 
enemy's march, he met a homeguard company, under command of 
Captain Bichard Hugh Bagby, with several lieutenants and some 
privates from other regular regiments, ready to dispute the advance 
of the enemy. Falling back until a good position was reached, the 
men were posted and darkness closed in. No advance after dark 
was expected. A lieutenant was left in command on the road. 
About 11 o'clock the tramp of horses was heard. When within 
twenty or thirty paces the officer commanded "Halt!" The repl}'' 
was " Disperse, you damned Bebels, or I shall charge you." " Fire !" 
ordered the lieutenant, and under it the horsemen retreated rapidly. 
Their leader had fallen, as his horse wheeled, killed instantly. De- 
serted by their officers, the men next morning, on the flats below 

Ninth Virginia Cavalry and the Dahlyren Raid. 221 

the hill, hoisted the white flag. The papers found on Colonel Dahl- 
gren's person accompanied the dispatch. Nearly every paper had 
been copied in a memorandum book; they consisted of an ad- 
dress to the command, the order of attack from the south side of 
the James upon the city of Richmond, enjoining the release of the 
prisoners, the killing of the executive officers of the. Confederate 
Government, the burning and gutting of the city, directions where 
to apply for the materials necessary to setting fire to the city, and 
an accurate copy of the last field return of our cavalry made to 
General Stuart, with the location of every regiment. This last was 
furnished by the Bureau of Instruction at Washington. The rest 
were credited to no one. We forwarded all the papers by Pollard's 
courier to Richmond. The memorandum book was retained. After 
the publication of the papers and the denial of their authenticity, 
we were interrogated and ordered to forward the memorandum 
book, which was done. 

222 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Iditxinal Ifat^apaphs, 

An Extension of our Circulation is very desirable on manj'^ accounts. 
We can be useful only as our Papers are circulated ; and we need a larger 
list of subscribers in order that we ma}^ have the means of properly carrying 
on our important work. Will not our friends generally help us in this 
matter? Let each subscriber encleaver to secure for tis a neio one. And let 
our present subscribers not fail to renew when their time is out. If we can 
have the cordial co-operation and active help of our friends, our capacity for 
usefulness will be greatly enlarged. 

Donations to the Funds of the Society were contemplated in our 
original organization, but tlie condition of the South has been such that we 
have not made appeals in that direction. 

We have received a large number of donations of books, MSS., documents, 
pamphlets, &c., of very great pecuniary value ; but, with tlie exception of 
a liberal contribution of $1,000 fi'om one large-hearted friend of the cause, 
we have received very little money except in payment of subscriptions. Now 
we begin to feci the great need of larger means with which to carry on our 
work— to purchase books, MSS., &c., which we cannot otherwise secure, to 
print more of our MSS., and to carry out various plans for the enlarged 
usefulness of the Society. We have to compete to some extent with the 
great historical societies whicli have their splendid buildings and ample en- 
dowments, and we really do not know how friends of the South could more 
judiciously invest funds just now than by contributions to this Society, which 
has for its object the preservation of the records, and tlie vindication of the 
history of the Confederacy. 

We will say, then, frankly, that if there are tliose who are able and willing- 
to help us, donations would be at this time particularly acceptable, and that 
any contributions made to us will be sacredly used in accordance with the 
wishes of tlie donors. 

The Fire which Destroyed the Private Residence of the Sec- 
retary, over a month ago, was not alluded to in these colunms, because we 
are not accustomed to introduce into them mere private matters. But as an 
impression has gone abroad that important papers belonging to the Society 
were destroyed, it becomes proper to say that the archives of the Society are 
kept in our oflice in the State Capitol — that tliey ai-e under constant guard — 
and are as safe as theXiibrary and archives of the Commonwealth. 

While, tlierefore, the Secretary lost his private librarj^, most of his furniture, 
&c., nothing belonging to the Southern Historical Society was eitlier destroyed 
or injured. 

Editorial Paragraphs. 223 

The correction given below is a very proper one, though we are not quite 
sure whether the mistake was Mr. HoUydaj^'s, or a typographical error : 

Rev. J. William Jones, D. D., 

Secretary Sovtheru Historical Society., BicJimond Virginia : 
Dear Sir — 5Ir. Lamar Hollyday in his narrative of tlie " Maryland 
troops in tlie Confederate Service," published in the March number of the 
Southern Historical Society Papers., states that Captain Latrobe, of the Tiiird 
battery of Maryland artillery, was killed at Vicksburg, Mississippi. That is 
a mistake. His report of the Third Maryland artillery should read thus : 
Captain Henr}^ B. Latrobe, commissioned September 9th, 18G1 ; left tlie 
service March Lst, 1863. Captain Ferd. O. Claiborne, promoted March 1st, 
1863 ; killed at Vicksbui-g, Mississippi, June 22d, 1863. 

flease make the above correction, and much oblige, yours truly, 

William L. Ritter. 
Baltimore, Maryland, April 5th, 1877. 

Contributions to our Archives are always in order, and the kindness 
of our friends in this I'cspect is most warmly aijpreciated. With no means 
of purchasing books or documents, the free will oflerings of those interested 
in our work are filling our shelves with historic material which money could 
not buy. Since oar last acknowledgement we have received among others 
the following : 

From Eev. J. A. French — Letter book containing official copies of letters 
written by the Confederate Secretary of the Treasur}'. Letter llle containing 
letters received in 1861 at Register's office Confederate Treasury Department. 

From Colonel Charles Ellis, Richmond — A package of war newspapers 
carefully selected and preserved because of something valuable in each. 
"Ordinances adopted by the Convention of Virginia in secret session in 
April and May, 1861." Virginia " Ordinance of Secession." "Report of 
the Chief of Ordnance of Virginia (Colonel C. Dimmock), for the j'car ending 
September 30th, 1861. "Message of the Governor of Virginia" (Hon. John 
Letcher), December 7th, 1863. Letter from General C. F. Henningsen in 
reply to the letter of Victor Hugo on the Harper's Ferry invasion." "Dis- 
course on the Life and Caracterof Lieutenant-General Thomas J, Jackson," 
by, General F. H. Smith, Superintendent Virginia Military Institute, read 
befor the Board of Visitors, Faculty and Cadets, July 1st, 1863, together 
with proceedings of the Institution in honor of the illustrious deceased." 

From the American Colonization Society — A full set of the annual reports, 
addresses, &c., of the Society. " ISIemorial of the Semi-Centennial Anni- 
versary of the American Colonization Society, celebrated at Washington, 
January loth, 1867." 

From Judge W. S. Barton, Fredericksburg, Virginia — A bundle of official 
papers relating to the fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, which were put 
into his hands as Judge Advocate of the Court of Inquiry which was ordered 
by the Confederate War Department to investigate those disasters. Tlie 
package contains such papers as the following : Report of General R. Taylor 
of operations in North Louisiana from June 3d to 8th, 1863 ; correspondence 
between the Secretary of War and General J. E. Johnston, from the 9th of 

224 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

'May to the 20tli of June, 1S63 ; correspondence between the President and 
and General J. E. Johnston ; correspondence and reports showing the efforts 
made to provision Vicksbur": and Poi't Hudson ; I'eports of the ordnance 
Department as to the issues of ordnance, precussion, caps, &c., to Vicksburg 
and Port Hudson ; and a lumiber of letters, telegrams, reports, &c., bearing 
on the whole question of the defence and final capitulation of those posts. 

From J. D. Davidson., Esq., Lexinr/ton, Virginia — A co])y of the Augusta 
(Georgia), Chronicle for 1S17. 

From Norval Byland, Esq., Bichmond— Copy of the Ftiehniond Dispatch, 
containing full account of the battle of Seven Pines. 

From J. L. Peyton, Esq., Staunton, Virginia— '■^ The American Crisis, or 
pages from the ISTote Book of a State Agent during the Civil War, by John 
Lewis Peyton." London : Saunders, Otley & Co., 1867 (two volumes). 

From the Author {George Wise, Esq.,) Alexandria, Fir^mm—" History of 
the Seventeenth Vn-ginia Infantry, Confederate States Army." Baltimore : 
Kelly, Piet & Co., 1870. 

From A. Barron Holmes, Esq., Charleston, South Ca/-oZi??a—" Fort Moultrie 
Centennial," being a beautifully illustrated account of the celebration at 
Fort Moultrie, Sulivan's Island, Charleston (South Carolina) harbor on June 
28th, 1876. " Judge O'JSTeale's Annals of Newberry District, South Carolina." 
"Logan's History of Upper South Carolina" (volume I). (Mr. Holmes fre- 
quently places the Society under obligations for similar favors). 

From the Society of the Army of the Tennessee — Report of proceedings at 
tenth annual meeting held at Washington, D. C, on the occasion of unveiling 
the equestrian statue of Major-General James B. MePherson. 

From Colonel F. H. Archer, of Petersburg— A bundle of very interesting 
original papei-s (reports, letters, telegrams, &c.) of operations and movements 
about Suflblk, Smithfield, &c., in the spring of 18G2. 

From General Fitz. Lee — Sketch of the life and character of the late General 
S. Cooper, Senior General and Adjutant and Inspector-General of the Con- 
federacy, together with a letter from ex-President Davis giving his impressions 
of General Cooper. 

From General J. A. Early, General Fitz. Lee, General E. P. Alexander, 
General A. L. Long, General Cadmus M. Wilcox, Colonel Walter H. Taylor 
and General Henry Heth — Papers on the battle of Gettysburg. (These papers 
discuss the policy of invading the North, the plan of the campaign, the origin, 
conduct, events, result and causes of the result of the battle of Gettysburg 
and other points of deep interest, together with similar papers from other 
leading Confederates who were in a position to know whereof they affirm. 
This series of papers will do more to give to the world the true story of Gettys- 
burg than anything that has yet been written, and with the full series of 
reports on the great battle which have already appeared, they will afford 
invaluable material to the historian who sincerely seeks after the truth. 
Among other points they settle beyond all controversy that General Lee had 
at Gettysburg only 62,000 effectives of all arms, while General Meade had 
105,000 on the field, and at least 10,000 more within supporting distance). 


■TBiii iimm iiffl PiPEBS, 

Tol. III. Richmond, Ta., May and June, 1877. Nos. 5 and 6. 

Report of Major-General C. L. Sterenson from tlie Beginning of the 
Daltou- Atlanta Campaign to May 30, 1864. 

[The following is from the original MS. furnished us by General Stevenson 
himself, and has never before been in print so far as we are aware.] 

Major ; 

Headquarters Stevenson's Division, 

In the Field, May 30th, 1864. 

During the latter part of last month I received orders to break 
up my winter camp on the Sugar Valley road and move my divi- 
sion to the position assigned it in front of Dalton. I went into 
bivouac in Crowe Valley, and immediately went to work to com- 
plete the defences of the portion of the line allotted me — from the 
signal station upon Rocky Face mountain on my left to Ault's 
creek on my right. General Pettus was placed upon the left, Gen- 
eral Reynolds on the left-centre, General Gumming on the right- 
centre, and General Brown on the right. General Pettus was 
ordered to hold the mountain with a regiment of rifles. The 
movements of the enemy very soon showed that his greatest efforts 
would be against the mountain, which was, in fact, the key 
to my position ; and accordingly, on the — instant, General Pettus 
was ordered to occupy the mountain with his brigade, and the 
vacancy in the trenches created by his removal filled by extending 
intervals to the left. 

On the 8th instant, the enemy pushed forward his skirmishers 
vigorously, supported by a line of battle, against the angle in Pet- 
tus' line at the crest of the mountain. This attack was quickly 
and handsomely repulsed by that portion of his line which occu- 
pied the angle. In compliance with instructions from the Lieu- 
tenant-General, Brown's brigade was then moved from its position 
on my right to the left of Pettus on the crest of the mountain, who 
was thus enabled to contract his lines and strengthen his weak 
point — the angle referred to. Brown's place in the works was first 

226 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

supplied by Mercer's, then by Walthall's, and then by Govan's 
brigades. General Brown, as senior officer, was directed to take 
charge of the defence of that portion of the mountain occupied 
by my troops. 

On the 9th instant the enemy, formed in column of divisions, 
made a heavy assault upon the angle in Pettus' line. The fight 
was obstinate and bloody, but resulted in a complete success to us. 
For details I would refer you to the reports of Generals Brown 
and Pettus. In the mean time, the enemy had advanced his 
sharpshooters close upon the line of Brown's brigade on the moun- 
tain, and Reynold's and Cumming's in the valley. Soon after the 
assault upon Pettus, the enemy manoeuvred considerably in the 
valley, and seemed at one time disposed to assault the position of 
Generals Gumming and Reynolds. In front of General Gumming 
he appeared several times in line of battle, but was checked by the 
fire of skirmishers, and of those guns of Major J. W. Johnston's 
battalion of artillery that could be brought to bear upon him. 
From this time until we retired from the position, there was con- 
stant skirmishing, first along my whole line, and later mainly in 
front of Brown's and Pettus' brigades. 

On the night of the 18th instant, agreeably to orders, I vacated 
my position and took up the line of march for Resaca. On the 
morning after my arrival near this place, I took up position in two 
lines north of Resaca, and immediately ujDon the right of the 
Resaca and Dalton road. I was soon afterwards ordered to con- 
nect with Major-General Hindman on the left of the Resaca road, 
and, for this purpose, moved two regiments across the road. Gum- 
ming and Brown were in my front line, Pettus being the second 
line to the former and Brown to the latter. During the morning 
there were several attacks upon General Hindman, and in my 
front the sharpshooters of the enemy obtained positions which en- 
tirely enfiladed portions of Cumming's line. The men were shel- 
tered as well as possible by such defences as they could construct 
of logs and rails, but still suffered severely. The fire of these 
sharpshooters upon the artillery, some pieces of which were ad- 
vanced in front of the line of General Gumming, was particularly 
destructive, and amongst the wounded was the brave Major J. W. 
Johnston, the battalion commander. 

About five o'clock that evening, agreeably to orders, I commenced 
a movement to dislodge the enemy from the high points of the 
ridge some distance in front of General Gumming. Brown and his 

General Stevenson's Re-port of the Dalton- Atlanta Campaign. 227 

support (Reynolds) were directed to move out in front of their 
trenches and then swing around to the left. After the movement 
commenced, General Gumming was also directed to wheel all of 
his brigade, which was to the right of the backbone of the ridge, 
to the left in front of his works, the regiment upon the crest being 
the pivot. I was much gratified by the gallantry with which the 
movement was made, and by the success which attended it. Too 
much praise cannot be awarded Brown's gallant brigade; for par- 
ticulars I refer you to his report. 

Late that night I received orders to retire from the position which 
I had taken, which was done. The next morning I was ordered to 
retake it, which was accomplished without difficulty, the enemy not 
having reoccupied it. My command immediately went to work to 
construct defences of logs and rails, and in a short time were quite 
well entrenched. During the course of the morning I received 
orders to place the artillery of my division in such a position as 
could enable it to drive off a battery that was annoying General 
Hindman's line. Before the necessary measures for the protection 
of the artillery could be taken, I received repeated and peremptory 
orders to open it upon the battery before alluded to. Corput's 
battery was accordingly placed in position at the only availa- 
ble point, about eighty yards in front of General Brown's line. 
It had hardly gotten into position, when the enemy hotly engaged 
my skirmishers, driving them in, and pushing on to the assault 
with great impetuosity. So quickly was all this done, that it was 
impossible to remove the artillery before the enemy had effected a 
lodgment in the ravine in front of it, thus placing it in such a po- 
sition, that, while the enemy were entirely unable to remove it, we 
were equally so, without driving off the enemy massed in the 
ravine beyond it, which would have been attended with great loss 
of life. 

The assaults of the enemy were in heavy force, and made with 
the utmost impetuosity, but were met with a cool, steady fire, which 
each time mowed down their ranks, and drove them back, leaving 
the ground thickly covered in places with their dead. When 
Brown's brigade had nearly exhausted their ammunition, I caused 
it to be relieved by Reynolds' brigade, upon which assaults were 
also made and repulsed with the same success. 

During the attack, I ordered General Pettus up with three (3) of 
his regiments, which had remained in our position of the day pre- 
vious. My intention was to employ his force in attacking the 

228 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

enemy in front of the battery and remove it. A portion of Gibson's 
brigade of Stewart's division was also sent me, but was soon re- 
called. The troops engaged, it will thus be seen, were Brown's and 
Keynolds' brigades, and also the two right regiments of Cumming's. 
During the day, Tenner's battery reported to me, and rendered good 
service. In the evening I received orders to move that portion of 
my force which was on the right of General Gumming, out of the 
trenches, and, co-operating with General Stewart, to swing around 
upon the enemy. At the moment that I received the order, the 
enemy were making a heavy assault upon General Reynolds, and 
Brown had not yet replenished his ammunition. The order, however, 
was peremptory, and the movement was attempted. The Fifty- 
fourth Virginia on the right leaped the trenches, and rushed bravely 
upon the enemy, but found that there was no connection with General 
Stewart's left, and being thus unsupported, were compelled to fall 
back before the rest of the brigade moved out. Tn this attempt, 
the gallant Captain G. D. Wise, of my staff, was dangerously 
wounded, and the regiment, in less than fifteen minutes, lost above 
one hundred (100) officers and men. 

That night I received orders to withdraw, which was effected, 
owing to the coolness of the troops, without serious loss. My last 
brigade had not marched -three hundred yards from the trenches 
before the enemy made an assault. Especial credit is due the 
skirmishers of Brown's brigade for their conduct in this affair, and 
I ask attention to his report. 

As I have stated, I covered the disputed battery with my fire 
in such a manner that it was utterly impossible for the enemy to 
remove it, and I knew that I could retake it at any time, but 
thought that it could be done with less loss of life at night, and 
therefore postponed my attack. When ordered to retire, I repre- 
sented the state of things to the General-Commanding, who decided 
to abandon the guns. 

Upon my arrival at New Hope church, I put my command in 
position on the right of General Stewart, and very soon thereafter 
the enemy assaulted him in force. A small portion of my left bri- 
gade (Brown's) was engaged, and the men behaved with their usual 
spirit until relieved. The enemy kept up a heavy fire of skir- 
mishers and artillery upon my front line — Brown and Pettus — and 
inflicted considerable loss; but my skirmishers behaved well, and 
were onl}'- driven back upon portions of the line. On the 28th, I 
was informed by General Baker that the enemy had succeeded in 

General Stevenson^s Report of the Dalton- Atlanta Campaign. 229 

planting a battery a short distance in front of his works, and that, 
having no long range guns, he could not drive them off. I sent 
him a regiment of rifles from Cumming's brigade, which soon dis- 
lodged the enemy. The following statement will show my losses 
during the whole movement : 

Killed. Wounded. Missing. 

Brown's brigade, 39 173 10 

Cumming's brigade, 19 89 270 

Reynold's brigade, 33 126 190 

Pettus' brigade, . 30 177 61 

121 565 531 

It affords me pleasure to bear witness to the uniform gallantry 
with which my division has acted, and to acknowledge my indebt- 
edness to my brigade commanders, their officers and men, as well 
as to the officers and men of Johnston's battalion of artillery, 
commanded since Major Johnston was wounded by Captain M. 0. 
D. Corput. 

While in position near New Hope church, I regret to state that 
I lost the services of Brigadier-General Reynolds, who there received 
a painful, but I hope not a dangerous wound. 

The limits of this imperfect report will not permit me to make 
mention of particular individuals. We have been called upon to 
mourn the loss of many gallant spirits, among them, Major Barber, 
Third Tennessee, and Major Francis, Thirtieth Alabama. 

I desire to express my renewed obligations to my staff, Majors 
John J. Reeve, G. L. Gillespie (wounded at Resaca), H. M. Mathews, 
R. Orme, Captain G. D. Wise (wounded at Resaca), W. H. Sykes, 
and Lieutenants Shane and Botts, and Chief Surgeon H. M. Comp- 

The above is a copy of the rough draft of a rej3ort made to 
Major I. W. Ratchford, A. A. G. of Hood's corps. 

Carter L. Stevenson. 

230 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Battle of CliancellorsYille— Report of Gfeneral R. E. Lee. 

[The following report was printed by order of tlie Confederate Congress ; 
but as it is one of deep interest and importance, and so rare tliat we have 
been unable to meet frequent demands for it bj' military students, we deem 
it best to give it a place in our Papers. We print from an original MS. in 

our possession.] 

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, 
September 21st, 1863. 

General S. Cooper, A. and I. G. C. S. A., Richmond., Va. : 

General — After the battle of Fredericksburg, the army re- 
mained encamped on the south side of the RaiDpahannock until 
the latter part of April. The Federal army occupied the north 
side of the river opposite Fredericksburg, extending to the Potomac. 
Two brigades of Anderson's division — those of Generals Mahone 
and Posey — were stationed near United States Mine or Bark Mill 
ford; and a third, under command of General Wilcox, guarded 
Banks' ford. The cavalry was distributed on both flanks — Fitz- 
hugh Lee's brigade picketing the Rappahannock above the mouth 
of the Rapidan, and W. H. F. Lee's near Port Royal. Hampton's 
brigade had been sent into the interior to recruit. General Long- 
street, with two divisions of his corps, was detached for service 
south of James river in February, and did not rejoin the army 
until after the battle of Chancellorsville. With the exception oi 
the engagement between Fitz. Lee's brigade and the enemy's cavalry, 
near Kelly's ford, on the seventeenth of March, ''1863, of which a 
brief report has been already forwarded to the Department, nothing 
of interest transpired during this period of inactivity. 

On the fourteenth of April intelligence was received that the 
enemy's cavalry was concentrating on the upper Rappahannock. 
Their efforts to establish themselves on the south side of the river 
were successfully resisted by Fitz. Lee's brigade and two regiments 
of W. H. F. Lee's, the whole under the immediate command of 
General Stuart. About the twenty-first small bodies of infantry 
appeared at Kelly's ford and the Rappahannock bridge, and al- 
most at the same time a demonstration was made oj)posite Port 
Royal, where a party of infantry crossed the river about the twenty- 
third. These movements were evidently intended to conceal the 
designs of the enemy, but, taken in connection with the reports of 
scouts, indicated that the Federal army, now commanded by Major- 
General Hooker, was about to resume active operations. At half- 

Battle of Chancellorsville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 231 

past five o'clock A. M., the twenty-eight of April, the enemy crossed 
the Rappahannock in boats near Fredericksburg, and driving off 
the pickets on the river, proceeded to lay down a pontoon bridge a 
short distance below the mouth of Deep run. Later in the fore- 
noon another bridge was constructed about a mile below the first. 
A considerable force crossed on these bridges during the day, and 
was massed out of view under the high banks of the river. The 
bridges, as well as the troops, were effectually protected from our 
artillery by the depth of the river's bed and the narrowness of the 
stream, while the batteries on the opposite heights completely com- 
manded the wide plain between our lines and the river. 

As in the first battle of Fredericksburg, it was thought best to 
select positions with a view to resist the advance of the enemy, 
rather than incur the heavy loss that would attend any attempt to 
prevent his crossing. Our dispositions were accordingly made as 
on the former occasion. No demonstration was made opposite any 
other point of our lines at Fredericksburg, and the strength of the 
force that had crossed, and its apparent indisposition to attack, 
indicated that the principal effort of the enemy would be made in 
some other quarter. This impression was confirmed by intelligence 
received from General Stuart, that a large body of infantry and 
artillery was passing up the river. During the forenoon of the 
twenty-ninth that officer reported that the enemy had crossed in 
force near Kelly's ford on the preceding evening. Later in the day 
he announced that a heavy column was moving from Kelly's 
towards Germana Ford on the Rapidan, and another towards Ely's 
ford on that river. The routes they were pursuing, after crossing the 
Rapidan, converge near Chancellorsville, whence several roads lead 
to the rear of our position at Fredericksburg. 

On the night of the twenty-ninth General Anderson was directed 
to proceed towards Chancellorsville and dispose Wright's brigade 
and the troops from the Bark Mill ford to cover these roads. 
Arriving at Chancellorsville about midnight, he found the com- 
mands of Generals Mahone and Posey already there, having been 
withdrawn from the Bark Mill ford, with the exception of a small 
guard. Learning that the enemy had crossed the Rapidan, and 
were approaching in strong force, General Anderson retired early 
on the morning of the thirtieth to the intersection of the Mine and 
plank roads near Tabernacle church, and began to intrench him- 
self. The enemy's cavalry skirmished with his rear guard as he 
left Chancellorsville; but being vigorously repulsed by Mahone's 

232 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

brigade, offered no further opposition to his march. Mahone was 
placed on the old turnpike, Wright and Posey on the plank road. 
In the mean time General Stuart had been directed to endeavor to 
impede the progress of the column marching by way of Germana 
ford. Detaching W. H. F. Lee, with his two regiments, the Ninth 
and Thirteenth Virginia, to oppose the main body of the enemy's 
cavalry, General Stuart crossed the Rapidan at Raccoon ford, with 
Fitz. Lee's brigade, on the night of the twenty-ninth. Halting 
to give his men a few hours repose, he ordered Colonel Owens, with 
the Third Virginia cavalry to throw himself in front of the enemy, 
while the rest of the brigade attacked his right flank at the Wilder- 
ness tavern between Germana ford and Chancellorsville. By this 
means the march of this column was delayed until 12 o'clock M., 
when, learning that the one from Ely's ford had alread)'- reached 
Chancellorsville, General Stuart marched by Todd's tavern towards 
Spottsylvania Courthouse to put himself in communication with the 
main body of the army, and Colonel Owens fell back upon General 

The enemy in our front near Fredericksburg continued inactive, 
and it was now apparent that the main attack would be made upon 
our flank and rear. It was therefore determined to leave sufficient 
troops to hold our lines, and with the main bod}' of the army to 
give battle to the approaching column. Early's division of Jack- 
son's corps, and Barksdale's brigade of McLaw's division, with part 
of the reserve artillery under General Pendleton, were entrusted 
with the defence of our position at Fredericksburg, and at mid- 
night on the thirtieth. General McLaws marched with the rest of 
his command towards Chancellorsville. General Jackson followed 
at dawn next morning, with the remaining divisions of his corps. 
He reached the position occupied by General Anderson at eight 
A. M., and immediately began preparations to advance. At eleven 
A. M. the troops moved forward upon the plank and old turnpike 
roads — Anderson, with the brigades of Wright and Posey, leading 
on the former; McLaws, with his three brigades, preceded by Ma- 
hone's, on the latter. Generals Wilcox and Perry, of Anderson's 
division, co-operated with McLaws. Jackson's troops followed 
Anderson on the plank road. Colonel Alexander's battalion of 
artillery accompanied the advance. The enemy was soon encoun- 
tered on both roads, and heavy skirmishing with infantry and 
artillery ensued, our troops pressing steadily forward. A strong 
attack upon General McLaws was repulsed with spirit by Semmes' 

Battle of Chancellorsville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 233 

brigade; and General Wright, by direction of General Anderson, 
diverging to the left of the plank road, marched by way of the 
unfinished railroad from Fredericksburg to Gordonsville, and turned 
the enemy's right. His whole line thereupon retreated rapidly, 
^vigorously pursued by our troops, until they arrived within about 
one mile of Chancellorsville. Here the enemy had assumed a 
position of great natural strength, surrounded on all sides by a 
dense forest, filled with a tangled undergrowth, in the midst of 
which breastworks of logs had been constructed, with trees felled 
in front, so as to form an almost impenetrable abatis. His artillery 
swept the few narrow roads by which his position could be ap- 
proached from the front, and commanded the adjacent woods. The 
left of his line extended from Chancellorsville towards the Rappa- 
hannock, covering the Bark Mill ford, where he communicated with 
the north bank of the river by a pontoon bridge. His right stretch- 
ed westward along the Germana Ford road more than two miles. 
Darkness was approaching before the strength and extent of his 
line could be ascertained ; and as the nature of the country ren- 
dered it hazardous to attack by night, our troops were halted, and 
formed in line of battle in front of Chancellorsville, at right angles 
to the plank road, extending on the right to the Mine road, and to 
the left in the direction of the Catharine furnace. 

Colonel Wickham, with the Fourth Virginia cavalry, and Colonel 
Owens' regiment, was stationed between the Mine road and the 
Rappahannock. The rest of the cavalry was upon our left flank- 
It was evident that a direct attack upon the enemy would be attended 
with great difficult and loss, in view of the strength of his position and 
his superiority of numbers. It was, therefore, resolved to endeavor 
to turn his right flank and gain his rear, leaving a force in front to 
hold him in check and conceal the movement. The execution of 
this plan was intrusted to Lieutenant-General Jackson, with his 
three divisions. The commands of General McLaws and Anderson, 
with the exception of Wilcox's brigade, which during the night 
had been ordered back to Banks' ford, remained in front of the 
enemy. Early on the morning of the second, General Jackson 
marched by the Furnace and Brock roads, his movement being 
effectually covered by Fitz. Lee's cavalry, under General Stuart in 
person. As the rear of the train was passing the furnace, a large 
force of the enemy advanced from Chancellorsville and attempted 
its capture. General Jackson had left the Twenty-third Georgia 
regiment under Colonel Best, at this point, to guard his flank; 

234 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and upon the approach of the enemy, Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. 
Brown, whose artillery was passing at the time, placed a battery 
in position to aid in checking his advance. A small number of 
men who were marching to join their commands, including Captain 
Moore, with his two companies of the Fourteenth Tennessee regi-' 
ment of Archer's brigade, reported to Colonel Brown, and supported 
his guns. The enemy was kept back by this small force until the 
train had passed, but his superior numbers enabled him subse- 
quently to surround and capture the greater part of the Twenty- 
third Georgia regiment. General Anderson was directed to send a 
brigade to resist the further progress of this column, and detached 
General Posey for that purpsse. General Posey became warmly 
engaged with a superior force, but being reinforced by General 
Wright, the enemy's advance was arrested. After a long and 
fatiguing march, General Jackson's leading division, under General 
Rodes, reached the old turnpike, about three miles in rear of Chan- 
cellorsville, at four P. M. As the different divisions arrived they 
were formed at right angles to the road — Rodes in front, Trimble's 
division, under Brigadier-General Colston, in the second, and A. P. 
Hill's in the third line. At six P. M. the advance was ordered. 
The enemy were taken by surprise and fled after a brief resistance. 
General Rodes' men pushed forward with great vigor and enthu- 
siasm, followed closely by the second and third lines. Position 
after position was carried, the guns captured, and every effort of 
the enemy to rally defeated by the impetuous rush of our troops. 
In the ardor of pursuit through the thick and tangled woods, the 
first and second lines at last became mingled and moved on together 
as one. The enemy made a stand at a line of breastworks across 
the road at the house of Melzi Chancellor, but the troops of Rodes 
and Colston dashed over the entrenchments together, and the fight 
and pursuit were resumed and continued until our advance was 
arrested by the abatis in front of the line of works near the cen- 
tral position at Chancellorsville. It was now dark, and General 
Jackson ordered the third line, under General Hill, to advance to 
the front and relieve the troops of Rodes and Colston, who were 
completely blended, and in such disorder, from their advance 
through intricate woods and over broken ground, that it was 
necessary to reform them. As Hill's men moved forward. General 
Jackson, with his stafi" and escort, returning from the extreme front, 
met his skirmishers advancing, and, in the obscurity of the night, 
were mistaken for the enemy, and fired upon. Captain Boswell, 

Battle of Chancellor sville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 235 

■chief engineer of the corps, and several others were killed, and a 
number wounded. General Jackson himself received a severe in- 
jury, and was borne from the field. The command devolved upon 
Major-General Hill, whose division, under General Heth, was ad- 
vanced to the line of entrenchments which had been reached by 
Rodes and Colston. A furious fire of artillery was opened upon 
, them by the enemy, under cover of which his infantry advanced 
to the attack. They were handsomely repulsed by the Fifty-fifth 
Virginia regiment under Colonel Mallory, Avho was killed while 
bravely leading his men. General Hill was soon afterwards dis- 
abled, and Major-General Stuart, who had been directed by General 
Jackson to seize the road to Ely's ford, in rear of the enemy, was 
sent for to take command. At this time the right of Hill's division 
was attacked by the column of the enemy alread}^ mentioned as 
having penetrated to the furnace, which had been recalled to Chan- 
cellorsville to avoid being cut off by the advance of Jackson. 
This attack was gallantly met and repulsed by the Eighteenth and 
Twenty-eighth, and a portion of the Thirty-third North Carolina 
regiments. Lane's brigade. 

Upon General Stuart's arrival, soon afterwards, the command was 
turned over to him by General Hill. He immediately proceeded 
to reconnoitre the ground and make himself acquainted with the 
disposition of the troops. The darkness of the night, and the 
difficulty of moving through the woods and undergrowth, rendered 
it advisable to defer further operations until morning; and the 
troops rested on their guns in line of battle. Colonel Cru'tchfield, 
Chief of Artillery of the corps, was severely wounded, and Colonel 
Alexander, senior artillery officer present, was engaged during the 
entire night in selecting positions for our batteries. As soon as the 
sound of cannon gave notice of Jackson's attack on the enemy's 
right, our troops in front of Chancellorsville were ordered to press 
him strongly on the left, to prevent reinforcements being sent to 
the point assailed. They were directed not to attack in force unless 
a favorable opportunity should present itself; and while con- 
tinuing to cover the roads leading from their respective positions 
towards Chancellorsville, to incline to the left so as to connect with 
Jackson's *ight, as he closed in upon the centre. These orders were 
well executed, our troops advancing up to the enemy's entrench- 
ments, while several batteries played with good effect upon his 
lines, until prevented by the increasing darkness. 

Early on the morning of the third General Stuart renewed the 

236 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

attack upon the enemy, who had strengthened his right during the 
night with additional breastworks, while a large number of guns, 
protected by entrenchments, were posted so as to sweep the woods 
through which our troops had to advance. Hill's division was in 
front, with Colston in the second line and Rodes in the third. The 
second and third lines soon advanced to the support of the first, 
and the whole became hotly engaged. The breastworks at which 
the attack was suspended the preceding evening, were carried by 
assault, under a terrible fire of musketry and artillery. In rear of 
these breastworks was a barricade, from which the enemy was 
quickly driven. The troops on the left of the plank road, pressing 
through the woods, attacked and broke the next line, while those 
on the right bravely assailed the extensive earthworks behind which 
the enemy's artillery was posted. Three times were these works 
carried, and as often were the brave assailants compelled to aban- 
don them — twice by the retirement of the troops on their left, who 
fell back after a gallant struggle with superior numbers, and once 
by a movement of the enemy on their right, caused by the advance 
of General Anderson. The left being reinforced, finally succeeded 
in driving back the enemy, and the artillery, under Lieutenant- 
Colonels Carter and Jones, being thrown forward to occupy favor- 
able positions, secured by the advance of the infantry, began to play 
with great ]j«-ecision and effect. Anderson, in the mean time pressed 
gallantly forward, directly upon Chancellorsville, his right resting 
upon the plank road and his left extending around the furnace, 
while McLaws made a strong demonstration to the right of the 
road. As the troops advancing upon the enemy's front and right 
converged upon his central position, Anderson effected a junction 
with Jackson's corps, and the whole line pressed irresistibly on. 
The enemy was driven from all his fortified positions, with heavy 
loss in killed, wounded and prisoners, and retreated towards the 
Rappahannock. By 10 A. M., we were in full possession of the 
field. The troops having become somewhat scattered by the diffi- 
culties of the ground and the ardor of the contest, were immediately 
reformed, preparatory to renewing the attack. The enemy had 
withdrawn to a strong position nearer to the Rappahannock, which 
he had previously fortified. His superiority of numbers, the un- 
favorable nature of the ground, which was densely wooded, and 
the condition of our troops after the arduous and sanguinary con- 
flict in which they had been engaged, rendered great caution 
necessary. Our preparations were just completed, when further 

Battle of Chancellorsville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 237 

operations were arrested by intelligence received from Fredericks- 

General Early had been instructed, in the event of the enemy 
withdrawing from his front and moving up the river, to join the 
main body of the army, with so much of his command as could 
be spared from the defence of his lines. This order was repeated 
on the second; but by a misapprehension on the part of the officer 
conveying it, General Early was directed to move unconditionally, 
leaving Hays' brigade and one regiment of Barksdale's at Frede- 
ricksburg, and directing a part of General Pendleton's artillery to 
be sent to the rear, in compliance with the order delivered to him. 
General Early moved with the rest of his command towards Chan- 
cellorsville. As soon as his withdrawal was perceived, the enemy 
began to give evidence of an intention to advance; but the mistake 
in the transmission of the order being corrected. General Early 
returned to his original position. The line to be defended by 
Barksdale's brigad^'extended from the Rappahannock, above Fred- 
ericksburg, to the rear of Howison's house, a distance of more 
than two miles. The artillery was posted along the heights in 
rear of the town. Before dawn, on the morning of the third, 
General Barksdale reported to General Early that the enemy had 
occupied Fredericksburg in large force, and laid down a bridge at 
the town. Hays' brigade was sent to his support, and placed on 
his extreme left, with the exception of one regiment stationed on 
the right of his line, behind Howison's house. Seven companies 
of the Twenty-first Mississippi regiment were posted by General 
Barksdale between the Marye house and the plank road ; the 
Eighteenth and the three other companies of the Twenty-first occu- 
pied the telegraph road at the foot of Marye's hill, the two remain- 
ing regiments of the brigade being farther to the right on the hills 
near to Howison's house. The enemy made a demonstration 
against the extreme right, which was easily repulsed by General 
Early. Soon afterwards a column moved from Fredericksburg 
along the river banks, as if to gain the heights on the extreme left, 
which commanded those immediately in rear of the town. This 
attempt was foiled by General Hays and the arrival of General 
Wilcox from Banks' ford, who deployed a few skirmishers on the 
hill near' Taylor's house, and opened upon the enemy with a sec- 
tion of artillery. Very soon the enemy advanced in large force 
-against Marye's and the hills to the right and left of it. Two 
assaults were gallantly repulsed by Barksdale's men and the 

238 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

artillery. After the second, a flag of truce was sent from the town 
to obtain permission to provide for the wounded. Three heavy 
lines advanced immediately upon the return of the flag and renewed 
the attack. They were bravely repulsed on the right and left, but 
the small force at the foot of Marye's hill, overpowered by more 
than ten times their numbers, was captured, after a heroic resistance,, 
and the hill carried. Eight piecies of artillery were taken on 
Marye's and the adjacent heights. The remainder of Barksdale's 
brigade, together with that of General Hays, and the artillery on 
the right, retired down the telegraph road. The success of the 
enemy enabled him to threaten our communications by moving 
down the telegraph road or to come upon our rear at Chancellors- 
ville by the plank road. He at first advanced on the former, but 
was checked by General Early, who had halted the commands of 
Barksdale and Hays, with the artillery, about two miles from 
Marye's hill, and reinforced them with three regiments of Gordon's 

The enemy then began to advance up the plank road, his progress 
being gallantly disputed by the brigade of General Wilcox, who 
had moved from Banks' ford as rapidly as possible to the assistance 
of General Barksdale; but arrived too late to take part in the 
action. General Wilcox fell back slowly until he reached Salem 
church, on the plank road, about five miles from Fredericksburg. 

Information of this state of affairs in our rear having reached 
Chancellorsville, as already stated, General McLaws, with his three 
brigades and one of General Anderson's, was ordered to reinforce 
General Wilcox. He arrived at Salem church early in the after- 
noon, where he found General Wilcox in line of battle, with a 
large force of the enemy — consisting, as was reported, of one army 
corps and part of another — under Major-General Sedgwick, in his 
front. The brigades of Kershaw and Wofford were placed on the 
right of Wilcox, those of Semmes and Mahone on his left. 

The, enemy's artillery played vigorously upon our position for 
some time, when his infantry advanced in three strong lines, the 
attack being directed mainly against General Wilcox, but partially 
involving the brigades on his left. The assault was met with the 
utmost firmness, and after a fierce struggle, the first line was re- 
pulsed with great slaughter. The second then came forward, but 
immediately broke under the close and deadly fire which it encoun- 
tered, and the whole mass fled in confusion to the rear. They 
were pursued by the brigades of Wilcox and Semmes, which ad- 

Battle of Chancellor sville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 239 

vanced nearly a mile, when they were halted to reform in the pre- 
sence of the enemy's reserve, which now appeared in large force. 
It being quite dark. General Wilcox deemed it imprudent to push 
the attack with his small numbers, and retired to his original posi- 
tion, the enemy making no attempt to follow. The next morning 
General Early advanced along the Telegraph road, and recaptured 
Mayre's and the adjacent hills without difficulty, thus gaining the 
rear of the enemy's left. He then proposed to General McLaws 
that a simultaneous attack should be made by their respective com- 
mands, but the latter officer not deeming his force adequate to 
assail the enemy in front, the proposition was not carried into 
effect. In the mean time, the enemy had so strengthened his posi- 
tion near Chancellors ville that it was deemd inexpedient to assail 
it with less than our whole force, which could not be concentrated 
until we were relieved from the danger that menaced our rear. It 
was accordingly resolved still further to reinforce the troops in 
front of General Sedgwick, in order, if possible, to drive him- across 
the Rappahannock. Accordingly, on the fourth. General Anderson 
was directed to proceed, with his remaining three brigades, to join 
General McLaws — the three divisions of Jackson's corps holding 
our position at Chancellorsville. Anderson reached Salem church 
about noon, and was directed to gain the left flank of the enemy 
and effect a junction with Early. McLaws' troops were disposed 
as on the previous day, with orders to hold the enemy in front and 
to push forward his right brigades as soon as the advance of Ander- 
son and Early should be perceived, so as to connect with them and 
complete the continuity of our line. 

Some delay occurred in getting the troops into position, owing 
to the broken and irregular nature of the ground, and the difficulty 
of ascertaining the disposition of the enemy's forces. The attack 
did not begin until six P. M., when Anderson and Early moved 
forward and drove General Sedgwick's troops rapidly before them 
across the plank road in the direction of the Rappahannock. The 
speedy approach of darkness prevented General McLaws from per- 
ceiving the success of the attack until the enemy began to recross 
the river a short distance below Banks' ford, where he had laid one 
of his pontoon bridges. His right brigades, under Kershaw and 
Wofford, advanced through the woods in the direction of the firing, 
but the retreat was so rapid that they could only join in the pur- 
suit. A dense fog settled over the field, increasing the obscurity 
and rendering great caution necessary to avoid collision between 

240 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

our own troops. Their movements were consequently slow. Gen- 
eral Wilcox, with Kershaw's brigade and two regiments of his own, 
accompanied by a battery, proceeded nearly to the river, capturing 
a number of prisoners and inflicting great damage upon the enemy. 
General McLaws also directed Colonel Alexander's artillery to fire 
upon the locality of the enemy's bridges, which was done with 
good effect. The next morning it was found that General Sedgwick 
had made good his escape and removed his bridges. Fredericks- 
burg was also evacuated and our rear no longer threatened. But as 
General Sedgwick had it in his power to recross, it was deemed 
best to leave General Early with his division and Barksdale's bri- 
gade to hold our lines as before. McLaws and Anderson being 
directed to return to Chancellorsville, they reached their destina- 
tion during the afternoon in the midst of a violent storm, which 
continued throughout the night and most of the following day. 

Preparations were made to assail the enemy's works at daylight 
on the sixth, but, on advancing our skirmishers, it was found that 
under cover of the storm and darkness of the night, he had re- 
treated over the river. A detachment was left to guard the battle- 
field while the wounded were being removed and the captured 
property collected. The rest of the army returned to its former 

The particulars of these operations will be found in the reports 
of the several commanding officers, which are herewith transmitted. 
They will show more fully than my limits will suffer me to do 
the dangers and difficulties which, under God's blessing, were sur- 
mounted by the fortitude and valor of our army. The conduct of 
our troops cannot be too highly praised. Attacking largely superior 
numbers in strongly entrenched positions, their heroic courage 
overcame every obstacle of nature and art, and achieved a triumph 
most honorable to our arms. I commend to the particular notice 
of the Department the brave officers and men mentioned by their 
superiors for extraordinary daring and merit, whose names I am 
unable to enumerate here. Among them will be found some who 
have passed by a glorious death beyond the reach of praise, but 
the memory of whose virtues and devoted patrotism will ever be 
cherished by their grateful countrymen. The returns of the Medi- 
cal Director will show the extent of our loss, which, from the 
nature of the circumstances attending the engagement, could not 
be otherwise than severe. Many valuable officers and men were 
killed or wounded in the faithful discharge of duty. Among the 

Battle of Chancellorsville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 241 

former, Brigadier-General Paxton fell while leading his brigade 
with conspicuous courage in the assault on the enemy's works at 
Chancellorsville. The gallant Brigadier-General Nichols lost a leg; 
Brigadier-General McGowan was severely, and Brigadier-Generals 
Heth and Pender were slightly wounded in the same engagement. 
The latter officer led his brigade to the attack under a destructive 
fire, bearing the colors of a regiment in his own hands, up to and 
over the entrenchments, with the most distinguished gallantry. 
General Hoke received a painful wound in the action near Fred- 
ericksburg. The movement by which the enemy's positions was 
turned, and the fortune of the day decided, was conducted by the 
lamented Lieutenant-General Jackson, who, as has already been 
stated, was severely wounded near the close of the engagement on 
Saturday evening. I do not propose here to speak of the character 
of this illustrious man, since removed from the scene of his eminent 
usefulness by the hand of an inscrutable but allwise Providence, 
I nevertheless desire to pay the tribute of my admiration to the 
matchless energy and skill that marked this last act of his life, 
forming as it did a worthy conclusion of that long series of splendid 
achievements which won for him the lasting love and gratitude of 
his country, Major-General A. P. Hill was disabled soon after 
assuming command, but did not leave the field until the arrival of 
Major-General Stuart. The latter officer ably discharged the diffi- 
cult and responsible duties which he was thus unexpectedly called 
to perform. Assuming the command late in the night, at the close 
of a fierce engagement, and in the immediate presence of the 
enemy, necessarily ignorant, in a great measure, of the disposition 
of the troops, and of the plans of those who had preceded him, 
General Stuart exhibited great energy, promptness and intelligence. 
During the continuance of the engagement the next day, he con- 
ducted the operation on the left with distinguished capacity and 
vigor, stimulating and cheering the troops by the example of his 
own coolness and daring. While it is impossible to mention all who 
were conspicuous in the several engagements, it will not be con- 
sidered an invidious distinction to say that General .Jackson, after 
he was wounded, in expressing the satisfaction he derived from the 
conduct of his whole command, commended to my particular 
attention the services of Brigadier-General (now Major-General) 
Rodes and his gallant division. Major-General Early performed 
the important and responsible duty intrusted to him in a manner 
which reflected credit upon himself and his command. Major- 

242 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

General R. H. Anderson was also distinguished for the promptness^ 
courage and skill with which he and his division executed every 
order; and Brigadier-General (now Major- General) Wilcox is en- 
titled to especial praise for the judgment and bravery displayed in 
impeding the advance of General Sedgwick towards Chancellors- 
ville, and for the gallant and successful stand at Salem church. 
To the skillful and efficient management of the artillery, the suc- 
cessful issue of the contest is in great measure due. 

The ground was not favorable for its employment, but every 
suitable position was taken with alacrity, and the operations of the 
infantry supported and assisted with a spirit and courage not second 
to their own. It bore a prominent part in the final assault which 
ended in driving the enemy from the field at Chancellorsville, 
silencing his batteries, and by a destructive enfilade fire upon his 
works, opened the way for the advance of our troops. Colonels 
Crutchfield, Alexander and Walker, and Lieutenant- Colonels Brown, 
Carter and Andrews, with the officers and men of their commands, 
are mentioned as deserving especial commendation. The batteries 
under General Pendleton also acted with great gallantry. The 
cavalry of the army at the time of these operations was much re- 
duced. To its vigilance and energy we were indebted for timely 
information of the enemy's movements before the battle, ^nd for 
impeding his march to Chancellorsville. It guarded both flanks of 
the army during the battle at that place, and a portion of it, as has 
been already stated, rendered valuable service in covering the 
march of Jackson to the enemy's rear. The horse artillery ac- 
companied the infantry, and participated with credit to itself in 
the engagement. The nature of the country rendered it impossible 
for the cavalry to do more. When the enemy's infantry passed the 
Rappahannock at Kelly's ford, his cavalry, under. General Stone- 
man, also crossed in large force, and proceeded through Culpeper 
county towards Gordonsville, for the purpose of cutting the rail- 
roads to Richmond. General Stuart had nothing to oppose to this 
movement but two regiments of Brigadier-General W. H. F. Lee's 
brigade — the Ninth and Thirteenth Virginia cavalry. General Lee 
fell back before the overwhelming, numbers of the enemy ; and 
after holding the railroad bridge over the Rapidan during the first 
of Ma}^, burned the bridge and retired to Gordonsville at night. 
The enemy avoided Gordonsville, and reached Louisa courthouse, 
on the Central railroad, which he proceeded to break up. Dividing, 
his force, a part of it also cut the Richmond and Fredericksburg! 

Battle of Chancellor sville — Report of General R. E. Lee. 243 

railroad, an^ a part proceeded to Columbia, on the James river and 
Kanawha canal, with the design of destroying the aqueduct at 
that place. The small command of General Lee exerted itself 
vigorously to defeat this purpose. The damage done to the rail- 
roads was small and soon repaired, and the canal was saved from 
injury. The details of his operations will be found in the accom- 
panying memorandum and are creditable to officers and men. 

The loss of the enemy in the battle of Chancellorsville and the 
other engagements was severe. His dead and a large number of 
wounded were left on the field. About five thousand prisoners, 
exclusive of the wounded, were taken, and thirteen pieces of 
artillery, nineteen thousand five hundred stand of arms, seventeen 
colors and a large quantity of ammunition fell into our hands. 

To the members of my staff I am greatly indebted for assistance 
in observing the movements of the enemy, posting troops and 
conveying orders. On so extended and varied a field all were 
called into requisition and all evinced the greatest energy and zeal. 
The Medical Director of the army. Surgeon Guild, with the officers 
of his department, were untiring in their attention to the wounded. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Corley, Chief Quartermaster, took charge of the 
disposition and safety of the trains of the army. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cole, Chief Commissary of its subsistence, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Baldwin, Chief of Ordnance, were everywhere on the field 
attending to the wants of their departments. General Chilton, Chief 
of Staff, Lieutenant-Colonel Murray, Major Peyton and Captain 
Young, of the Adjutant and Inspector-General's Department, were 
active in seeing t(\ the execution of orders. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith and Captain Johnston, of the engineers, in reconnoitering 
the enemy and constructing batteries ; Colonel Long, in posting 
troops and artillery ; Majors Taylor, Talcott, Marshall and Venable, 
were engaged night and day in watching the operations, carrying 

orders, &c. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. E. Lee, GeneraL 

244 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park, Twelftii Alabawia Reg-iment. 


April 5th to 10th, 1865 — Our hospital life is monotonous and varied 
only by daily discussions of reports of General Lee's situation, 
gathered from the rabid, black Republican papers we are permitted 
to bu3^ The news to-day (10th) is dreadful indeed. " General 
Lee has surrendered "' is repeated with hushed breath from lip to 
lip. No human tongue, however eloquent, no pen, however gifted, 
can give an adequate description of our dismay and horror at the 
heartrending news. The sudden, unexpected calamity shocked 
reason and unsettled memory. The news crushed our fondest hopes. 
On every countenance rests the shadow of gloom, on every heart 
the paralyzing torpor of despair. We move about, or sit on our 
beds, silent, almost motionless, in the speechless agony of woe, in 
the mute eloquence of unutterable despair. After four long weary 
years of battle and marches, of prayers and tears, of pain and 
sacrifice, of wounds and woe, of blood and death, such an ending 
of our hopes, such a shocking disajopointment, is bitter, cruel, 
crushing. Few tears are shed ; there is no time for weakness or 
sentiment. The grief is too deep, the agony too tenible to find 
vent through the ordinary channels of distress. Hope seems forever 
buried, and naturally too. After four years of gallant resistance, 
heroic endurance and incredible suffering, we find ourselves broken 
in fortunes, crushed, ruined ; yet, amid our misery and wretchedness, 
though sad and sick at heart, we have no blush of shame. We feel 
deep, unutterable regret at our failure, but no humiliation. We 
have done nothing wrong. Our rights were trampled upon, our 
property stolen, and our liberties attacked, and we did but our 
sacred duty to defend them as well as we could. We freely offered 
up our lives and property in defence of principle and right and 
honor. A stern, conscientious sense of duty has influenced us to 
fight, bleed and suffer all these terrible years. The Yankees of 
New England first practiced and taught us the doctrine of secession, 
and then by force forbade us to apply it peaceably. The heroic 
men who fought, bled and died, are in prison or in exile for this 
principle, this inherent right, ought not and will not be known in 
history as traitors. Sorrow has crushed us, defeat has ruined us, 
but we must not and shall not forget or cease to cherish the brave 
deeds of as brave hearts as the world ever produced. Our homes 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 245 

are burnt, our land desolated, our wealth departed in smoke and 
ashes, our very hearthstones dyed in blood, our dear dead have 
fallen in vain, but we shall ever remember, honor and be grateful 
to them. But I will not admit that the cause is entirely lost. The 
armies of Generals Joseph Johnston, Dick Taylor and Kirby Smith 
are still in the field, and may snatch victory from apparent defeat 
yet. The Yankees guarding us, while jubilant at the news, are 
seemingly kinder than usual, 

April 11th to 15th — I was the only officer in our ward that suc- 
ceeded in buying a morning's paper to-day (the 15th). The In- 
quirer WSLS brought me at a late hour, hurriedly and stealthily, by 
the nurse Curry. I was inexpressibly shocked at reading at the 
head of the first column, first page, the terrible words: 


John Wilkes Booth the Murderer. 


John Howard Payne the Supposed Assassin." 

Then followed in detail the account of the assassination. I called 
aloud to my hospital comrades, and as I read, they left their bunks 
and crowded around me, listening with awe to the tragic recital. 
One of them remarked that he would gladly divide his last crust 
of bread with the daring Booth, if he should meet him in his 
wanderings. I said I looked upon Lincoln as a tyrant and invete- 
rate enemy of the South, and could shed no tears for him, but 
deprecated the cruel manner of his taking off. While we were 
eagerly and excitedly discussing the startling news, the young 
galvanized renegade Curry came to my bunk and took down my 
card, saying, "the doctor says you must go to the barracks." The 
order was given to no one else, and not having recovered sufficiently 
for the change, I replied that I would not go until ordered to do so 
by the surgeon in person. Curry left, and, in a»few minutes, young 
Doctor Miller came in, and told me to get ready for the barracks. 
Protesting against the inhumanity of his order, I crawled on my 
hands, right foot and hips to the door of the ward, and near by, in 
a small ante-room, put on my old suit of clothes, laying aside my 
hospital garb. I was then directed to the door of the hospital, 
down a long, bleak, windy passage, near the gate to the officers' 
barracks. Here I waited for my crutches and further orders. 
Very soon I saw Captain McSherry approaching, and others of my 
ward and those adjoining followed. Colonel James W. Hinton 

246 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

was of the number. Colonel Hinton inquired of me, " what is the 
matter?" "I suppose we are to be punished as accessories to the 
murder of Abe Lincoln," I replied. "Schoepff has ordered every 
man that can walk from the hospital to the barracks. He evidently 
regards us as accomplices of Wilkes Booth," said the Colonel. 
Many who were quite sick — some of the scurvy afflicted among 
them— hobbled slowly and painfully out of their wards, and the 
long, cold hall was soon crowded with the sick, the lame and the 
halt. Such a rigid course is senseless and cruel. It shows weak- 
ness, cowardice and malice. Courage and humanity accompany 
each other; cowardice and cruelty are comrades. After alternately 
standing and sitting on the floor for hours, the gate of the dreaded 
barracks was opened, and we were again ushered into the prison 


"A prison, heavens, I loathe the hated name, 

Famine's metropolis, the sink of shame, 

A nauseous sepulchre , whose craving womb 

Hourly inters poor mortals in its tomb." 

The plank walk near and space in front of the gate were filled 
with anxious and curious Confederate officers, who eagerly asked 
the news. No papers had been allowed them during the day. I 
headed the long procession, and repeated, as I walked, "Abe Lincoln 
was killed last night." The 'news spread like wildfire, and a few 
thoughtless fellows seemed overjoyed at it, throwing up their hats, 
dancing, jumping, and even shouting aloud. Their imprudence 
caused General Schoepff to order his guards to fire upon any Rebel 
manifesting pleasure at the news, and he actually had the huge 
guns of the fort turned frowningly toward us. A large majority of 
the prisoners regret Lincoln's death, and in the wonderful charity 
which buries all quarrels in the grave, the dead President was no 
longer regarded as an enemy, for, with the noble generosity native 
to Southern charact^-, all resentment was hidden in his death. My 
copy qf the Inquirer was in great demand, was borrowed by officers 
in different divisions, and the astounding particulars of Lincoln's 
terrible death were read and reread to crowds of officers, all eager 
to drink in every word of the startling account. I occupied my 
old quarters in twenty-seven, with Captain Hewlett as my bunk- 
mate. ]\Iy friends welcome my return very cordially. 

April IQth to Idth — Most of the officers are greatly discouraged, 
and have given up all hope of the success of our cause. I still 
have hope from the Southern Fabius, General Joseph Johnston. 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 247 

He is prudent and skillful. We have been deprived of mails for 
several days, and have had many minor but desirable privileges 
taken from us. The guns of the fort are still turned towards us, 
and the guards are very harsh and peremptory in their orders. 
The barracks have been enlarged for the reception of more pris- 
oners, and field and staff officers separated from the others and 
placed in a newly erected division to themselves. General R. L. 
Page and General Rufus Barringer are the ranking officers of the 
party. I attend surgeon's call every morning. The doctor is a 
drunken sot, and seldom attends his nine o'clock morning sick call, 
but sends his detailed Rebel clerk, a young Mississippi lawyer, from 
the privates' pen, who sits on the outside of the fence and listens to 
the grievances of the sick officers through a " pigeon hole," size eight 
by twelve inches, which the sick approach, one by one, in his turn, 
and, peeping through, make known their wants. This little "hole 
in the wall " is crowded for hours frequently, and the young, in- 
experienced, but accommodating Rebel substitute for the Yankee, 
surgeon does his best to serve his patients. He tries to supply 
such medicines as are called for. Itch is a very common disease, 
and some of the neatest of the officers suffer from its trying annoy- 
ance. Calls for sulphur and lard or grease, and epsom salts are 
numerous. A number of officers "take in washing," calling for 
clothes every Monday, or as their customers may direct. Five cents 
per garment is the charge, and the washermen pull off their coats, 
roll up their sleeves, and work with a vim, using the water from 
the ditch. 

April 20th to 2Sd (Sunday) — A large mail was delivered to-day 
(23d). I received a letter from my beloved sister, Mrs. M. C. H., 
dated La Grange, Georgia, February 6th, and postmarked Old 
Point Comfort, Virginia, March 31st, and Point Lookout, Mary- 
land, April 11th. It had been sent from the latter place to Old 
Capitol, Washington, D. C, and thence to Fort Delaware. It told 
me of the reception of one of my letters by brother James, the 
latest and only one since October 27th, and pained and saddened 
me by news of my dearest of mothers having had her arm broken 
in December. She was reported nearly well though. No particulars 
were given, as all flag of truce letters are limited to one page. 
Brothers John and Lemuel are in service at Andersonville prison. 
The former is major of the First Georgia, and the latter is a 
sergeant under Captain Wirz. I know they are kind to the prisoners 
under their charge. Major Sherrar, of Maryland, slapped or 

248 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

kicked some cowardly fellow, who had solicited the oath and 
release from prison, and, when reported to Ahl, was ordered 
to the pen occupied by the "galvanized" men. Here he was 
seized, and placed violently and forcibly upon a blanket, and 
swinging him rapidly was hurled repeatedly high in air, until 
exhausted and almost dead from the shameful violence. All 
are justly indignant at such tyrannical conduct on the part of 
the ignoble Ahl. An adjutant of a Virginia regiment bribed a 
sentinel to mail a letter to his sweetheart in Baltimore for him, but 
the letter was discovered and detained. The adjutant was sent for 
and asked to explain how he mailed the letter, which he declined 
to do. Whereupon he was hung up by the thumbs, sustaining his 
entire weight in that painful position. Occasionally he was lowered 
and again the name of the guard who mailed his letter demanded, 
but he invariably refused to tell. His thumbs were almost torn 
from his hands, their joints were torn apart, and the poor, brave, 
faithful, honorable fellow fainted at last from excess of pain from 
the cruel torture. He cannot now use his swollen hands, and is 
fed by his messmates. He is entirely helpless so far as his hands 
and arms are concerned. Such conduct as this on the part of 
Schoepff and Ahl does not soften our asperity towards the Yankee 
Government, nor make us willing to swear fealty to it. 

April 24:th and loth — Captain Ahl came into the pen, arranged 
the officers in three sides of a hollow square, and had the roll 
called alphabetically, offering the oath of allegiance to all, with a 
promise of early release, if accepted. Nearly 900 out of 2,300 
agreed to take it. It was a trying and exciting time as each name 
was called and the response "Yes" or "No "was announced. I 
answered " No " with emphasis and bitterness. Born on Southern 
soil, reared under its institutions, nurtured upon its traditions, I 
cannot consent to take the hated oath. The very thought is repul- 
sive in the extreme. 

April 2^th to 29th — The distressing news of the surrender of 
General Johnston to Sherman in North Carolina is announced in 
words of exultation by the Northern papers. The cup of bitterness 
and sorrow seems full. Those officers who had declined the oath 
were again ordered out, the roll called a second time, and the oath 
again offered. Hundreds who had promptly and boldly replied 
"No" when their names were called after Lee's surrender, now 
faintly and reluctantly answered " Yes." What a painful mental 
struggle they must have passed through. My own messmates 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 249 

pronounced the .fatal " Yes," but they do not allude to it in our 
conversations. When my name was called, I promptly and de- 
fiantly answered at the top of my voice "No." My messmates are 
very reticent, and are evidently dissatisfied, grieved and humiliated. 
I am sorry for them, and feel some indignation at their course. 
The armies of Dick Taylor and Kirby Smith are still left, and no 
one should give up the cause so long as there is an armed man in 
the field, and I feel that I would be disgraced if I should^ consent 
to such a course while we have an army ready to do battle, and 
our President is still firm and resolute, and even now perhaps with 
the army of his brother-in-law. General Taylor. A bold young 
North Carolinian, Lieutenant Hugh Randolph Crichton, in my 
division, openly denounces the precipitation of those who have 
agreed to swallow the detested oath. Captain J. W. Fannin, of 
Tuskegee, Alabama; "Captain A. C. Gibson, of La Grange, Georgia; 
Lieutenant William A. Scott, of Auburn, Alabama; Major N. R. 
Fitzhugh, of Scottsville, Virginia, and others, come to my bunk 
frequently and earnestly discuss our exciting and heart-sickening 
surroundings. All of them have declined the oath, and the two 
former say they will remain firm as long as I do. Officers are 
having meetings by States, and trying to take united action. The 
Alabamians assembled in Division 24. Colonel Steedman, of the 
First Alabama, was called to the chair, and several short speeches 
were made, but no definite action was taken. I was a quiet spec- 
tator, but mentally resolved not to be bound by any action looking 
to taking the oath. 

' Ap'il oOth to May 4;:^.— Another offer of the villainous oath, and 
only 165 of the entire number of officers in the barracks now con- 
tinue to resolutely decline it. I again refused. Lieutenant Crichton 
proposed to me that we accept banishment in preference to the 
oath. I replied that I preferred anything to the latter. My friends 
are calling my attention to my crutches and helpless, crippled 
condition, and warn me not to excite the anger of the Yankees by 
my persistent refusal of the oath. My lady friends — among them 
Mrs. Mary F. Chandler, of City Spring, Richmond, Virginia, the 
only sister of Captain Keeling, Miss Jamison, of Baltimore, and 
others — write urging me to consent to take it. I appreciate their 
motives, but feel it my duty to refuse it to the last extremity. My 
resolution is determined and unwavering. To take it would be 
swearing against my wishes and my conscience. The Confederate 
cause is right and holy, and I cannot swear not to aid or comfort 

250 , Southern Historical Society Papers. 

it and its still faithful defenders. None but a base and cowardly 
despotism would force a man to swear against his own conscience, 
to do something he can only do through perjury. To swear under 
such circumstances is to suppress the noblest impulses of the 
heart. Is it not cruel and contemptible to take advantage of our 
misfortunes, of our dire extremity, and offer us the oath so repeatedly 
and insultingly, especially when it is well known we would never 
take it except under compulsion? Those prisoners who still refuse 
the oath held a consultation meeting in Division 22. General 
Barringer made a long speech, urging all of us to accept the terms 
of the Yankees and go home, and declared that we would be ban- 
ished from the country if we persisted in declining the proffered 
oath. I sat on a bunk near Major Fitzhugh, of Virginia, and 
Captain W. H. Bennett, of Georgia, and when General Barringer 
concluded his speech, amid profound silence, Ihe cry of "Fellows !' 
Fellows!" arose, and Captain .John W. Fellows, of General Beale's 
staff, from Arkansas, but formerly of New York city, mounted a box 
and eloquently responded to the call. He began by saying: "Gen- 
eral Barringer says if we do not tamely submit, we shall be banished 
from the country. What's banished but set free from daily contact 
with the things we loathe? Banished! we thank you for it! 
Twould break our chains, etc., etc." He was applauded throughout, 
and rapturously as he closed urging us to remain faithful unto the 
bitter ;end. Colonel Van H. Manning, of the First Arkansas, fol- 
lowed in the same line, and made an excellent speech, full of fire 
and stirring eloquence. 

May 5th to 10th — General Dick Taylor has surrendered to General 
Canby all the forces east of the Mississippi river. Everything 
grows darker and more hopeless. The Trans-Mississippi army, 
under General Kirby Smith, alone remains. A few of us, " like 
drowning men catching at straws," still hope for exchange and 
deliverance through this source. Captain Brown has received 
some money from Mr. J. M. Bruff, of Baltimore; Lieutenant Ar- 
rington from Mrs. Kearney, of Kearney sville, Indiana; Captain 
Hewlett from friends in Clarkesville, Tennessee; and I from Misses 
McSherry and Jamison. We live very well by making purchases 
from the sutler. 

3Iay 11th to ISth — I have little heart for conversation, and employ 
myself reading and indulging bitter fancies. My nights are restless, 
and hours are spent in anxious, troubled thoughts. It is said there 
are only forty left who still decline the oath. The others have 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 251 

yielded to the great pressure. Lieutenant Critchton and Captains 
Gibson and Fannin remain firm and counsel with me daily. Re' 
ceived ten dollars from Mrs. Martha J. Sullivan, of Baltimore, with 
a noble letter, full of sweet, womanly sympathy, counseling me to 
jdeld to the requirements of the Yankee Government, and secure 

release from longer confinement. Miss Gertie C , now at 

Baltimore Female College, sent me her photograph, a very hand- 
some one. A prison newspaper, all in manuscript, has made its 
appearance. It is a single sheet of foolscap, all written neatly 
with the pen, and evidently by several hands. " The Prison Times " 
is its name. It is divided into columns, and every page has its 
contents properly classed. 'The head is prettily done in ornamental 
letters. The motto is ^' en temps et lieny The number out is the 
second issue. There is a prospectus and a salutatory. There is a 
column of miscellany followed by a column of advertisements. 
" Lieutenant White, of Thirty -third North Carolina, will execute on 
metal all kinds of engravings;" "Lieutenant B. F. Curtright, Di- 
vision 24, manufactures gutta-percha rings, chains and breastpins;" 
"tailoring is done by Griggs and Church ;" " washing and ironing by 
J. G. Davenport, of Tenth Georgia battalion, and by Lieutenant J. 
C. Boswell, Thirty-third Georgia regiment;" "Broughton and 
Walker keep a shaving and shampooing shop." The editors are 
George S. Thomas, Captain Sixty-fourth Georgia; W. H. Bennett, 
Captain and Adjutant same regiment, and F. J. Cassidy, Lieutenant 
Eleventh South Carolina volunteers. The editorials consist of a 
"Salutatory," "Our Prison World," "A Good Work," "A Local," 
"Our Paper," "Miscellaneous," "Report of the Markets," and there 
are several original communications. 

May 19th to Slst — The mortifying news of the capture of Presi- 
dent Davis, near Washington, Georgia, is received, and the false 
report of his attempt to escape in female attire is circulated and 
maliciously harped upon by the fanatical Yankee newspapers. 
While I feel sure the report is totally untrue, yet I confess I think 
he would have been entirely justified in it, if he had sought to 
escape by such means. Louis Napoleon once escaped from a dun- 
geon in female garb, and no disgrace or shame attaches to him for 
it. But it is a ringing and lasting shame to the Yankee nation 
that our great chief has been compelled to endure the severest, 
bitterest attempt to humiliate him and disgrace his people by being 
basely manacled with irons. While thoroughly indignant we feel 
that the disgrace of the cruel deed all belongs to President Johnson 

252 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

and Secretary Stanton, none whatever to our great, beloved, vicarious 
sufferer. Our hearts were chilled, our countenances grew pale, and 
we trembled with agony, as we heard whispered from lip to lip 
"Jeff. Davis is captured." We were sickened, palsied by the pain- 
ful, overpowering announcement. The illustrious, undaunted head 
of our Confederacy is a manacled prisoner. Our honored, beloved 
President a chained captive, his Cabinet prisoners or fugitives, our 
cause lost, our country ruined, our native land desolated, our 
gallant armies surrendered. The grand head, the noble embodi- 
ment of our holy cause, the faithful friend and servant of the 
South, President Davis, is now shut up in the dreary prison walls^ 
of Fortress Monroe. He is our uncomplaining, dignified, heroic,- 
vicarious sufferer. How dull and leaden must be the heavy hours 
in his weary, weary prison cell. May a Gracious God sustain and 
comfort him in his wretchedness and misery. 

On the 26th my last, fond hope was completely crushed. Gen- 
eral Kirby Smith surrendered his forces in the Trans-Mississippi 
Department to General Canby at Baton Rouge. My very last hope 
has gone. What shall I do? If the alternative of banishment 
from the country was offered, I would unhesitatingly accept it. 
But it is the hated oath of allegiance or perpetual imprisonment. 
Both are terrible, revolting. 

Ju7ie 1st to 5th — A novel, called "Too Strange not to be True,'- 
received from Miss McSherry, and promptly read. Farther O'Con- 
nor, of Philadelphia, made a visit to the Catholic prisoners. It is a 
notable fact that no Protestant minister in the entire North has 
ever, to my knowledge, visited the prison. A few Catholic priests 
have been more considerate. The "Prison Christian Association" 
has weekly lectures from its members. Colonel Hinton delivered 
a very fine one on "Benevolence." Rev. Mr. Kinsolving, Captain 
Harris and others will doubtless follow. Prayers continue to be 
offered by some oflBcer in each division at nine o'clock ever}^ night. 
I am collecting the autographs of the brave men who to the last 
have refused the oath of allegiance, nearly all of whom now, since 
the surrender of Kirby Smith and his army, are willing to take 
the oath when again offered, in accordance with the proclamation 
of President Johnson. Among these true men whose autographs 
I have are Major J. Raiford Bell, Twelfth Mississippi infantry, 
Satartia, Mississippi; Adjutant Francis E. Ogden, Seventh Loui- 
siana regiment, Natchez, Mississippi; Lieutenant Collin W. Gibson, 
Twelfth Mississippi regiment, Natchez, Mississippi ; Lieutenant J. 

Diary of Captain Robert E. Park. 


W. Lawrence, Seventeenth North Carolina regiment, Greenville, 
North Carolina; Adjutant Alex, S.Webb, Forty-fourth North Caro- 
lina regiment, Oaks, North Carolina; Lieutenant Hugh R. Crichton, 
Porty-seventh North Carolina regiment, Louisburg, North Carolina ; 
Lieutenant A. H. Mansfield, Eighth North Carolina regiment, 
Greenville, Nortli Carolina; Captain George Sloan, Fifty-first North 
Carolina regiment, Fayetteville, North Carolina; Lieutenant Wil- 
liam M. Sneed, Twelfth North Carolina regiment, Townesville, North 
Carolina ; Lieutenant Patrick H. Winston, Eleventh North Carolina 
regiment, Franklinton, North Carolina; Adjutant David W. Gates, 
Thirty-seventh North Carolina regiment, Charlotte, North Carolina; 
Colonel James M. Whitson, Eighth North Carolina regiment, Poplar 
Branch, North Carolina; Colonel J. T. Morehead, Fifty-third North 
Carolina regiment, Greensboro,' North Carolina, Captain J. W. 
Fannin, Sixty-first Alabama regiment, Tuskegee, Alabama: Adju- 
tant S. D. Steedman, First Alabama regiment, Steedman, South 
Carolina; Lieutenant-Colonel M. B. Locke, First Alabama regiment, 
Perote, Alabama; Lieutenant R. H. Wicker, Fifteenth Alabama 
regiment, Perote,'Alabama; Adjutant William R. Holcombe, Ninth 
Alabama regiment, Athens, Georgia ; Lieutenant W. A. Scott, 
Twelfth Georgia artillery, Auburn, Georgia; Lieutenant Frede- 
rick M. Makeig, Fourth Texas regiment, Bold Spring, Texas; 
Lieutenant William H. Eflinger, Eleventh Virginia cavalry, Har- 
risonburg, Virginia; Major Norman R. Fitzhugh, Chief Quarter- 
master Cavalry Corps, Army Northern Virginia, Scottsville, Vir- 
ginia; Captain Julian P. Lee, A. A. General, Richmond, Virginia; 
Colonel R. C. Morgan, P. A. C. S., Lexington, Kentucky; Captain 
M. B. Perkins, Sixth Kentucky cavalry, Somerset, Kentucky; 
Captain C. C. Corbett, M. D., Fourteenth Kentucky cavalry, Florence, 
Georgia; Colonel T. W. Hooper, Twenty-first Georgia infantry, 
Rome, Georgia; Captain A. C. Gibson, Fourth Georgia infantry^ 
La Grange, Georgia ; Captain L. J. Johnson, Twenty-fifth Tennessee 
regiment, Cooksville, Tennessee. These are the names of twenty- 
nine of the faithful forty who firmly declined all offers of the oath 
■of allegiance to the United States Government until after the sur- 
render of the last armed body of Confederates. I am proud of 
being one of the forty, and wish I had all of their names. We 
have waited until even Mosby has surrendered his Partisan Rangers. 
Yet I accord equal courage and equal patriotism with myself to 
those gallant men who thought best to accept President Johnson's 
terms after the surrender of Lee and Johnston. They merely felt 

254 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the utter hopelessness of further resistance earlier than I did, and 
accepted the dreaded but inevitable situation sooner. The ftiithfu 
forty have at last most reluctantly come to the sad and painful 
conclusion that further resistance is useless, and will no longer 
refuse the oath if offered. 

June 6th to 12th — Captain Waldhauer, of Georgia Hussars, from 
Savannah, Georgia, a small, quiet, gentlemanly officer, who had 
lost his right arm in battle, but on recovery, returned to the com- 
mand of his company, .and was captured while bravely fighting 
below Petersburg, has been released. He sent me from Philadelphia 
a large blank book, of which I propose to make a prison Album. 
Several of my friends have contributed articles, at my request, 
writing brief biographical sketches of themselves, giving their war 
histories, the battles in which they have been engaged, circumstances 
of their capture, prison life, etc. Articles which I value very highly 
have been written by Captain J, W. Fannin, Sixty-first Alabama; 
Lieutenant W. S. Bird, Eleventh Alabama; Captain T. W. Harris, 
Twelfth Georgia regiment ; Lieutenant G. R. Waldman, Forty-fourth 
Virginia; Captain J. Whann McSherry, Thirty-sixth Virginia i 
Captain W. A. McBryde, Third Alabama; Lieutenat H. C. Pool, 
Tenth North Carolina troops; Lieutenant James K. Kinman, 
Twelfth Georgia battalion infantry; Lieutenant A. H. Mansfield, 
Eighth North Carolina; Lieutenant W. A. Scott, Twelfth Georgia 
artillery; Captain A. E. Hewlett, Twelfth Alabama; Captain W. 
H. Harrison, Thirty-first Georgia, and Colonel J. W. Hinton, 
Sixty-eighth North Carolina. 

June IZth to 15th — Miss Jamison has sent me a satchel, a citizen's 
coat and other articles, stating that they were presented by a beau- 
tiful Cuban girl. Miss Susie Matthews. I owe them both many 
thanks.* Transportation for all the crippled officers was obtained, 
and in company with Captain Russell and Captain Rankin, of 
Georgia, Adjutant Reagan, of Tennessee, and a large number of 
other wounded officers, I was escorted to the fort, where the oath 
was read to us, while we stood with our right hands raised aloft. 
I managed to drop to the rear and lowered my hand during its 
reading. Soon we took a boat for Philadelphia, and began to 
realize that the war was indeed over, and we on the way to our 
respective homes. 

■•I am happy to say that as soon as possible after my return home I took occasion to pay 
liacls; all moneys received (luring my imprisonment to Mr. J. M. Coulter, Miss E. Jamison and 
Mrs. M. J. Sullivan, of Baltimore, and Miss A. L. McSherry, of Martinsburg. They were true 
friends tome while "sick and in prison," and my gratitude to them for their disinterested 
kindness will end only with my life. May kind heaven prosper them. 

K. E. P. 

Torpedoes. 255 


By General 6. J. Rains, Chief of the Confederate Torpedo Service. 

[The following will be read with interest, both on account of the topic of 
which it treats, and tlie high authority from which it comes.] 

There is no fixed rule to determine the ethics of war — that 
legalized murder of our fellow-men — for even mining is admited 
with its wholesale destruction. 

Each new weapon, in its turn, when first introduced, was de- 
nounced as illegal and barbarous, yet each took its place according 
to its efficacy in human slaughter by the unanimous consent of 

Gunpowder and fire-arms were held to be savage and anti-chris- 
tian, yet the club, the sling, the battle-axe, the bow and arrow, the 
balister or cross-bow with the tormentum, javelin and spear, gave 
way to the match-lock musket, and that to the flint-lock, and that 
to the percussion. 

The rifle is now fast superseding the musket, being of further 
range, more accurate in direction and breech-loading. 

The battering-ram and catapult gave way to the smooth-bore 
cannon, chain, bar and spherical shot, which is now yielding, 
except in enormous calibre 15-inch and more, to rifle-bores and 
elongated chilled shot (yet, on account of inertia, rifle calibre should 
never exceed ten inches). 

Torpedoes come next in the catalogue of destructives, the modern 
ne plus ultra of warlike inventions. 

The world indeed is in throes of fire and marine monsters. 
While war is looming up between Russia and Turkey, other nations 
are striving in guns, iron-clads and torpedo ships, for maritime 
supremacy. The powers of electricity in light-giving and heat-con- 
trolling to examine and blind an adversary by its glare at night, 
and fire-torpedoes for his destruction at all times, and the capa- 
bility of steel and iron with Professor Barfly's superheated steam in 
endurance, o0"ensive and defensive, will be called into action to resist 
the 100-ton guns of Italy and other formidable calibres, also torpedo 
boats like the Thornycroft of France, the Lightning of England, 
and the Porter Alarm of the United States. 

Iron-clads are said to master the world, but torpedoes master the 
iron-clads, and must so continue on account of the almost total 

256 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

incompressibility of water and the developed gasses of the fired 
gunpowder of the torpedo under the vessel's bottom passing 
through it, as the direction of least resistance. 

While other nations are pursuing the science of assault and 
defence theoretically and experimentally, the United States has had 
more practical experience with the torpedo, and better understands 
its capabilities, wisely discarding the iron and steel leviathians of 
the deep for models, as the Dreadnaught, Inflexible, Devastation, 
Alexandria, Iron Duke, Duillio, &c. 

During the war with the Confederacy, there were 123 torpedoes 
planted in Charleston harbor and Stono river, which prevented the 
capture of tluit city and its conflagration. There were 101 torpe- 
does planted in Roanoke river, North Carolina, by which, of twelve 
vessels sent with troops and means to capture Fort Branch, but 
five returned. One was sunk by the fire from the fort, and the 
rest by torpedoes. Of the five iron-clads sent with other vessels to 
take Mobile, Alabama (one was tin-clad), three were destroyed by 
torpedoes. There were fifty-eight vessels sunk by torpedoes in the 
war, and some of them of no small celebrity, as Admiral Farragut's 
flag-ship the Harvest Moon, the Thorn, the Commodore Jones, the 
Monitor Patapsco, Ram Osage, Monitor Milwaukee, Housatonic 
and others. (Cairo in Yazoo river). Peace societies we must ac- 
knowledge a failure in settling national differences by arbitration, 
since enlightened nations goto war for a mere political abstraction, 
and vast armies in Europe are kept ready for action, to be frustrated, 
however, by this torpedo sj^stem of mining, carried out according to 

For three years the Confederate Congress legislated on this subject, 
passing each house alternately for an organized torpedo corps until 
the third year, when it passed both houses with acclamation, and 
$6,000,000 appropriated, but too late, and the delay was not short- 
ened by this enormous appropriation. 

Could a piece of ordnance be made to sweep a battle field in a 
moment of time, there soon would be no battle field, or could a 
blast of wind loaded with deadly mephitic malaria in one night, 
sent like the destroying angel in Sanacherib's army, or the earth be 
made to open in a thousand places with the fire of death for de- 
struction, as in the days of Korah, Dothan and Abiram, to which 
this system tends, then and then only may we beat the sword into 
the ploughshare, the spear into the pruning-hook, and nations 
learn wars no more. 

Torpedoes. 257 

The following will show who is the founder of this arm of 
service : 


"In the experiments with the torpedo lately in the Florida 
channel," saj^s an Eastern paper, "the country has been furnished 
with a more complete exhibition of the destructive capacities of 
this submarine projectile, than is now known to military and naval 
science." Admiral Porter, in his recent report, called particular 
attention to the torpedo as a defensive and offensive weapon, and 
urged upon the navy a thorough study of its powers as a destruc- 
tive agent in warfare. We therefore congratulate the service upon 
the success of the torpedo exercises., believing that they will com- 
mand the attention of all the navies in the world. Enthusiasts 
claim that naval warfare has been substantially revolutionized 
by its invention; and the exercises of the squadron during the 
closing days of February, prove that "this newfangled concern" 
is not to be despised, as the navy often learned to its sorrow during 
the protracted blockade of the Southern coast at the time of the 
recent war. The Wabash, Congress, Ticonderoga, Canandaigua, 
Ossipee, Colorado, Brooklyn, Wachusett, Kansas, Lancaster, Alaska, 
Franklin, Fortune and Shenandoah, participated in the practice. 
This recalls to mind the following narration, well known to 
some of our readers: During the war with the Seminole Indians 
in Florida, April, 1840, the Seventh United States infantry 
was stationed at posts in the interior of the peninsula, and the 
country had been divided into squares of twenty miles each, and 
the headquarters located at Fort King, the former agency, which 
was commanded by Colonel Whistler, and Captain G. J. Rains 
commanded at Fort Micanopy, just twenty-five miles distant. 

Though there was, and had been since the beginning of hostili- 
ties, an Indian town within sound of drum at Fort King; yet it 
was so surrounded by swamp that it had not been discovered, and 
some twenty miles journey was required to reach it,'; and the 
Indians so located their depredations in Micanopy square, that 
Colonel Whistler made representation that there the enemy was to 
be found and not at Fort King, and General Taylor changed the 
headquarters accordingly. The colonel's command, consisting of 
several companies of infantry and dragoons, was transferred to 
Fort Micanopy, and Captain Rains and his command, one company 
with diminished numbers, to Fort King. 

258 Southern Historical Society Payers. 

Here the Captain soon discovered he was in a hornet's nest, and 
so reported, but was unheeded. The Indians perceived at once 
the disparity in numbers from their spies, and that their opponents 
were few at that post, and they became bold accordingly. Captain 
Rains' men were so waylaid and killed that it became dangerous to 
walk even around the post, and finally two of his best men were 
waylaid and murdered in full view thereof. Desperate diseases 
often require desperate remedies, and as the preservation of the 
lives of his command required it, the following was resorted to by 
the Captain. The clothing of the last victims was made to cover a 
torpedo invented by him, and it was located at a small hammock 
and pond of water in a mile or two of the post where the Indian 
war parties had to get water. 

Some day or two elapsed, when early one night the loud booming 
sound of the torpedo was heard, betraying the approach of a hostile 
party. Quickly Commander Rains and some dragoons who hap- 
pened to be at the post rode to the spot ; yet all was still and but 
an opossum found, which the Indians with tact, near where the 
torpedo had been, left to deceive. A yell indeed was heard, but 
the dragoons supposed it to be from the infantry which were 
arriving, and the latter thought it to come from the former. On 
returning to the post the facts of the yell appearing and the animal 
found, discovered to have been killed by a rifle bullet, early next 
morning Captain Rains with sixteen men, all which could be 
spared from garrison duty, for the dragoons had left, repaired to 
the hammock, some four or five acres in extent, and, spreading out 
his men as skirmishers, swept through it. The copse was surrounded 
by pines and was full of bushes and beds of needle palmettoes, 
impenetrable except next to the roots, where lay concealed some 
hundred and more infuriated savages, all ready for action. They 
were passed undiscovered until the soldiers had reached the pond, 
a small one of five or six yards across, and were examining the 
spot of the torpedo, which gave evidences of its destructive effects. 

A little dog which had accompanied the command here became 
furious, barking in the thicket of bushes and needle palmettoes. 
" What is that dog barking at?" said Captain Rains. " Nothing, sir," 
said one of the soldiers, " but a rabbit." Quickly he changed his 
place and again became furious, barking on the opposite side of 
the pond. " Sergeant Smith," said Captain Rains to his first sergeant 
near by, "see what that dog is barking at?" The poor fellow 
turned and advanced some four or five paces with the soldiers near 

Tor'pedoes. 259 

liim, and, shouting Indians, he and his men fired their guns sim- 
ultaneously with the enemy lying in covert. 

The whole hammock in a moment was alive with Indians, yelling 
and firing rapidly. The little party of soldiers was surrounded, and 
the captain shouted, " men clear the hammock, take the trees and 
give them a fair fight." No sooner commanded than executed. 
The sergeant came to his officer with blood running from his 
mouth and nose, and said, " Captain, I am killed." Too true; it was 
his last remark. He was a brave man, but his captain could do 
nothing then but tell him to get behind a tree near by. 

As the hammock was occupied by the foe and the military behind 
the trees at theend furthest from the post, the order was given to 
charge, and the men rushed into the thicket, driving the enemy 
right and left flying before the bayonet and getting behind trees 
outside the hammock, the troops passing through their centre. 
From the nature of the place on arriving at the other end of the 
thicket, the soldiers were much scattered, and the firing still going 
on, no little exertion was required for the captain to rally his men, 
and while thus engaged he was badly wounded, shot through the 
body, but continued his efforts until successful and the enemy 
driven from the ground. The captain was carried to the fort in 
the arms of his men. 


We have thus numbered them, as all others before made were 
abortions. We remember the doggerel of the battle of the kegs of 
the revolution, and a more subsequent attempt to blow up British 
shipping blockading our ports in the war of 1812, which prema- 
ture explosions rendered ineffective, and even Lord- Admiral Lyon's 
flag-ship, at Cronstadt, which had her stern nearly blown out of 
water by a torpedo, set by the Russians during the Crimean war, 
was found in the dry-dock at Liverpool not to have had a plank 
started. Our story of the first torpedo ended in the fighting of 
sixteen soldiers and an officer with some one hundred or more In- 
dians, and among the casualties the wounding of the officer and 
his being carried to Fort King in the arms of his men. Another 
and second torpedo had been previously plac,ed at the post by him^ 
and soon after the fight a thousand or more troops were collected 
there, and it became such an object of dread to the whole army 
that a soldier guard was put over it until Captain Rains was able 
to go and take it in. "Suppose," said one officer to another, high 

260 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

in rank, "that the Captain had died of his wound, what would 
you have done? " " I thought," said he, " of firing at it with a six- 
pounder at a safe distance, and thys Icnoclving it to pieces." The 
occasion of the first submarine torpedo was as follows: Soon after 
the battle of Seven Pines (called in Northern prints "Fair Oaks") 
General R. E. Lee, commanding, sent for General Rains and said 
to him: "The enemy have upwards of one hundred vessels in the 
James river, and we think that they are about making an advance 
that way upon Richmond, and if there is a man in the whole 
Southern Confederacy that can stop them, you are the man. Will 
you undertake it?" "I will try," was the answer; and observing 
that ironclads were invulnerable to cannon of all calibre used and 
were really masters of rivers and harbors, it required submarine 
inventions to checkmate and conquer them. So an order was 
issued forthwith putting General Rains in charge of the submarine 
defences, and on the James river banks, opposite Drewry's Bluff, was 
the first submarine torpedo made — the primo-genitor and predeces- 
sor of all such inventions, now world renowned, as civilized nations 
have each a torpedo corps. And if, as has been asserted, that 
"naval warfare has been substantially revolutionized" by them, 
there is no doubt but that is the case on land, and the tactics of 
the world has been changed, perhaps, under the providence of God, 
making a vast stride to arbitration of nations and universal peace. 

Note. — Having read the MS. of General Rains' valuable paper, 
I desire to say that the total number of vessels sunk by torpedoes 
in Mobile bay was twelve, instead of three, viz: three ironclads, two 
tinclads and seven transports. 

D. H. Maury, 
Late Maj 07'- General C. S. A. 

Report of General Jones of Operations at Charleston. 261 

Report of Major-General Samuel Jones of Operations at Charleston, 
South Carolina, from December 5th to 27th, 1864. 

[The following is from the original MS. kindly furnished us by the gallant 
•oldier who prepared it, and never before published to our knowledge.] 

Charleston, South Carolina, January 11th, 1865. 

Colonel — The report of operations of the troops under my com- 
mand, in the late campaign ending in the evacuation of Savannah, 
called for by the Lieutenant-General commanding on the 2d instant, 
has been delayed because of my absence from my headquarters on 
other duty, and the failure of some of the subordinate commanders 
to forward to me their reports. They have not all yet been received, 
but as I have been ordered to another and distant command, I 
respectfully submit, without longer delay, the following report : 

The dispatch from the Lieutenant-General commanding, then in 
Savannah, directing me to establish my headquarters at or near 
Pocotaligo, was received in this city about sunset on the 4th ultimo. 
I started by the first train, but owing to detentions on the road, did 
not reach Pocotaligo until nearly sunset on the fifth. I was not 
informed as to the number, description or location of the troops in 
that vicinity, and immediately endeavored to obtain information 
on those points. I ascertained that the troops, with the exception 
of the Fifth and Forty-seventh Georgia regiments, a battalion of 
the Thirty-second Georgia regiment, the artillery, a part of the 
Third South Carolina cavalry and Kirk's squadron, were composed 
of Georgia and South Carolina reserves, and South Carolina militia, 
and occupied positions extending from Pocotaligo to Savannah 
river, and up that river beyond Sister's ferry. Those at and near 
Grahamville were commanded by Brigadier-General Chesnut, those 
at and near Coosawhatchie by Brigadier-General Gartrell. They 
had arrived but a few days previously, and until my arrival were 
under the immediate orders of the Lieutenant-General command- 
ing or other officer under him. The reserves were very imperfectly 
organized, and the militia without organization, and many of the 
men were without arms. Having obtained as accurate information 
as I could of their numbers and positions, and the positions and 
movements of the enemy, I ordered Brigadier-General Chesnut to 
send the Forty-seventh Georgia regiment and a section of artillery 
by railroad, to be thrown thence to any point that might be threat- 
ened, the train to remain at Coosawhatchie and be held in readiness 

262 Sovihern Historical Society Papers. 

to move the troops at any moment. This order, I regret to say, 
was not promptly obeyed. Dispatches received during the night 
indicated that the enemy was threatening Coosawhatchie by way 
of Bee's creek and the Coosawhatchie river. At ten o'clock the 
morning of the 6th, General Gartrell telegraphed me that the enemy 
was landing from twelve barges at Gregory's point on Tulifinny 
river; that he had moved forward a part of his force to meet them. 
The battalion of South Carolina cadets, having arrived at Pocotaligo , 
was ordered to guard the Tulifinny trestle, and aid in checking 
any advance on Coosawhatchie. A section of artillery, supported by 
the battalion of the Thirty-second Georgia regiment, was ordered 
to a point on the left of the Tulifinny, from which it was thought 
it could drive off or annoy the enemy's transports and barges, and 
I started myself to ride to Coosawhatchie. But before reaching 
Tulifinny bridge, the enemy, having landed in much larger force 
than was at first supposed, had pressed forward up Gregory's neck 
to the Coosawhatchie or State road, and having driven back a 
battalion of the Fifth Georgia regiment (about one hundred and 
fifty men), interposed between me and Coosawhatchie. 

Brigadier-General Gartrell has not submitted a report, but I 
ascertain from a conversation with him and his subordinate com- 
manders, that on first receiving information of the advance of the 
enemy, he sent forward only a small battalion (one hundred and 
fifty men) of the Fifth Georgia, which encountered the enem}!- on 
the Gregory's Point road, about a mile from its junction with the 
State road, and drove back the advance guard. But the enemy, 
discovering that the handful of men in their front was not the 
twentieth part of their own number, pressed forward and nearly 
enveloped the Fifth Georgia, forcing it back. The Georgia reserve 
and a section of artillery were then sent by Gartrell to the support 
of the Fifth Georgia, but it was too late; the entire line soon gave 
way, fell back in confusion, crossed the Coosawhatchie river and 
partially destroyed the bridge immediately under the guns, and 
within easy and effective musket range of our works at Coosaw- 
hatchie. Major John Jenkins, whom I had sent forwad to ascertain 
the position of the enemy, was conducting the battalion of cadets 
under Major White into action, and that gallant body of youths 
was moving at double quick, manifesting an eagerness to encounter 
the enemy, which they subsequently so handsomely sustained in 
action, and would in ten minutes have opened fire on the enemy's 

Report of General Jones of Operations at Charleston. 263 

right, when our line gave way as above stated, and the cadets were 
withdrawn to the railroad. 

The enemy having secured a footing at the junction of the Gre- 
gory's Point and State roads, immediately commenced entrenching, 
and I had no troops at hand with which to attack them that even- 
ing. During the night of the 6th, I concentrated on the railroad, 
near the Tulifinny trestle, all the available troops I could collect, 
being the Forty-seventh Georgia and a battalion of the Thirty- 
second Georgia regiments, a company of the First South Carolina 
artillery, the battalion of cadets and one of North Carolina reserves 
that had just arrived, and Buckman's battery of artillery; and 
ordered Colonel Edwards, the senior colonel, to attack the enemy 
with that force at day-dawn the next morning. General Gartrell 
was ordered to make a spirited demonstration of attack from 
Coosawhatchie as soon as he should hear Colonel Edwards' guns, 
and if Edwards' attack proved successful, to press forward the 
attack from Coosawhatchie with all vigor. Colonel Edwards at- 
tacked as directed, with the result shown by his report, herewith 
forwarded. The demonstration from Coosawhatchie was not made 
with any spirit, and this effort to dislodge the enemy failed. 

Not having a suflicient number of reliable troops to renew the 
attack, I endeavored by defensive works to hold the railroad, and 
the enemy was thus unavoidably allowed time, of which they 
availed themselves, to strengthen their j^osition on Gregory's neck. 
In the mean time, I had ordered Brigadier-General B. H. Robert- 
son from his sub-division to the immediate command of the troops 
from Bee's creek to Pocotaligo. On the morning of the 9th, the 
enemy, endeavoring to get possession of the railroad, vigorously 
assailed our left near Tulifinny trestle and were repulsed. Later 
in the day, they concentrated and attacked our line near Coosaw- 
hatchie, and were again repulsed. Failing in this attack they never 
renewed it, but strengthened their position within less than a mile 
of the railroad, and established several batteries with which they 
endeavored, but unsuccessfully, to prevent us from using it. 

On the 11th, under instructions from the Lieutenant-General 
commanding, Brigadier-General Taliaferro was assigned to the im- 
mediate command of the troops from Bee's creek to Pocotaligo. 

I have stated thus minutely the operations of very small bodies 
of troops during the 6th, 7th and 9th, because the result of those 
operations decided my subsequent action. If the Forty-seventh 
Georgia regiment and the section of artillery, which I ordered up 

264 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

from Grahamville within an hour after my arrival at Pocotaligo, 
had been sent to Coosawhatchie, as I directed, or if, instead of 
sending forward only a battalion, General Gartrell had employed 
all of his available force to engage the enemy on the Gregory's 
Neck road, leaving a small support for the guns in the fort at Coo- 
sawhatchie, I think the enemy would not have succeeded in establish- 
ing themselves on Gregory's neck. The position they succeeded in 
securing was strong, being on a peninsula, not more than a mile 
and a half in width, between the Coosawhatchie and Tulifinny, 
with both flanks protected by those rivers and swamps, some of 
them thickly wooded. They also occupied Mackey's point, making 
it necessary that I should employ a part of my small force to 
watch the enemy on Graham's neck, to guard against a movement 
on the railroad from that quarter. I was convinced that I could 
not, with the force at my command, dislodge the enemy from his 
position by a direct attack in front, and therefore directed my atten- 
tion to their rear. The only plan offering any prospect of success 
was an attack in the rear from the Tulifinny side. To do this it 
was necessary to bridge that stream and concentrate a column of 
reliable troops to attack the enemy in his entrenchments. The 
means of bridging the stream were procured, and I selected the 
most suitable point of passage, but at no time was I able to con- 
centrate for the attack more than a thousand troops reliable for 
such service; for, by the concurrent testimony of the subordinate 
commanders, the reserves and militia could not be relied on to 
attack the enemy in their entrenchments. The number of the 
enemy on Gregory's neck I estimate at between four and five thou- 

[Note. — It was the same body of troops. General Hatch com- 
manding, that was defeated at Honey Hill, on the 30th November. 
It was then said to consist of 5,000 men of all arms. General 
Grant, in an oflicial report, states the Federal loss at Honey Hill to 
have been 746 in killed, wounded and missing. Six days later. Gen- 
eral Hatch landed with his command on Gregory's neck, and it is 
reasonable to estimate the number between four and five thousand.] 

Under instructions from the Lieutenant-General commanding, 
directing me if I could not dislodge the enemy from his position^ 
to strengthen my own so as to hold the railroad, and send him all 
the troops I could spare, I sent him the part of General Young's 
brigade that had arrived, and a few other troops, to operate in the 
immediate vicinity of Savannah, and directed my attention to 

Report of General Jones of Operations at Charleston. 265 

holding the road to Savannah river, watching and obstructing the 
crossings on that stream, and making preparations for dislodging the 
enemy on Gregory's neck, whenever I could collect the necessary 

Whilst these operations were in progress near Coosawhatchie, 
Brigadier-General Chesnut guarded the road from Bee's creek to 
Harduville, and Colonel Culcork guarded the line of the Savannah 
river to Hudson's ferry, until the arrival in that vicinity of Major- 
General Wheeler and Brigadier-General Young. 

I regarded it as my especial duty to hold the Charleston and 
Savannah railroad, and keep open communication to Savannah 
river. This was done, for though the enemy succeeded in establish- 
ing batteries within easy range of the railroad, and used their 
artillery very freely, we held that road ; the passage of trains was 
never interrupted , and only one locomotive and one box car damaged, 
and two rails broken, until after Savannah had been evacuated 
and the troops and material brought from that city secured. Trains 
were passing over the road up to the 27th December, when, under 
instructions from the Lieutenant-General commanding, I turned 
over the immediate command of the troops in that vicinity ta 
Major-General McLaws. 

Whilst these operations were going on from Pocotaligo to the 
Savannah river, the other troops under my command held securely 
Charleston and its harbor, and all of the coast of South Carolina 
in our possession. The artillery and other veteran troops behaved 
throughout with their accustomed steadiness and gallantry, and the 
South Carolina cadets. Major White commanding, who for the first 
time felt the fire of the enem}', so bore themselves as to win the ad- 
miration of the veterans who observed and served with them. 

For the casualties, which considering the heavy fire to which the- 
troops were exposed for many days, were very few ; and for other 
details, I respectfully refer to the reports of subordinate com- 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Samuel Jones, Major-General. 

To Colonel T. B. Kay, A. A. <?., Department 

South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, Charleston, South Carolina. 

266 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Headquarters Adams Run, South Carolina, 
January 5, 1865. 
Major Charles S. Stringfellow, 

Assistant Adjutant-General., Charleston., South Carolina: 

Major — I have the honor to report that in obedience to in- 
structions from Major-General Jones, I assumed command of all 
the troops between Bee's creek and Tulifinny trestle on the 8th of 
December, ultimo. 

About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 9th, the enemy opened 
on the left of my line a very rapid and continuous fire, from some 
eight guns. His line of skirmishers advanced about 10 o'clock, 
and immediately after the entire left became hotly engaged, our 
men fighting behind temporary earth works. Several attempts were 
made to carry our lines, but all were handsomely repulsed. The 
troops fought with great spirit. Foiled in his undertaking, the 
enemy moved to his left, in the direction of Coosawhatchie. The 
engagement was renewed most vigorously on our right at 3 o'clock 
P. M., and after an obstinate resistance by the enemy, lasting some 
two hours, he was driven eight hundred yards from his original line. 

The Thirty-second and Forty-seventh Georgia regiments, the 
Seventh North Carolina battalion, and the battalion of South Caro- 
lina cadets, all under the immediate command of Colonel Edwards, 
occupied the left; the Fifth Georgia regiment, the First and Third 
Georgia reserves, under Colonel Daniel, the right. It was reported 
that General Gartrell was slightly wounded, by a fragment of a shell, 
before he reached the field. 

The German artillery, Captain Bachman, rendered very efficient 
service on the left, as was proved by the number of dead found in 
their front. Major Jenkins, commanding the cadets, was particularly 
conspicuous during the morning fight. 

Colonel Edwards deserves especial credit for the admirable dis- 
position of his troops. 

The enemy's loss, though not accurately ascertained, must have 
been heavy, as quite a number of his dead were left on the field. 

Our casualties during the day were fifty -two killed and wounded. 
A tabulated list is herewith enclosed. 

Both the officers and men of my command behaved well. Cap- 
tains Haxalland Worthingtonand Lieutenants Johnston and Stoney 
rendered most valuable assistance in the execution of orders while 
the fight was progressing. 

I am. Major, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. H. Robertson, Brigadier- General. 

Report of General Jones of Operations at Charleston. 267 

Headquarters Tulifinny Works, South Carolina, 

December 19, 1864. 
Major Charles S. Stringfellow, 

Assistant Adjutant- General^ Charleston^ South Carolina: 

Major — In obedience to instructions from Major-General 
Jones, dated Pocotaligo, December 6, 1864, directing me to attack 
the enemy early on the 7th, in his. position near this point, I made 
the following disposition of the force under my command, consist- 
ing of about two hundred men of the Forty-seventh regiment 
Georgia volunteers, commanded by Captain I. C. Thompson ; two 
companies of the Thirty-second Georgia, with the Augusta battalion 
local troops ; one company of the First South Carolina infantry, 
Captain King, and one hundred and thirty South Carolina militia, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Bacon, of the Thirty-second 
Georgia, and the battalion of South Carolina cadets, commanded 
by Major J. B. White, making in all seven or eight hundred men. 
Early in the morning, four companies were thrown forward as 
skirmishers, under command of Major White. The line, composed 
of the Forty-seventh Georgia on the right, and the troops under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bacon, on the left, moved just in 
rear of the skirmishers. In a thick wood, near a bend in the old 
Pocotaligo road, the right of my skirmish line struck the enemy. 
The front was then changed graduall}^ to the right, until the line 
crossed the said road, at nearly right angles, when it confronted the 
enemy and became engaged throughout its entire length. At this 
stage of the action the command of Lieutenant-folonel Nesbett 
arrived and was posted on the left of my line of battle. Our 
skirmishers drove the enemy vigorously until the right of the line 
became engaged with the enemy's line of battle, our left at the 
same time overlapping his right. This position was maintained 
until after Colonel Daniel's demonstration on my right, when the 
enemy made new dispositions on and extending beyond my left. 
It becoming apparent that the enemy's force considerably out- 
numbered mine, which consisted largely of raw troops, it was 
deemed impracticable to attack him in force, without which it was 
impossible to drive him from his position. I therefore withdrew,, 
in good order, unpursued by the enemy, to my present position. 
The troops engaged, which were my skirmishers only, behaved with 
great gallantry. 

By permission of the Major-General commaning, we began, on 
the morning of the 8th, to fortify our position. The work was 

268 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

continued uninterruptedly until the morning of the 9th, when the 
enemy drove in our pickets and advanced in force to Avithin two 
hundred and fifty yards of our position. We opened upon him 
with artillery and musketry, and in a very short time drove him 
back with considerable loss. On the afternoon of the same day, 
in the attempt to re-establish our picket line, the enemy was 
found in the wood on our right within a hundred yards of the 
railroad. After severe fighting for about two hours, he was driven 
off and our line re-established. On the next morning it was ascer- 
tained that he had fallen back to his original position, and our 
picket line was advanced four or five hundred yards beyond its 
former position. 

The casualties amounted in all to four killed, one commissioned 
oflScer and thirty-one men wounded, many of them very slightly. 

Judging from the unburied dead, the graves and other evidences 
found upon the* field, the enemy must have suffered a loss of not 
less than two hundred and fifty in the fighting of the 9th, and not 
less than fifty in that of the 7th, making in all a loss of not less 
than three hundred (300). 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. C. Edwards, Colonel Commanding. 

I omitted to mention, in enumerating the force under my com- 
mand on the 7th instant, the three pieces of Captain Bachman's 
battery, which, owing to the character of the country, it was found 
impracticable to use in the action. 

A. C. Edwards, Colonel Commanding. 

Sketch of the Late General S. Cooper. 269 

Sketch of the Late General S. Cooper. 

By General Fitz. Lee. 

[We cannot, as a rule, publish obituary notices or biographical sketches of 
even our most distinguished men ; but we are sure all will recognize the pro- 
priety of giving tlie following sketch of our Senior General, whose death has 
been so widely lamented.] 

Students of military history cannot fail to be impressed, when 
war is aufait accompli, with the great advantage possessed by those 
nations who have justly placed a value upon system and organiza- 
tion in the preparation of their armies. 

The military genius implanted by nature in a Cassar, a Hannibal, 
a Wellington, or a Napoleon, might never have burst forth with 
such overpowering light as to dazzle with its rays a wondering 
world, had not the human tools with which they worked been so 
formed, so fashioned, as to be perfectly flexible when placed in 
their hands by some almost hidden but powerful agent, who, 
grasping the subject with a master's mind, adapted the various de- 
partments of war in such a way as to work harmoniously together, 
and to be most effective. Strategy and grand tactics are indeed a 
powerful machine, but to be used to full working strength, requires 
an exact adjustment of all component parts. 

To "set a squadron in the field," there must be arms, subsistence 
stores, transportation and shelters, clothing and medical supplies. 
The quartermaster's, commissary, ordnance and medical depart- 
ments, though separate and distinct in their several spheres, must 
be made conformable with each other, with scrupulous care, by 
the constitutional commander-in-chief and his war secretary ; and 
their chief counsellor is the soldier at the head of the adjutant- 
general's department, through whom all official orders are promul- 
gated. An efficient executive leader in that department is felt 
from an army corps to a corporal's guard. 

Chronicles of the important events in the rise and fall of nations 
are filled with instructive instances that might be drawn upon in 
illustration of this fact, whilst the pages of history, where results 
are summed up and explanatory reasons given for them, abound 
in examples. To keep this paper within proper limits, I shall only 
briefly refer to one, viz: the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. 

The French Emperor, it is recollected, declared war because the 
King of Prussia would not promise that the head of the Catholic 

270 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

branch of the royal family, Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern, 
should never again be a candidate for the throne of Spain. The 
great and unquestioned ability of Louis Napoleon was deemed 
evidence that all things were duly weighed, and that his organiza- 
tion and preparations were at least complete. The French army 
numbered some 350,000 trained soldiers. The population of France 
was 38,067,064, in relation to which, says the president of the legis- 
lative body to the Emperor, as he was about to depart for the 
frontier: "Behind you, behind our army accustomed to carry the 
noble flag of France, stands the whole nation, ready to recruit it." 

On the other side, Prussia had a population of some twenty-four 
millions, or, including the North German Confederation (of which 
she is a part) of some thirty millions. Her standing army num- 
bered less than 400,000. To what was due, then, the astounding 
results of that conquest, for the world was prepared for a gigantic 
and not unequal combat? Why, in the short space of six months, 
do we witness a Sedan, with a capitulation by McMahon of 90,000 
men? a Metz, with a surrender of nearly 200,000 by Bazaine? a 
Strasburg, giving up 17,000 soldiers? and speedily the fall of Paris, 
with awar indemnity to be paid the victors of five milliards of francs? 
Why such a series of victories for Germany, such inglorious defeats 
for France ? Why such a rapid fall of the curtain upon such a 
striking tableau vivant? We trace it to the weakness and ineffi- 
ciency of the military organization of France, and to the wisdom 
of the system which gave the preponderating power of the reserves 
to Germany — the marvellous comprehensive military method that 
brings, at the tap of the drum, thousands of drilled, disciplined 
men to the support of the main body, as opposed to a conscription 
or enlistment of raw levies from the population at large. 

King William and Von Moltke strongly felt the hand of Sham- 
horst, who undertook the reorganization of the military resources 
of Prussia after Jena in 1806 — an honor in our war which such 
leaders as Albert Sydney Johnson, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and 
Jackson must share with a Cooper. It is the astute, clear, calm 
and penetrating minds of Shamhorst and Cooper, whose judgment 
and masterly ability quietly plan, arrange and direct the machinery 
which is to be put in motion by the brilliant army chieftains, such 
as I have mentioned, that wins success. 

General Samuel Cooper possessed an inheritable right to his 
enviable eminence. 

From Dorsetshire, England, his great grandfather came, and set- 

Sketch of the Late General S. Cooper: 271 

tied in Massachusetts. This paternal ancestor had three sons — 
John, the grandfather of General Cooper, Samuel and William. 
Samuel was President of Harvard University during the Revolu- 
tionary War, and was proscribed by General Gage of the British 
army, and a reward offered for his head. The son of John, also 
called Samuel, was the father of General Cooper. At eighteen 
years old, we find him at Lexington, forming one of seventy men 
that ''assembled in front of the meeting-house," to whom Major 
Pitcairn, commanding the British advance, called out "disperse, 
you rebels, throw down your arms and disperse," on the morning 
of the 19th April, 1775. Early manifesting such a heroic spirit, it 
was not surprising that he should have been found upon the night 
of 16th June marching with Prescott, and working all night upon 
a redoubt on Breed's Hill (mistaken for Bunker Hill, in the dark- 
ness of the night), and obeying sturdy old Putnam's orders on the 
morning of the 17th, not to fire "till they could see the whites of 
the eyes of the British." 

He afterwards served with distinction in Knox's regiment of 
artillery, and upon his tombstone appears the following inscrip- 
tion : 

"Sacred to the 

memory of 

Major Samuel Cooper 

of the Eevolutiouary Array, • 

who in the first onset struck for liberty. 

He fought at 

Lexington, Bunker Hill, Brandy wine, Monmouth, Germantown, 

and on otlier sanguinary fields, 

and continued to wield the sword 

in defence of his country 
until victory crowned her arms." 

At the close of the Revolutionary War, Major Cooper married 
Miss Mary Horton, of Dutchess county, New York. Two sons and 
six daughters were born from this marriage. George and Samuel 
(the subject of this memoir) were the sons. The former graduated 
at West Point, but afterwards went into the navy. 

Adjutant-General Cooper was born in 1798, at Hackensack on 
the Hudson river, at the family seat of his maternal ancestors, the 
Hortons. He entered the United States Military Academy at West 
Point when only fifteen years old, the term of service there then 
being two years only. His first service was as a lieutenant of light 
artillery. He was promoted a first lieutenant in the Third artillery, 
and in 1824 was transferred to the Fourth. From 1828 to 1836 he 
served as aid-de-camp to General Macomb, then commanding the 

272 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

American army, and was promoted to rank as captain 11th June 
of that year. 

Upon the 7th July, 1838, he first entered the War Department 
as an assistant adjutant-generah During the Florida war he served \ 
as chief of staff to General Worth, and was in the action of Pila- 
Kil-Kaha on the 19th April, 1842. In 1848 he was brevetted colo- 
nel for meritorious conduct in the prosecution of his duties in con- 
nection with the Mexican war, and on the 15th July, 1852, was 
appointed the Adjutant-General of the United States army. General 
Winfield Scott being then its Commander-in-Chief. 

Whilst in the United States army, he compiled his work entitled 
"Tactics for the Militia," a book at one time in almost universal 
use among the volunteer soldiery, and extensively known as 
" Cooper's Tactics." 

In 1827 General Cooper married a daughter of General John 
Mason, of Clermont, Fairfax county, Virginia, and a grand-daughter 
of George Mason, of Gunston, "the Solon and the Cato, the law- 
giver and the stern patriot of the age in which he lived," and to 
whose memory the constitution of Virginia and her bill of rights 
are lasting monuments. 

At the head of the Adjutant-General's Department, United States 
army. General Cooper gave great satisfaction. His qualifications 
and his 'ability as an officer, and his private worth as a man, was 
universally acknowledged by army officers, many of those living 
to-day giving testimony that he was the best chief of that depart- 
ment the army ever had. 

On the 17th March, 1861, he resigned his commission as an 
officer, having served the United States with a steady faithfulness 
and a firm adherence to all of her interests fov forty-six years. In 
view of the fact of General Cooper's Northern birth, this step has 
been the subject of much comment, and some adverse criticism. 
His Northern friends profess to see no reason why a soldier born 
in their section, holding a high office of trust for life, honored and 
respected, should, after fort3^-six years' service, and in the sixty- 
third year of his life, relinquish a position in which he would not 
be called upon for field service, and cast his fortunes and tender 
his services to the Confederate Government. It has been said by 
them that he was more guided by the counsels of his friend, the 
Hon. Jefferson Davis, and his brother-in-law, Hon. James M. 
Mason, than by his native and natural opinion and belief. To 
those holding such sentiments, it may be truly said they did not 

Sketch of the Late General S. Cooper: 273 

indeed know their man. General Cooper, upon such an important 
issue as the one he was called upon to meet in his own person, 
allowed no dictation and asked no advice. That he should have 
cast aside the personal possession of comfort and plenty to the end 
of his days, and embarked with his family and household gods 
upon an unknown sea, over which the storm clouds were riding 
and the winds of war were blowing, and upon which many perils 
were to be encountered, many difficulties surmounted, many dan- 
gers contested, before the waters grew calm or the voyage prosper- 
ous, is, in the estimation of his Southern admirers, the strongest 
proof of the pure and conscientious character of the old hero. 
^^Flat justitia ruat ccelum,''^ we can almost hear him exclaim, as he 
dared to follow his convictions of right, and permit self-interest to 
be taken prisoner by conscience and duty. 

The new Confederacy of States, in the act of breathing life into 
its corporal substance, and staggering at the amount of organiza- 
tion to be performed to perpetuate national existence, warmly wel- 
comed Adjutant- General Cooper's offer of services, because they 
found in such a proposal the master mind, the perfect knowledge 
and vast experience, necessary to put the intricate machinery into 
successful operation. The President of the Confederate States had 
served as Secretary of War in Pearce's Cabinet, and was thus 
brought into close official relations with General Cooper in the dis- 
charge of the latter's duties as Adjutant-General in the United 
States army. No one knew better than he did the character and 
qualifications of the soldier who joined him at Montgomery, Ala- 
bama. His clear conception of this fact was at once manifested by 
placing him at the head of tlie Adjuta'nt and Inspector-General's 
Department, and afterwards making him a full general — the first 
on the list of five — the remaining four being Generals Albert Syd- 
ney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston and Beauregard, 
holding respective rank in the order named. 

During the four long years in the life of the Confederacy, Gene- 
ral Cooper fully discharged the onerous duties confided to him 
with a fidelity, an exactness, a loyalty and an honesty, which, 
whilst perfectly consistent with his conscientiousness and ability, 
gave great satisfaction to the army and the country. 

It is indeed difficult to place a proper estimate upon the value 
of his service during that trying period, so great was his capacity 
for work. 


274 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Punctiliously and unceasingly he daily discharged the great 
duties of his office, and at night, when others sought relaxation 
and rest, in a room in his private residence, his work was steadily 
carried forward. At the termination of the war. General Cooper 
returned to his country seat near Alexandria, Virginia, to find his 
home in ruins. 

His house had been torn down and destroyed by the Federal 
troops, and upon the eminence, in its stead, a Federal fort had been 

Adding to another house, which before the war had been his 
manager's, the remaining years of the old hero were quietly and 
peacefully passed. 

General Cooper died upon the 3d of December, 1876, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age. 

"Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord." 

For many years before his death he was a conscientious and 
consistent communicant of the Episcopal church. 

His bereaved family can indeed find consolation, in their irre- 
parable loss, in the belief: " Blessed are the jDure in heart, for they 
shall see God." 

Letter from Ex-President Davis. 

Mississippi City, Mississippi, April 5th, 1877. 
General F. Lee : 

My Dear Sir — I am gratified to know that you have under- 
taken to make a record of the services and virtues of a man than 
whom none has higher claims upon the regard of all who loved 
the Confederacy. No one presents an example more worthy of 
the emulation'^of the youth of his country. My personal acquaintr 
ance with General Cooper began at the time when he was associated 
with Mr. Poinsett in the War Office, where his professional 
knowledge was made available to the Secretary, in those army 
details of which a civilian was necessarily but little informed. 
His sterling character and uniform courtesy soon attracted the 
attention and caused him to be frequently resorted to by members 
of Congress having business with the War Office. Ex-President 
Pierce, who was then a Senator, spoke in after years of the favora- 
ble impression which General Cooper had made upon him, and 
said his habit had been when he " wanted information to go to 

. Sketch of the Late General S. Cooper. 275 

Cooper instead of to the Secretary;" but while he thus brought to 
the service of the Secretary his professional knowledge, the latter 
eminently great in other departments of learning, no doubt did 
much to imbue General Cooper's mind with those political ideas 
which subsequently marked him as more profoundly informed 
upon the character of our Government than most others of his 

In the midst of his professional duties, he found leisure for high 
literary culture, had much dramatic taste, and in the dull days of 
garrison life he contributed much to refined enjoyment. When I 
became Secretary of War, General Cooper was Adjutant-General of 
the United States army. My intercourse with him was daily, and as 
well because of the purity of his character as his knowledge of 
the officers and affairs of the army, I habitually consulted him in 
reference to the duties I had to perform. 

Though calm in his manner and charitable in his feelings, he 
was a man of great native force, and had a supreme scorn for all 
that was mean. 

To such a man, a life spent in the army could not fail to have 
had its antagonisms and its friendships; yet when officers were to be 
selected for special duties, to be appointed in staff corps, or to be 
promoted into new regiments, where qualifications were alone to 
be regarded, I never, in four years of constant consultation, saw 
Cooper manifest prejudice, or knew him to seek favors for a friend, 
or to withhold what was just from one to whom he bore reverse re- 
lations. This rare virtue — this supremacy of judgment over feel- 
ing — impressed me as being so exceptional, that I have often men- 
tioned it as a thing so singular and so praiseworthy that it deserves 
to be known by all men. 

When in 1861 a part of the Southern States, in the exercise of 
their sovereignty, passed ordinances of secession from the Union, 
and organized a separate Confederacy, General Cooper was at the 
head of the corps, in which a large part of his life had been passed. 
This office was one for which he was peculiarly qualified, and 
which was best suited to his- taste. He was a native of a Northern 
State; his sole personal relation with the South was that he was 
the husband of a granddaughter of George Mason, of Virginia — 
Virginia, not yet belonging to the Confederate States. He foresaw 
the storm, which was soon to burst upon the seceding States — 
saw that the power which had been refused in the convention 
which formed the Constitution of the Union — the power to use the 

276 Southern Historical Society Paj^ers. 

military arm of the General Government to coerce a State, was to 
be employed without doubt, and conscientiously believing that 
would be violative of the fundamental principles of the compact 
of Union, he resigned his commission, which was his whole wealth, 
and repaired to Montgomery to tender his services to the weaker 
party, because it was the party of law and right. 

The Confederate Government had no military organization, and, 
save the patriotic hearts of gallant men, had little on which to rely 
for the defence of their country. The experience and special 
knowledge of General Cooper was, under these circumstances, of 
incalculable value. If he would consent, while his juniors led 
armies in the field, to devote himself to the little attractive labors 
of the Adjutant-General's office — if he would consent? They little 
knew the self-sacrificing, duty-loving nature of Cooper, who did 
not anticipate his modest request "to be employed wherever it was 
thought he might be useful," and with unrelaxing assiduity he ap- 
plied himself to the labors of the Adjutant-General's office. The 
many who measure the value of an officer's service by the con- . 
spicuous part he played upon the fields of battle, may not pro- 
perly estimate the worth of Cooper's services in the war between 
the States, but those who like yourself were in a position to Jcnoio 
what he did, what he prevented, what he directed, will not fail to 
place him among those who contributed most to whatever was 

Faithful to the cause he espoused — unmoved by the prospect of 
disaster, when the fortune of war seemed everywhere to be against 
us — Cooper continued unswerving in the discharge of his duty, 
and when the evacuation of the capital became a necessity, he 
took with him such books and papers as were indispensable, and 
although worn down by incessant labor, never relaxed his attention 
to the functions of his office until disease compelled him to confess 
his inability to continue the retreat. The affection, the honor and 
the confidence with which I regarded him made our parting a 
sorrowful one, under circumstances so hard for us both. Of the 
events which followed his return to the spot where his house had 
stood, you are so well informed that I will not protract this already 
long letter. 

I remain with great regard and affectionate remembrance, 

(Signed) Jefferson Davis. 

Battle of Seven Pines — Report of General Longstreet. 277 

Battle of Seren Pines — Report of General James Longstreet. 

[The following report does not appear in the printed volumes of Confede- 
rate Battle Keports, and has never, so far as we are aware, been in print. 
It will be a valuable addition to our series of original reports.] 

Major — Agreeably to verbal instructions from the Commanding 
General, the division of Major-General D. H. Hill was, on the 
morning of the 31st ultimo, formed at an early hour, on the Wil- 
liamsburg road, as the column of attack ujDon the enemy's front 
on that road, A brigade was placed on each side of the road to 
advance to the attack, and each was supported by one of the other 
brigades of the same division. 

In advance of each of the columns of attack a regiment as 
skirmishers was deployed. The plan for the forward movement 
was that fields should be passed by a flank movement of the regi- 
ments of skirmishers, and the woods in front once in our posses- 
sion, the brigades were to advance rapidly, occupying them, and 
move steadily forward. Abatis and entrenched positions were or- 
dered to be taken by a flank movement of the brigades or brigade 
in front of them, the skirmishers engaging the sharpshooters, and 
the supporting brigade occupying the position of the brigades 
during the flank movement. 

The division of Major-General Huger was intended to make a 
strong flank movement around the left of the enemy's position and 
attack him in rear of that flank. This division did not get into 
position, however, in time for any such attack, and I was obliged 
to send three of my small brigades on the Charles City road to 
sup]3ort the one of Major-General Huger's that had been ordered 
to protect my right flank. 

After waiting some six hours for these troops to get into position, 
I determined to move forward without regard to them, and gave 
orders to that effect to Major-General D. H. Hill. The forward 
movement began about two o'clock, and our skirmishers soon be- 
came engaged with those of the enemy. The entire division of 
General Hill became engaged about three o'clock, and drove the 
enemy steadily back, gaining 'possession of his abatis and part of 
his entrenched camp. General Rodes, by a movement to the right, 
driving in the enemy's left. 

The only reinforcements on the field in hand were my own bri- 
gades, of which Anderson's, Wilcox's and Kemper's were put in by 

278 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

the front on the Williamsburg road, and Colston's and Pryor's by my 
right flank. At the same time the decided and gallant attack made 
by the other brigades gained entire possession of the enemy's posi- 
tion, with his artillery, camp equipage, &c. Anderson's brigade, 
under Colonel Jenkins, pressing forward rapidly, continued to drive 
the enemy till night-fall. 

The severest part of the work was done by Major-General D, H- 
Hill's division, but the attack of the two brigades, under General 
R. H. Anderson — one commanded by Colonel Kemper (now Briga- 
dier-General), the other by Colonel M. Jenkins — was made with 
such spirit and regularity as to have driven back the most de- 
termined foe. This decided the day in our favor. 

General Pickett's brigade was held in reserve. General Pryor's 
did not succeed in getting upon the field of Saturday in time to 
take part in the action of the 31st. Both, however, shared in re- 
pulsing a serious attack upon our position on Sunday, the 1st in- 
stant, Pickett's brigade bearing the brunt of the attack and repuls- 
ing it. 

Some of the brigades of Major-General Huger's division took 
part in defending our position, but being fresh at the work did not 
show the same steadiness and determination as the troops of Hill's 
division and my own. 

I have reason to believe that the affair would have been a com- 
plete success, had the troops Uf)on the right been put in position 
within eight hours of the proper time. The want of promptness 
on that part of the field, and the consequent severe struggle in my 
front, so greatly reduced my supply of amunition that, at the late 
hour of the move on the left, I was unable to make the rush neces- 
sary to relieve that attack. 

Besides the good effect produced by driving back such heavy 
masses of the enemy, we have made superior soldiers of several 
brigades that were entirely fresh and unreliable. There can 
scarcely be a doubt about our ability to overcome the enemy upon 
any fair field. 

Brigadier-General J. E. B. Stuart, in the absence of any opportunity 
to use his cavalry, was of material service by his presence with me on 
the field. 

The conduct of the attack was left entirely to Major-General 
Hill. The entire success of the affair is sufficient evidence of 
his ability, courage and skill. I will refer you to his reports 
for particular mention of the conduct of his officers and soldiers. 

Battle of Seven Pines — Report of General Longstreet. 279 

I will mention Brigadier-General Rodes, of that division, as dis- 
tinguished for coolness, ability and determination. He made one 
of the most important and decisive movements on the field, and 
held his command several hours after receiving a severe wound. 
My own troops have been so often tried and distinguished on other 
fields that they need no praise from my lips. A truer, better body 
of men never marched upon a battle-field. 

I will mention, however, as distinguished for their usual gal- 
lantry and ability. Generals R. H. Anderson, C. M. Wilcox, Geo. E. 
Pickett, R. E. Colston, R. A. Pryor, and Colonels Kemper and Jen- 
kins (commanding brigades), and Colonels Corse, Winston, Funs- 
ton and Sydenham Moore — the latter twice shot, once severely 

I desire also to mention the conspicuous courage and energy of 
Captain James Bearing, of the Lynchburg artillery, and his officers 
and men. His pieces were served under the severest fire, as his 
serious loss will attest. Captain Carter, of Gen-eral Hill's division, 
also displaj^ed great gallantry and skill in the management of his 

My personal staff— Majors G. M. [Sorrel, J. W. -Fairfax, P. T. 
Manning, and Captains Thomas Goree, Thomas Walton, and my 
young aid, Lieutenant R. W. Blackwell — have my kind thanks for 
their activity, zeal and intelligence in carrying orders and the pro- 
per discharge of their duties. Captain Walton was slightly wounded. 
I am indebted to General Wigfall and Colonel P. T. Moore, volun- 
teer aids, for assistance in rallying troops and carrying orders 
during the battle of the 31st instant, and kindly aided in carrying 
orders during the several assaults made by the enemy on that day. 
I am also indebted to Colonel R. H. Chilton for material aid. Dr. 
J. S. D. Cullen, Surgeon-in-Chief, and the officers of his Depart- 
ment, kindly and untiringly devoted themselves to the wounded. 
They have none of the chances of distinction of other officers, but 
discharge the most important duties. I refer to his report for the 
conduct of the officers of his department. 

Detailed reports of the major-generals, brigadiers and other com- 
manders and chiefs of staff have been called for, and will be for- 
warded as soon as received. Our loss in valuable officers and men 
has been severe. Colonels Giles, Fifth South Carolina; Jones, 
Twelfth Alabama; Lomax, Third Alabama, fell at the head of their 
commands, gallantly leading them to victory. 

Three hundred and forty-seven prisoners, ten pieces of artillery, 

280 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

five thousand small arms, one garrison flag and several regimental 
standards were taken. A rough estimate of the loss on this part 
of the field may be put at three thousand killed and wounded. 
The loss on the part of the enemy may be put at a much higher 
figure, inasmuch as he was driven from his positions, and some 
half dozen attempts to recover them were successfully repulsed. 

List of killed, wounded and missing. 

Officers. Enlisted Men. Aggregate.- 

Killed, ...... 61 755 816 

Wounded, - - - - 209 3,530 3,739 

Missing, 3 293 296 

Total, - - - 273 4,578 4,851 

Headquarters Right Wing, June 11th, 1862. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) J, Longstreet, 

Major- General Commanding.. 

To Major Thomas G. Rhett, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 281 

Keport of General J. E. B. Stuart of Cavalry Operations on First Mary- 
land Campaign, from August 30th to September 18tli, 1862. 

[We were suprised to find the following report missing from the published 
reports of the campaign of 1862, and can only account for the omission by 
reference to the late date at which it was sent in. As it has never, we believer 
been printed in any other form, and is a report of importance and value, we 
give it fi-om the original autograph MS. of the great cavalryman.] 

Headquarters Cavalry Corps, Army Northern Virginia, 

February 13th, 1864. 

Colonel — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
operations of the cavalry division from the battle of Groveton 
Heights, August 30th, 1862, to the recrossing of the Potomac, Sep- 
tember 18th, 1862. 

On the 31st of August, while following up the enemy in the 
direction of Centreville, Colonel Rosser was sent in the direction of 
Manassas, where it was understood the enemy were still in some 
force. He succeeded in driving them from that place with some 
captures, and rejoined the command, when, in pursuance of the 
instructions of the Commanding General, I made a flank move- 
ment to the left, gained the Little River turnpike, and effected a 
concentration of Robertson's and Lee's brigades near Chantilly. 
Near this point, Robertson's brigade captured one entire company 
of New York cavalry, and Lee's brigade an entire company of the 
old Second Dragoons (regulars), Captain Thomas Hight, and also 
his subaltern, Robert Clay, and their horses, arms and equipments. 

It was here ascertained that the main body of the enemy was at 
Centreville and Fairfax Courthouse. A section of the Washington 
artillery accompanied the movement, designed to attack the enemy 
on the Centreville and Fairfax Courthouse pike. A position was 
gained, by a difficult road, commanding this road, which was com- 
pletely occupied by the enemy with one continuous roll of wagons 
going toward Fairfax Courthouse. It was discovered also that we 
were in sight of the sentinels of a camp, the dimensions of which 
could not be seen. 

The artillery was placed in position just after dark, and opened 
upon the road. A few rounds sufficed to throw everything into 
confusion ; and such commotion, upsetting, collisions and smash- 
ups were rarely ever seen. The firing continued as long as it seemed 
desirable, and the pieces and the command withdrew to camp for 

282 SoiUhern Historical Society Papers. 

the night, two miles north of the Oxhill, on that road. Next 
morning, I returned by way of Frying Pan to connect with General 
Jackson, and inform him of the enemy as far as ascertained. 

The head of his column was opposite Chantilly, and I disposed 
part of Robertson's brigade on his right flank between him and 
Centreville, and reconnoitred in person, but no force but a small 
one of cavalry was discernible nearer than Centreville. Oxhill was 
held by my cavalry till General Jackson came up, and having charged 
General Robertson with the care of the right flank, I first tried to 
force, with some skirmishers, our way down the turnpike toward 
Fairfax Courthouse, but the wooded ridges were firmly held by 
infantry and artillery, and it was plainly indicated that the enemy 
would here make a stand. General Jackson being in advance, waited 
for Longstreet to close up. Meanwhile, with Lee's brigade, I moved 
round toward Flint Hill, directly north of Fairfax Courthouse, to 
attack the enemy's flank. Passing Fox's mill and following a 
narrow and winding route in the midst of a heavy thunder-storm, 
I reached the summit of the ridge which terminates in the Flint 
Hill, about dark, and discovered in my immediate front a body of 
the enemy, a portion of which was thrown out as sharpshooters to 
oppose our further advance. Having thus discovered that Flint 
Hill was occupied by the enemy in force, and hearing about the 
same time some shots in my rear, I withdrew my command by the 
same road. As we approached the mouth of the road, the advance 
guard, under Colonel Wickham, engaged and drove off a portion of 
an infantry regiment which had taken position on the steep embank- 
ment of the road to dispute our return, and the command continued 
its march, bivouacking that night in the neighborhood of German- 

Meanwhile a heavy engagement had taken place on Jackson's 
right, the enemy having penetrated to his flank by way of Mollen's 

On the next day, the enemy having retired, Fairfax Courthouse 
was occupied by Lee's brigade, and I sent Hampton's brigade, which 
had just reported to me, having been detained on the Charles City 
border until the enemy had entirely evacuated that region, to 
attack the enemy at Flint Hill. Getting several pieces of the 
Stuart horse artillery in position, Brigadier-General Hampton opened 
on the enemy at that point, and our sharpshooters advancing about 
the same time, after a brief engagement, the enemy hastily retired. 
They were immediately pursued, and Captain Pelham having chosen 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 283 

a new position, again opened upon them with telling effect, scatter- 
ing them in every direction. They were pursued by Hampton's 
brigade, which took a few prisoners, but owing to the darkness and 
the fact that the enemy had opened fire upon us with infantry and 
artillery from the woods, he considered it prudent to retire, which 
was done with the loss of only one man. 

This proved to be the rear guard of Sumner's column retreating 
towards Vienna, and I afterwards learned that they were thrown 
into considerable confusion by this attack of Hampton. With a 
small portion of the cavalry and horse artillery, I moved into 
Fairfax Courthouse, and taking possession, obtained some valuable 
information, which was sent to the Commanding General. On the 
night of the second the command bivouacked near Fairfax Court- 
house, except Robertson's brigade, which, by a misapprehension of 
the order, returned to the vicinity of Chantilly before the engage- 

While these events were occurring near Fairfax Courthouse, the 
Second Virginia cavalry. Colonel T. T. Munford, had proceeded by 
my order to Leesburg to capture the party of marauders under 
Means which had so long infested that country and harassed the 
inhabitants. Colonel Munford reached the vicinity of Leesbnrg on 
the forenoon of the 2d, and learning that Means with his command 
was in the town, supported by three companies of the Maryland 
cavalry, on the Point of Rocks road, he made a circuit toward 
Edward's ferry, attacked from that direction, and succeeded, after 
a heavy skirmish, in routing and driving the enemy as far as 
Waterford, with a loss on their part of eleven killed, nine severely 
wounded, and forty-seven prisoners, including two captains and 
three lieutenants. Our own loss was Lieutenant Davis killed, and 
several officers and privates wounded. In this engagement, Edmund) 
a slave belonging to one of the men, charged with the regiment and 
shot Averhart, one of the most notorious ruffians of Means' party. 
The enemy's papers acknowledged that there entire force, of 150 men 
of the First Maryland and Means' company, were, all but forty, killed 
or captured, stating that our force was 2,000. Colonel Munford's 
entire force was 163 men, of whom but 123 were in the charge. 

On the morning of the 3d, General Fitz. Lee, pursuant to in- 
structions, made a demonstration with his brigade and some horse 
artillery toward Alexandria, Hampton's brigade moving by way of 
Hunter's mill to the Leesburg turnpike below Dranesville, encamp- 
ing near that place. Robertson's brigade, having also crossed over 

284 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

from the Little River turnpike, encamped near the same place on 
the same night. Meantime the main army was moving by a flank 
toward Leesburg. Demonstrations were also'kept up toward George- 
town and the Chain bridge, Robertson's brigade moving in the 
direction of Falls church. Between Vienna and Lewinsville he 
encountered'the enemy's pickets, and after a brief skirmish drove 
them in. Having posted a portion of his cavalry with one piece 
of artillery near Lewinsville to prevent surprise, he then drew up 
the remainder of the cavalry in a conspicuous position near the 
church, and^opened with his two remaining pieces. The enemy 
replied with two guns, and the firing continued until nearly sun- 
down, when perceiving several regiments advancing to assail his 
position ,",General Robertson, in accordance with his instructions^ 

The cavalry followed the rear of the army to Leesburg, and cross- 
ing the Potomac on the afternoon of the 5th, Lee's brigade in ad- 
vance, moved to Poolesville. He encountered at that point a body 
of the enemy's cavalry, which he attacked, capturing the greater 
portion. The reception of our troops in Maryland was attended 
with the greatest demonstrations of joy, and the hope of enabling 
the inhabitants to throw off the tyrant's yoke stirred every South- 
ern heart with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. 

The main army moving to Frederick, the next day the cavalry 
resumed their march on the flank, halting at Urbanna, Hampton's 
•brigade in advance. The advance guard had the good fortune to 
rescue, from a member of the enemy's signal corps, a bearer of dis- 
patches from President Davis to General Lee. The dispatches, 
fortunately, by the discreetness of the bearer, had not fallen into 
the hands of the enemy, and were eventually safely delivered. At 
Urbanna the main body was joined by Robertson's brigade, at this 
time under command of Colonel T. T. Munford. 

Near this place I remained with the command until the 12th of 
September, covering the front of the army then near Frederick 
city, in the direction of Washington. My left, consisting of Lee's 
brigade, rested at New Market, on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad; 
my centre, Hampton's brigade, near Hyattstown; and my right, 
Robertson's brigade, Colonel Munford commanding, in the direc- 
tion of Poolesville, with one regiment (the Twelfth Virginia cavalry) 
at that point. 

The enemy having advanced upon my front, Hampton's brigade 
became engaged in several skirmishes near Hyattstown, driving the 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 285 

enemy back on every occasion; and on the 8th September, ascer- 
taining that the enemy were about to occupy Poolesville, I ordered 
Colonel Munford to proceed to that point and drive them from the 
place. Munford's advance guard had just reached the town when 
the enemy appeared, with three regiments of cavalry and four 
pieces of artillery. Munford selected a position and oi^ened fire 
with a Howitzer and Blakely, when the enemy also brought up two 
pieces and returned the fire. Their guns had scarcely opened when 
their cavalry suddenly advanced and charged the Howitzer. They 
were, however, received with two rounds of canister, which drove 
them back, and the Seventh Virginia cavalry, Captain Myers com- 
manding, charged them. They also charged the Blakely, but Col- 
onel Harman, with about seventy-five men of the Twelfth Virginia 
cavalry, met and repulsed them. Lieutenant-Colonel Burks, in tem- 
porary command of the Second Virginia cavalry, held the cross- 
roads commanding the approach to Sugar Loaf mountain and kept 
the enemy in check with his sharpshooters. The loss on this occa- 
sion was fifteen, killed, wounded and missing. The cross-roads 
were successfully held for three days, during which regular skir- 
mishing and artillery firing took place, when on the 11th the ene- 
my advanced in force with infantry. Having maintained the pre- 
sent front even longer than was contemplated by the instructions 
covering the investment of Harper's Ferry, found in the orders 
appended to this report, the cavalry was withdrawn to within three 
miles of Frederick. 

Lee's brigade having fallen back from New Market and crossed 
the Monocacy near Liberty, Robertson's brigade was ordered to re- 
tire in the direction of Jefferson, and Hampton's brigade was di- 
rected to occupy Frederick city, in the rear of the army then mov- 
ing toward Middletown. Hampton's pickets were thrown out on 
the various roads leading in the direction of the enemy's approach, 
and about midday on the 12th he was notified that a heavy force 
was advancing on the National road. As two squadrons had been 
left on picket at the bridge over the Monocacy, between Frederick 
city and Urbanna, it was of great importance to hold the ap- 
proaches by the National road until the squadrons were withdrawn, 
and with this end in view, a rifle piece was added to the two guns 
already in position on the turnpike, and a squadron from the Sec- 
ond South Carolina cavalry, under Lieutenant Meighan, sent to 
support the battery. The enemy soon appeared, and opened fire 
on the cavalry, when, the squadrons at the bridge having rejoined 

286 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

him, General Hampton slowly retired to the city, sending his ar- 
tillery on before to occupy a position commanding the ground be- 
tween the city and the mountain. The enemy now pressed for- 
ward, and planting a gun in the suburbs of the city, supported by 
a body of cavalry and a regiment and half of infantry, opened fire 
upon the crowded thoroughfares of the place. To secure a, safe re- 
treat for the brigade, it was necessary to charge this force, which 
was gallantly done by the Second South Carolina cavalry. Colonel 
Butler, Lieutenant Meighan leading his squadron in advance. 

The enemy were scattered in every direction, man}'- of them 
killed and wounded, ten prisoners taken, among them Colonel 
Moore, Twenty-third Ohio, and the gun captured. Unfortunately, 
five of the horses attached to the piece were killed; so that it could 
not be removed. The enemy's account, subsequently published, 
admits the repulse of their force and the capture of the gun. After 
this repulse the enemy made no further efforts to annoy our rear. 
The brigade retired slowly, bringing off the prisoners captured, and 
bivouacked that night at Middletown — Lieutenant-Colonel Martin 
having been left with his command and two pieces of artillery to 
hold the Catoctin mountain. Munford was in the meanwhile 
ordered to occupy the gap in this range near the town of Jefferson. 
The force under his command consisted at this time of only the 
Second and Twelfth Virginia cavalry — the Sixth Virginia having 
been left at Centreville to collect arms, etc., the Seventeenth bat- 
talion detached before crossing the Potomac on a*n expedition into 
Berkely, and the Seventh Virginia cavalry having been ordered a 
day or two before to report to General Jackson for operations 
against Harper's Ferry. Every means was taken to ascertain what 
the nature of the enemy's movement was, whether a reconnoisance 
feeling for our whereabouts, or an aggressive movement of the 
army. The enemy studiously avoided displaying any force, except 
a part of Burnside's corps, and built no camp fires in their halt at 
Frederick that night. The information w^as conveyed promptly to 
the Commanding General, through General D, H. Hill, now at 
Boonsboro'; and it was suggested that the gap which I held this 
night was a very strong position for infantry and artillery. Friday 
the day on which (by the calculation of the Commanding General) 
Harper's Ferry would fall, had passed, and as the garrison was not 
believed to be very strong at that point, I supposed the object 
already accomplished. I nevertheless felt it important to check 
the enemy as much as possible, in order to develop his force. With 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 287 

a view to ascertain what the nature of this movement was, I had, 
before leaving Frederick, sent instructions to Brigadier- General 
Fitz. Lee to gain the enemy's rear from his position on the left. 

On the morning of the 13th, I moved forward all of Plampton's 
command to the support of Colonel Martin. Foiled in their attack 
on the preceding evening, the enemy appeared in front of Colonel 
Martin, at daylight on the 13th, and endeavored to force their way 
through the mountain. Their advance guard was driven back, 
when they posted artillery on the turnpike and opened fire on 
Colonel Martin, who held the mountain crest. This was responded 
to by a section of rifle guns under Captain Hart, whose fire was so 
effective that the enemy's battery was forced several times to change 
its position. The skirmishers on both sides had meanwhile become 
actively engaged, and the enemy was held in check until he had 
marched up to the attack two brigades of infantry, which was the 
only force we were yet able to discover, so well did he keep his 
troops concealed. About 2 P. M. we were obliged to abandon the 
crest, and withdrew to a position near Middletown. All this was 
duly reported in writing by me through General D. H. Hill, to the 
Commanding General. 

In the engagemts at the gap in the Catoctin and near Middletown, 
the Jeff. Davis Legion and First North Carolina cavalry, respectively 
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Martin and Colonel Baker, 
conducted themselves with the utmost gallantry, and sustained a 
hot fire of artillery and musketry without flinching or confusion 
in the ranks. Captain Siler, a gallant officer of the First North 
Carolina cavalry, had his leg broken during the engagement. 

The enemy soon appeared in force crossing the mountain, and 
a spirited engagement took place, both of artillery and sharpshooters, 
the First North Carolina, Colonel Baker, holding the rear and acting 
with conspicuous gallantry. This lasted for some time, when, having 
held the enemy in check sufficiently long to accomplish my object, 
I withdrew slowly toward the gap in the South mountain, having 
given General D. H. Hill ample time to occupy that gap with his 
troops, and still believing that the capture of Harper's Ferry had 
been effected. On reaching the vicinity of the gap near Boonsboro', 
finding General Hill's troops occupying the gap, I turned off Gene- 
ral Hampton with all his cavalry, except the Jeff. Davis Legion, to 
reinforce Munford at Crampton's gap, which was now the weakest 
point of the line. I remained myself at the gap near Boonsboro' 
until night, but the enemy did not attack the position. This was 

288 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

obviously no place for cavalry operations, a single horseman pass- 
ing from point to point on the mountain with difficulty. 

Leaving the Jeff. Davis Legion here, therefore, and directing 
Colonel Kosser, with a detachment of cavalry and the Stuart horse 
artillery, to occupy Braddock's gap, I started on my way to join the 
main portion of my command at Crampton's gap, stopping for the 
night near Boonsboro'. I had not up to this time seen General 
D. H. Hill, but about midnight he sent General Ripley to me to 
get information concerning roads and gaps in a locality where Gene- 
ral D. H. Hill had been lying for two days with his command. 
All the information I had was cheerfully given, and the situation 
of the gaps explained by map. I confidently hoped by this time 
to have received the information which was expected from Brigadier- 
General Fitz. Lee. All the information I possessed, or had the 
means of possessing, had been laid before General D. H. Hill and 
the Commanding General. His troops were duly notified of the 
advance of the enemy, and I saw them in line of battle awaiting 
his approach, and myself gave some general directions concerning 
the location of his lines, during the afternoon in his absence. 

Early next morning I repaired to Crampton's gap, which I had 
reason to believe was as much threatened as any other. 

Brigadier-General Hampton proceeded as directed toward Bur- 
ketsville. As General Jackson was then in front of Harper's Ferry, 
and General McLaws with his division occupied Maryland Heights 
to prevent the escape of the Federal garrison, it was believed that 
the enemy's efforts would be against McLaws, probably by the route 
of Crampton's gap. On his way to the gap, Brigadier-General 
Hampton encountered a regiment of the enemy's cavalry, on a 
road parallel to the one which he was pursuing, and, taking the 
Cobb Legion, Lieutenant-Colonel Young, at once charged them, 
dispersing them, killing or wounding thirty, and taking five prison- 
ers. Our loss was four killed and nine wounded ; among the former 
Lieutenant Marshall and Sergeant Barksdale, and among the latter 
Lieutenant-Colonel Young and Captain Wright, all of whom acted 
with remarkable gallantry. 

General Hampton then drew near the gap, when Colonel Munford, 
mistaking his command for a portion of the enemy's cavalry, 
ordered his artillery to open upon him. This order was on the 
point of being executed, when Hampton, becoming aware of his 
danger, exhibited a white flag, and thus averted this serious mis- 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 289 

Hampton's brigade reraainod at the gap for the night. Next 
morning upon my arrival, finding that the enemy had made no 
demonstration toward Crampton's gap up to that time, and appre- 
hending that he might move directly from Frederick to Harper's 
Ferry, I deemed it prudent to leave Munford to hold this point 
until he could be reinforced with infantry, and moved Hampton 
nearer the Potomac. General McLaws was advised of the situation 
of affairs, and sent Brigadier-General Howell Cobb with his com- 
mand to hold Crampton's gap. General Hampton's command was 
halted at the south end of South mountain, and pickets sent out 
on the roads toward Point of Rocks and Frederick. I proceeded 
myself to the headquarters of General McLaws to acquaint him 
with the situation of affairs, and also to acquaint myself with what 
was going on. I went with him to the Maryland Heights over- 
looking Harper's Ferry, which had not yet fallen. I explained to 
him the location of the roads in that vicinity, familiar to myself 
from my connection with the John Brown raid, and repeatedly 
urged the importance of his holding with an infantry picket the 
road leading from the Ferr}^ by the Kennedy farm toward Sharps- 
burg; failing to do which the entire cavalry force of the enemy at 
the Ferry, amounting to about 500, escaped during the night by 
that very road, and inflicted serious damage on General Long-street's 
train, in the course of their flight. 

I had ordered Colonel Munford to take command (as the senior 
officer) at Crampton's gap and hold it against the enemy at all 
hazards. Colonel Munford gave similar instructions to the officers 
commanding the two fragments of infantry regiments from Ma. 
hone's brigade then present, and posted the infantry behind a 
stone wall at the eastern base of the mountain. Chew's battery 
and a section of Navy Howitzers belonging to the Portsmouth 
battery were placed on the slope of the mountain, and the whole 
force of cavalry at his command dismounted and disposed on the 
flanks as sharpshooters. The enemy soon advanced with overpow- 
ering numbers to assail the position — his force in sight amounting 
to a division (Slocum's) of infantry. They were received with a 
rapid and steady fire from our batteries, but confined to advance, 
preceded by their sharpshooters, and an engagement ensued be- 
tween these and our infantry and dismounted cavalry. Colonel 
Parham, commanding Mahone's brigade, soon after arrived with 
the Sixth and Twelfth Virginia infantry, scarcely numbering in all 

290 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

three hundred men; and this small force, for at least three hours, 
maintained their position and held the enemy in check without 
assistance of any description from General Semmes, who, Colonel 
Munford reports, held the next gap below, and witnessed all that 
took place. General Cobb finally came with two regiments to the 
support of the force holding the gap. At his request, Colonel Mun- 
ford. posted the new regiments, when the infantry which had been 
engaged, having exhausted their ammuntion, fell back from their 
position. The enemy took advantage of this circumstance and 
suddenly advanced, and the fresh regiments broke before they were 
well in position. General Cobb made great efforts to rally them, 
but without the least effect, and it was evident that the gap could 
no longer beheld. Under these circumstances, Colonel Munford. 
(whose artillery had exhausted every round of ammunition and 
retired) formed his command and moved down the mountain on 
the Boonsboro' road to the point where the horses of the dismount- 
ed sharpshooters were stationed. The enemy were at the forks of 
the Harper's Ferry and Boonsboro' roads before many of the cav- 
alry reached it — the infantry having retired in great disorder, and 
the cavalry were the last to give up their position. In this hot 
engagement, the Second and Twelfth Virginia cavalry behaved 
with commendable coolness and gallantry, inflicting great injury 
with their long range guns upon the enemy, and their exertions 
were ably seconded by the troops under Colonel Parham, who held 
his position most gallantly until overpowered. 

Hearing of the attack at Crampton's gap, I rode at full speed to 
reach that point, and met General Cobb's command, just after dark, 
retreating in disorder down Pleasant valley. He represented the 
enemy as only two hundred yards behind, and in overwhelming 
force. I immediately halted his command, and disposed men upon 
each side of the road to meet the enemy, and a battery, which I 
had accidentally met with, was placed in position commanding the 
road. The enemy not advancing, I sent out parties to reconnoitre, 
who found no enemy within a mile. Pickets were thrown out, and 
the command was left in partial repose for the night. The next 
morning, more infantry and a portion of the cavalry having been 
brought up to this point, preparations were made to repulse any 
attack — Major-General R. H. Anderson being now in immediate 
command at this point. The battle of Boonsboro' or South Moun- 
tain having taken place the evening previous, resulted unfavorably 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 291 

to us, and the troops occupying that line were on the march to 

The garrison at Harper's Ferry surrendered during the forenoon. 
Late on the afternoon previous, Brigadier- General Fitz. Lee arrived 
at Boonsboro' and reported to the Commanding General, having 
been unable to accomplish the object of his mission, which his 
report will more fully explain. 

His command was assigned to the important and difficult duty 
of occupying the line of battle of the infantry to enable it to with- 
draw during the night, and early next morning his command was 
charged with bringing up the rear of that column to Sharpsburg, 
while Hampton accomplished the same for McLaws' command 
moving out of Pleasant Valley to Harper's Ferry. I reported in 
person to General Jackson at Harper's Ferry, and thence rode, at 
his request, to the Commanding General at Sharpsburg, to commu- 
nicate to him General J.'s views and information. 

Our army being in line of battle on the heights overlooking the 
Antietam, I was assigned to the left, -^here Brigadier-General Fitz. 
Lee's brigade took position after his severe engagement near Boons- 
boro' between the enemy and his rear guard, Munford's small com- 
mand being on the right. 

On the afternoon of the 16th, the enemy was discovered moving 
a column across the Antietam to the pike, with the view of turning 
our left beyond the Dunkard church. This was duly reported, and 
the movement watched. A little skirmishing took place before 
night. I moved the cavalry still farther to the left, making way 
for our infantry, and crowned a commanding hill with artillery, 
ready for the attack in the morning. General Jackson had arrived 
in time from Harper's Ferry, with a part of his command, on the 
night before to take position on this line, and the attack began 
very early next morning. The cavalry was held as a support for 
the artillery, which was very advantageously posted so as to bring 
an enfilading fire upon the enemy's right. About this time, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John T. Thornton, of the Third Virginia cavalry, 
was mortally wounded, at the head of his regiment. To the ser- 
vice he was a brave and devoted member. In him one of the 
brightest ornaments of the State has fallen. 

This fire was kept up with terrible effect upon the enemy ; and 
the position of the artillery being somewhat endangered, Early's 
brigade was sent to me by General Jackson as additional support. 
The enemy had advanced too far into the woods near the Dunkard 

2f)2 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

church for the fire to be continued without danger of harming our 
own men. I accordingly withdrew the batteries to a position 
further to the rear, where our own line could be seen, and ordered 
General Early to rejoin liis division, with the exception of the 
Thirteenth Virginia infantry, commanded by Captain Winston, 
which was retained as a support for the artillery. 

The artillery opened from its new position at close range upon 
the enemy, with still more terrible effect than before: the Thirteenth 
Virginia infantry being within musket range, did telling execution. 
Early's division now pouring a deadly fire into their front, while 
the artillery and its support were bearing so heavily upon their 
flank, the enemy soon broke in confusion, and were pursued for 
half a mile along the Williamsport turnpike. I recognized in this 
pursuit part of Barksdale's and part of Semraes' brigades, and I 
a,lso got hold of one regiment of Ransom's brigade, which I posted 
in an advantageous position on the extreme left flank, after the 
pursuit had been checked by the enemy's reserve artillery coming 
into action. Having informed General Jackson of what had trans- 
pired, I was directed by him to hold this advance position, and 
that he would send all the infantry he could get in order to follow 
up the success. I executed this order, keeping the cavalr}' well out 
to the left, and awaiting the arrival of reinforcements. "These re- 
inforcements were, however, diverted to another part of the field, 
and no further engagement took place on this part of the field be- 
yond a desultory artillery fire. 

On the next day it was determined, the enemy not again attack- 
ing, to turn the enemy's right. In this movement I was honored 
with the advance. In endeavoring to pass along up the river bank, 
however, I found that the river made such an abrupt bend that 
the enemy's batteries were within 800 yards of the brink of the 
stream, which would have made it impossible to have succeeded 
in the movement proposed, and it was accordingly abandoned. 

The Commanding General having decided to recross the Potomac, 
the delicate and difficult duty of covering this movement was 
assigned to Brigadier-General Fitz. Lee, while I was directed to 
ford the river that afternoon with Hampton's brigade, at an obscure 
ford, and proceeding to Williamsport, cross the river again at that 
point so as to create a diversion in favor of the movement of the army. 
Hampton's brigade did not reached the ford until dark, and as the 
ford was very obscure and rough, many got over their depth and had 
to swim the river. The duty assigned to Brigadier-General Fitz. Lee 

Cavalry Operations on First Maryland Campaign. 29o 

was accomplished with entire success, and he withdrew his com- 
mand safely to the south side of the Potomac on the morning of 
the 19th. 

Hampton's brigade crossed the Potomac a short distance above 
Williamsport, while a part of the Twelfth Virginia cavalry dashed 
across the river immediately at Williamsport, chasing a few of the 
enemy's pickets from the place. I was also aided in this demon- 
stration by a battalion of infantry, under Captain Randolpth, of 
the Second Virginia, also by a detachment of the Eleventh Georgia, 
and it may be by small detachments of other regiments, and a 
section of the Salem artillery, and one of the Second company 

The bridge over the canal was destroyed, but a very good road 
was constructed, without much labor, under the aqueduct, over the 
Conochocheague. Having moved out the command, including 
Hampton's brigade, upon the ridges overlooking Williamsport, 
active demonstrations were made toward the enemy. 

On the 20th the enemy were drawn toward my position in heavy 
force, Couch's division in advance. Showing a bold front, we 
maintained our position and kept the enemy at bay until dark, 
when, having skirmished all day, we withdrew to the south bank 
of the Potomac, without loss. 

During the Maryland campaign my command did not suffer on 
any one day as much as their comrades of other arms, but theirs 
was the sleepless watch and the harassing daily ^^ petite guerre,^'' in 
which the aggregate of casualties for the month sums up heavily. 
There was not a single day from the time my command crossed 
the Potomac till it recrossed, that it was not engaged with the 
enemy, and at Sharpsburg was several times subjected to severe 
shelling. Their services were indispensable to every success at- 
tained, and the officers and men of the cavalry division recur with 
pride to the Maryland campaign of '62. 

I regret exceedingly that I have not the means of speaking more 
in detail of the brave men of other commands whose meritorious 
conduct was witnessed both at Sharpsburg and Williamsport, but 
whose names owing to the lapse of time cannot be now recalled, 
and I have no reports to assist me. Brigadier-General Early at 
the former place behaved with great coolness and good judgment, 
particularly after he came in command of his division, and Colonel 
(since General) William Smith, Forty-ninth Virginia infantry, was 
conspicuously brave and self-possessed. 

294 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

One of the regiments of Ransom's brigade, also becoming detached 
from the brigade, behaved with great gallantry, and for a long time 
held an important detached position on the extreme left unaided. 

The gallant Pelham displayed all those noble qualities which 
have made him immortal. He had under his command batteries 
from every portion of General Jackson's command. The batteries 
of Poague, Pegram and Carrington, the only ones which now recur 
to me, did splendid service, as also did the Stuart horse artillery, 
all under Pelham. The hill held on the extreme left so long and 
so gallantly by artillery alone, was essential to the maintenance of 
our position. 

Major Heros Von Borcke displayed his usual skill, courage and 
energy. His example was highly valuable to the troops. 

Cadet W. Q. Hullihen, Confederate States army, was particularly 
distinguished on the field of Sharpsburg for his coolness, and his 
valuable services as acting aid-de-camp. I deem it proper to 
mention here also a young lad named Randolph, of Fauquier, who, 
apparently about 12 years of age, brought me several messages 
from General Jackson under circumstances of great personal peril, 
and delivered his dispatches with a clearness and intelligence highly 
creditable to him. 

* Private , Cobb's Georgia legion, one of my couriers, 

was killed while behaving with the most conspicuous bravery, 
having borrowed a horse to ride to the field. He had been sent to 
post a battery of artillery from his native State. 

Captain Frayser, signal corps, rendered important services to the 
Commanding General from a mountain overlooking the enemy on 
the Antietam. 

I have the honor to be. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. E. B. Stuaet, Major- General. 

Colonel R. H. Chilton, Chief of Staff, Army Northern Virginia. 

Field Telegrams.' 295 

Field Telegrams. 

[A deeply interesting volume might be made by collecting together the 
field telegrams and letters sent by our leading Generals on the eve of or 
during important battles. Unfortunately the full material for such a volume 
has been destroyed, or is scattered so widely that it would be almost impos- 
sible to collect it. We have in our archives, however, a large amount of 
such material, and propose, from time to time, to give some specimens of it. 
We have recently received from Mr. R. M. J. Paynter, of this city, the loan 
of files of telegrams sent principally from army headquarters on the south 
side of the James during the summer of 1864. The telegrams themselves 
(written generally on scraps of Confederate paper, and frequently in the 
autograph of the officer sending them), possess a curious interest. They are 
valuable as giving the information received of the movements and intentions 
of the enemy, and the consequent orders in reference to the movements of 
our troops. We give the following selections from these telegrams.] 

Headquarters Drewry's Bluff, 
May 10—1 P. M. 
His Excellency Jefferson Davis, 

President C. S. A., Richmond : 

I have just received the following dispatch from General 
Kansom: "Thus far we are doing well; the fight is progressing." 
This is about all the information I can give you. 
Very respectfully, 

G. H. Terrett. 

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, 
12 K. 45, P.M. 1, viaMc2d. 
General G. T. Beauregard : 

It would be disadvantageous to abandon line between Rich- 
mond and Petersburg; but as two-thirds of Butler's force has joined 
Grant, can you not leave sufficient guard to move with balance of 
your command to north side of James river and take command of 

right wing of arm}'-? 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Oflicial : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Headquarters Army Northern Virginia, 
7 K. A. M. 
General R. E. Lee : 

I have ordered a forced reconnoisance to ascertain more of 
enemy's position and condition. Have ordered Ransom's brigade 
to Bottom's bridge, as requested by General Bragg. I am willing 

296 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

to do anything for our succor, but cannot leave my department 

without orders of War Department. 

G, T. Beauregard. 

Shady Grove Church, 1st June, 4 K. P. M. 
General G. T. Beauregard, Hancock House : 

General Grant appears to be gradually approaching the York 
River railroad, whether with the view of touching James river or 
not, I cannot ascertain. I am ignorant of the movements of the 
enemy in your front, or whether it would be in your power to take 

position north of James river, 

R. E. Lee, General. 

Drewry's Bluff, 4 A. M., 16th June, '64. 
General B. Bragg, Richmond : 

Just arrived at this point with Pickett's division ; have in- 
formed General Beauregard. Direct to me here. 

R. E. Lee. 

Drewry's Bluff, 16th June, '64. 
General A. P. Hill, 

RiddeVs Shops, via Savage Station : 

Send a brigade to vicinity of New Market station, intersection 

of Kingsland and New Market roads. 

R. E. Lee. 

Drewry's Bluff, 9.40, 16 June, '64. 
General Beauregard, Petersburg : 

Please inform me of condition of affairs. Pickett's division 

is in vicinity of your lines and front of Bermuda. 

R. E. Lee. 

Drewry's Bluff, 10.30 A. M., 16th June, '64. 
General Beauregard, Petersburg : 

Your dispatch of 9.45 receive ; it is the first that has come 
to hand. I do not know the position of Grant's army; cannot 
strip north bank of James river; have you not force sufficient? 

R. E. Lee. 

• Meld Telegrams. 297 

Drewry's Bluff, 3 P. M., 16th June. 

General — Dispatches 12.45 received. Pickett had passed this 
place at date of my first dispatch. I did not receive your notice 
of intended evacuation till 2 A. M; troops were then at Malvern 
Hills, four miles from me. Am glad to hear you can hold Peters- 
burg. Hope you will drive the enemy. Have not heard of Grant's 
crossing James river. 

R. E. Lee. 

16th June, '64, 4 P. M. 
General Beauregard, Petersburg : 

The transports you mentioned have probably returned But- 
ler's troops. Has Grant been seen crossing James river? 

R. E. Lee. 

Headquarters Dreavry's Bluff, 
5.30 P. M., 16th June, '64. 
Mr. D. H. Wood, 

Transportation Office, Richmond, Virginia : 

Trains are not wanted at Rice's turnout, about which in- 
quiry was made this morning; do not send them. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Drewry's Bluff, June 16th, '64, 8 P. M. 

General Wade Hampton, Pole Cat Station : 

Dispatches of to-day received. Our cavalry north and south 
of Chickahominy have been advised of movements of bearer of 
dispatches ; also to endeavor to ascertain movements of Sheridan, 
and to unite with you when practicable to crush him. Keep them 
advised of his movements. 

R. E. Lee. 

Drewry's Bluff, Midnight, 16th June, '64. 

President or Superintendent Richmond and 

Petersburg Railroad, Richmond, Virginia : 

The line of breastworks across Bermuda Neck is being reoccu- 
pied by our troops. General Anderson reports that the enemy tore 
up and burned about half a mile of the railroad below Walthall 

298 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

junction. Preparations should be made to repair this portion of 

the track as soon as it is practicable. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H. TAYLOR, A. A. G. 

Drewby's Bluff, June 17th, 1864, 6 A. M. 

E. H. Gill, Superintendent Eichmond and 

Petersburg Eailroad, Eichmond, Virginia : 

About half a mile of railroad at Port Walthall junction was 
torn up yesterday by enemy during their temporary possession. 
Please replace the rails and open the road at once. 

R. E. Lee. 

Drewry's Bluff, June 17th, '64, 6 A. M. 

General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg : 

I am delighted at your repulse of the enemy. Endeavor to 
recover your lines. Can you ascertain any thing of Grant's move- 
ments? I am cut off now from all information. At 11 P. M. last 
night we took the original line of breastworks at Hewlett's house, 
and the rest of the line is being recovered. I have directed that 
the battery of heavy artillery be re-established, and the rails at 
Walthall junction be replaced and the road reopened. 

R. E. Lee. 

Headquarters Clay's House, 

10.30 A. M., 17th June, 1864. 

His Excellency Jefferson Davis, Eichmond, Virginia : 

At 11 o'clock last night took breastworks at Hewlett's house ; 
other portions of same line were retaken. Pickett's division now 
occupies trenches from Hewlett's to front of Clay's; Field's division 
is on the right, but I believe whole of front line not occupied. 
Battery at Hewlett's is being re-established. 

Saw five vessels sunk by enemy in French's reach. Behind lie 
the monitors; counted ten (10) steamers within the reach. Enemy 
made two attacks last night on Beauregard, but were repulsed with 
loss; 400 prisoners, including 11 commissioned officers captured. 
He has not entirely recovered his original position. Some fighting 
has occurred there this morning without result. Have ordered 

Field Telegrams. 299 

railroad at Port Walthall destroyed by enemy yesterday to be 
repaired and reopened. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Clay's House, 10.45 A. M., 17th June, '64. 
General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg : 

Battery at Howlett's is being re-established ; hope your new 
line will protect the city. I would recommend it being established 
sufficiently in advance. Your line from Howlett's to Clay's is re- 
occupied. Enemy still hold some portion on right of Clay's. 

R. E. Lee. 

Clay's House, 12 M., 17th Jane, '64. 
General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg, Virginia : 

Telegrams of 9 A. M. received. Until I can get more definite 
information of Grant's movements, I do not think it prudent to 
draw more troops to this side of the river. 

R. E. Lee. 

Headquarters Army Northern VrEGiNiA, 
June 17th, 1864. 
General "Wade Hampton, 

Vernon Church, via Hanover Junction : 

Grant's army is chiefly on south side of James river. Cham- 
bliss has been ordered to co-operate with you. Communicate with 

R. E. Lee. 
Official : C. S. Venable, A. D. C. 

Clay's House, 1.45 P. M., 17th June, '64. 
General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg, Virginia : 

Fifth corps (Warren's) crossed Chickahominy at Long bridge 
on 13th ; was driven from Riddel's shop by General Hill, leaving 
many dead and prisoners on our hands. That night it marched to 
Westover. Some prisoners were taken from it on the 14th ; have 
not heard of it since. All prisoners taken here are from Tenth 


R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H, Taylor, A. A. G. 

300 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Clay's House, 3.30 P. M., 17th June, '64. 
Major-General W. H. F. Lee, 

Malvern Hill, via Meadoie Station : 

Push after enemy, and endeavor to ascertain what has be- 
come of Grant's army. Inform General Hill. 

R. E. Lee. 

Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill, 

Bidders Shop, via Meadow Station, Y. R. R. R.: 

As soon as you can ascertain that Grant has crossed James 
river, move up to Chaffin's Bluff, and be prepared to cross. 

R. E. Lee. 
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Clay's House, 4.30 P. M., 17th June, '64. 

General G. T. Beauregard, Petersburg, Virginia: 

Have no information of Grant's crossing James river, but 

upon your report have ordered troops up to Chaffin's Bluff. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Clay's House, 4.30 P. M., 17th June, '64. 
Lieutenant-General A. P. Hill, 

RiddeVs Shop, via Meadow Station : 

General Beauregard reports large number of Grant's troops 

crossed James river above Fort Powhatan yesterday. If you have 

nothing contradictory of this, move to Chaffin's Bluff. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official : W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Clay's House, 5 P. M., 17th June, '64. 
His Excellency Jeff. Davis, 

Richmond, Virginia : 
At 4 P. M. assaulted that portion of our front line held by 
enemy and drove him from it; we again have the entire line from 
Howlett's to Dunn's mill. 

R. E. Lee, General. 
Official: W. H. Taylor, A. A. G. 

Editorial Paragraphs. 301 

Exlitanal Ifaragt^aphB. 

We Consolidate our May and June N'umbees, and will be thus enabled 
to make our issue hereafter the 1st instead of the last of the month, as many 
of our readers seem to prefer. It is all the same to our subscribers, and they 
will not object to our issuing the two under one cover since it is a convenience 
at this time to us. 

The Nation has very quietly refused to accept our challenge to a full 
discussion of the question of the "Treatment of Prisoners" daring the war. 
Immediately after the appearance of our last issue containing our reply to its 
review, we addressed them the following private letter : 

Office Southern Historical Society, 
No. 7 State Capitol, 
Richmond, Virginia, April 27th, 1877. 
Editors The Nation : 

I send you by this mail a copy of the April number of our monthly " South- 
ern Historical Society Papers.,'''' which is just out. 

You will find that we publish in full in this number your reply to our 
papers on the Treatment of Prisoners, with such comments as we think 
proper, and that we propose to you a full discussion of the whole question, 
promising to publish your articles in full if you, loill reciprocate. 
Awaiting your reply, I am, yours very respectfully, 

J. William Jones, 
Secretary Southern Historical Society. 

To this letter we have received no reply. 

But in The Nation for May 10th, we find the following among the notes : 
*'The April number of the '•Southern Historical Society Papers'' republishes 
in full the criticism published in these columns of its articles on the ' Treat- 
ment of Prisoners at the South,' with comments. It proposes a full discus- 
sion ' of the 'whole question,' promising to 'publish your [our] articles in 
full,' provided 'you [we] will reciprocate.' We are compelled to decline this 
polite offer for want of space." 

" Want of space " is a very good excuse ; but there are those (unreasoning 
"Rebels " the Nation would probably call them) who will be uncharitable 
enough to conclude that the real reason why this able champion declines the 
discussion is not so much "want of space " as the want of facts and argu- 
ments to put into the space — that The Nation is more fully convinced than it is 

302 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

■filling to admit that "the stain upon the National honor "can be best 
"wiped out," not by a manly discussion, but by silence and forgetfulness. 

For ourselves, while we claim no special experience or skill in the field of 
polemics, we feel that our position on this question is so impregnably forti- 
fied by the facts, that we stand ready to defend it against all comers. 

The Philadelphia Weekly Times is publishing a series of "annals of 
the war " written by both Confederate and Federal actors in the great drama. 
The papers are well written, and exceedingly interesting, and some of them 
valuable contributions to the history of the stirring events to which they 
relate. At some future time we propose to notice some of the articles in 
detail. But we can only say now that Confederates will thank the Times 
for allowing its readers to see so much of our side of the story (e. g., Judge 
Quid's able and unanswerable statement of the '•'•Exchange'''' question). 
We are very glad to be able to see the other side presented in papers 
which are, in the main, so courteous, and which are so much fairer than our 
experience has led us to expect from that side. 

The Appreciation of Competent Judges of the work in which we are 
engaged has been very gratifying. Not only has the press been warm in its 
commendation of the intei'est and value of our work, but we have also received 
private assurances from leading Confederates, from friends in Europe, and 
from prominent Northern soldiers, that our publications have been of great 
historic value. We have rarely alluded to this in our Papers, and do it now 
only because we feel that we ought to let our readers see the following letter 
from ex-President Davis, whose opinions in reference to anything pertaining 
to Confederate history ought to have (and do have) the highest consideration 
with our people. 

We give his letter entire, and beg that our friends will catch its spirit, and 
give us practical proof of their interest by sustaining us in our work, and 
asking others to help us. 

Mississippi City, Harbison County, Miss., 
15th May, 1877. 
Rev. J. William Jones, Secretary : 

My Dear Su-— I have read with great satisfaction the back numbers of 
the Papers of the Southern Historical Society. The future historian, to do 
justice to our cause and conduct, will require the material which can only be 
furnished by contemporaneous witnesses, and a great debt is due to the 
Society, and especially to you, for what you have done and are doing to save, 
while there is yet time, the scattered records and unwritten recollections of 
the events of the war against the Southern States. 

Various causes, and not the least among them, such entire confidence in 
the rightousness of our cause as gives assurance of a favorable verdict, have 
prevented our people from presenting, or even carefullv preserving, the 
material on which the verdict must be rendered by future generations. 

Editorial Paragraphs. 303 

The Society has done much in exposing and refuting the current slanders 
in regard to the treatment of prisoners of war. That was most needful for the 
restoration of good feeling, and sliould be welcome, beyond the limits of the 
vindicated, even to all who respect trutli and eschew deception. 

There are many brilliant exploits, concerning some of which there are no 
official reports extant. In such cases, the recollection of actors would be a 
valuable contribution to our war history. You have done so much to excite 
a willingness to furnish the material for history, that it may be hoped you 
will be able to draw from those to whom it is rather a dread than a pleasure 
to see themselves "in print," special statements, such as any one can prepare 
who can write a business letter. It is not syle, but facts which are to be 

With the hope that the interest felt by the public in the patriotic work of 
the Society will be increased by the manifestation of its power for usefulness, 
and with cordial regard for you personally, 
I am, yours faithfully, 

Jefferson Davis. 

Contributions to our Archives continue to come in and are always 
Since our last we acknowledge, among others, the following : 

From Yates Snowden, Esq., of Charleston, South Carolina — "Bible View 
of Slavery, by Eev. M. J. Eaphall, M. A., Ph. Dr.^ Kabbi preacher at the 
Synagogue, Green street. New York. Declaration of the causes of the Seces- 
sion of South Carolina, together with the Ordinance of Secession and its 
signers. Address of the people of South Carolina to the people of the slave- 
holding States; printed by order of the Convention in 1860. Fast-day 
sermon of Kev. James H. Elliott, November 21st, 1860. Keport on the 
address of a portion of the members of the General Assembly of Georgia, 
1860. The Battle of Fort Sumpter, April 13th, 1861. The correspondence 
of the Commissioners of South Carolina and the President of the United 
States, together with the statement of Messrs. Miles and Keitt. Hon. Jere 
Black on Wilson and Stanton, and Tliurlow Weed on Early Incidents of the 
Rebellion. Journal of the Proceedings of the General Council of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal church in the Confederate States of America, held in 
Augusta, Georgia, November 12-22, 1862. In Memoriam of George Alfred 
Trenholm, Ninth Annual Eeport of the " Home " for the Mothers, Widows 
and Daughters of the Confederate soldiers. Map of Mobile Bay. Map of 
Charleston Harbor. Mr. Snowden has been a warm friend of the Society, 
and a frequent contributor to its archives. 

From Graves Renfroe, Esq., of Talladega, Alabama — "The Cradle of the 
Confederacy," or the Times of Troup, Quitman and Yancey, by Joseph 
Hodgson, of Mobile, Alabama, 1876. Speech of Hon. William L. Yancey, of 
Alabama, delivered in the National Democratic Convention, Charleston, 
April 28th, 1860. 

From Rev. H. E. Hayden, Broivnsville, Pennsylvania — Report of Adjutant- 
General of Pennsylvania for 1863. 

From ex-Governor John Letcher — Report of General Charles Dimmock, 
Chief of Ordnance of Virginia, of February 9th, 1863. Governor Letcher 

304 Southern Historical Society Papers. 

is constautlj^ placing the Society under obligations for valuable papers and 
documents, and promises still others in future. 

Major J. M. McCiie, of EockingJmm— Several newspapers of value. 

From Graham Daves, Esq., of Wilmington, North Carolina— Ro&ter of the 
Confederate officers who, while prisoners of war, were placed under fire of 
our own guns at Morris Island. 

From Colonel William Allan, of Baltimore {former Chief of Ordnance, 
Second Corps, Army Northern Virginia)— Two papers on the battle of Gettys- 
\)uvg — valuable additions to our series. 

From Fobert Clarke ^ Co., Cincinnati — The Washington-Crawford letters 
concerning Western lands, arranged and annotated by C. W. Butterfield. 

Fro7n B. M. J. Paynter, Esq., of Richmond — The loan of files of telegrams 
sent from the Confederate army headquarters on the south side of James 
river, May, June, August and September, 1864. Many of these telegrams 
are autographs of Generals K. E. Lee, Beauregard, Ransom, Hoke, Heth, 
Pickett, &c., and are both interesting and valuable. 

From the Wisconsin State Historical Society — " Catalogue " for 1873-1875, 
in three volumes. 

From General C. M. Wilcox — A paper on the defence of Fort Gregg. 

From Captain W. L. Bitter, Secretary Society of the Army and Navy of 
the Confederate States in Maryland — Resolutions passed by the Society on the 
death of General Cooper. 










Late Lieut. Colonel of Artillery, C. S. A. 




In consequence of the general loss and destruction of Confede- 
rate records, and a refusal on the part of the War Department to 
permit free access to such as have been preserved at Washington, 
the preparation of the following Roster was environed with no in- 
considerable difficulty. The accompanying pages embody the re- 
sult of much toil and inquiry. Fortunately many important wai 
documents, original returns and official reports still exist in private 
hands, and from them material aid has been derived. In not a 
few instances the necessary information touching the commissions 
and commands of general officers has been obtained either from the 
officers themselves or from the friends of such as fell in the Con- 
federate struggle, or have since died. While perfectness cannot be 
claimed for it, this Roster may nevertheless be accepted as nearly 
complete. No labor like the present having been as yet attempted, 
it is offered in the hope that it will supply an existing deficiency 
and prove a convenient roll of the Confederate Dramatis Personse 
of the greatest of modern Revolutions — of which, in the language 
of Phinius Minor, it may be truthfully affirmed, Si computes annoSf 
exiguum tempus; si vices rerum, sevum putes. 


New York City, May Isi, 1876. 



His Excellency Jefferson Davis, Mississippi, President of the Confederate 
States and Commander-in-Cliief of the Army and Navy. 

Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, Georgia, Vice President of the Confederate 
States and President of the Senate. 


i Colonel Joseph E. Davis, Mississippi, A. D. C, w^ith rank of Colonel of 
Cavalry ; in 1863 entered the field as Brigadier-General. 

Colonel G. W. Custis Lee, Virginia, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel of 
Cavalry ; subsequently entered the field and rose to the grade of Major- 

Colonel Joseph C. Ives, A. D. C, vv^ith rank of Colonel of Cavalry. 

Colonel Wm. Preston Johnston, Kentucky, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel 
of Cavalry. 

Colonel Wm. M. Browne, Georgia, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel of 
Cavalry ; subsequently entered the field and rose to the grade of Brigadier- 

Colonel John Taylor Wood, Louisiana, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel of 

Colonel James Chestnut, Jr., South Carolina, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel 
of Cavalry ; subsequently entered the field and rose to the grade of Brigadier- 

Colonel Francis K. Lubbock, Texas, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel of 
Cavalry ; also a Confederate Governor of Texas. 

Robert Josselyn, Mississippi, Private Secretary to the President during the 
Provisional Government. 

Burton N. Harrison, Mississippi, Private Secretary to the President during 
the Permanent Government. 

Colonel John M. Huger, A. D. C, with rank of Colonel of Cavalry. 

Colonel John B. Sale, Military Secretary, with rank of Colonel of Cavalry, 
to General Braxton Bragg, who was assigned to duty at the Seat of Govern- 
ment at Richmond, and, under the direction of the President, was charged 
with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy. 
See General Orders, No. 23, A. and I. General's otfice, Richmond, Virginia, 
February 24th, 1864. Colonel Sale was thus brought into intimate relatioa- 
ghip with the President's military family. 



Hon. Robert Toombs, Georgia, First Secretary of State; subsequently 
entered the Confederate army with the rank of Brigadier-General; also a 
Delegate to Provisional Congress. i 

Hon. E. M. T. Hunter, Virginia, succeeded General Toombs as Secretary 
of State ; Delegate to Provisional Congress and Confederate Senator from. 

Hon. Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana, succeeded Mr. Hunter as Secretary 
of State. 


Hon. Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana, first Attorney General. 

Hon. Thomas Bragg, North Carolina, second Attorney General. 

Hon. T. H. Watts, Alabama, third Attorney-General; subsequently elected 
Governor of Alabama. 

Hon. George Davis, North Carolina, fourth Attorney-General ; Delegate to 
Provisional Congress, Senator from North Carolina, &c. 
, Hon. Wade Keys, Assistant Attorney-General. 


Hon. Charles G. Memminger, Soutli Carolina, fii-st Secretary of the 

Hon. George A. Trenholm, South Carolina, second Secretary of the 

Hon. E. C. Elmore, Alabama, Treasurer. 

Hon. Philip Clayton, Georgia, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury. 

Lewis Cruger, South Carolina, Comptroller and Solicitor. 

Boiling Baker, Georgia, First Auditor. 

Robert Tyler, Virginia, Eegister. 


Hon. Leroy P. Walker, Alabama, first Secretary of War; afterwarda 
entered the army with the rank of Brigadier-General, 

Hon. Judah P. Benjamin, Louisiana, second Secretary of War; also Secre- 
tary of State and Attorney-General. 

Hon. George W. Randolph, Virginia, third Secretary of War; at one time 
in the army with the rank of Brigadier-General. 

Hon. James A. Seddon, Virginia, fourth Secretary of War; Delegate from 
Virginia to Provisional Congress. 

Major-General John C. Breckinridge, Kentucky, fifth Secretary of War; 
Bummoned from the field [where he was serving with the rank and command 
of a Major-General] to discharge the duties of tliis office. 


Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. D., Virginia, Assistant Secretary of War, 

Hon. John A. Campbell, Louisiana, Assistant Secretary of War. 

Greneral Samuel Cooper, Virginia, Adjutant and Inspector General. 

Colonel A. C. Myers, first Quartermaster-General. 

Brigadier-General A. K. Lawton, Georgia, second Quartermaster-General; 
summoned from the field, where he was serving with the rank and command 
of Brigadier-General, to discharge the duties of this office. 

Colonel L. B. Northrup, South Carolina, first Commissary-General. 

Colonel L. M. St. John, second Commissary-General; afterwards promoted 
to the grade of Brigadier-General. 

Colonel Josiah Gorgas, Virginia, Chief of Ordnance ; afterwards promoted 
to the grade of Brigadier-General. 

Colonel T. S. Rhett, in charge of the Ordnance Bureau. 

Colonel J. F. Gilmer, North Carolina, Chief of the Engineer Bureau; 
afterwards promoted to the grade of Major-General. 

Colonel S. P. Moore, M. D., South Carolina, Surgeon-General; afterwards 
promoted to the grade of Brigadier-General. 

Colonel John S. Preston, South Carolina, Chief of the Bureau of Con- 
scription ; afterwards promoted to the grade of Brigadier-General. 

Colonel T. P. August, Superintendent of the Bureau of Conscription. 

Brigadier-General John H. Winder, Maryland, Commanding Prison Camps 
'and Provost Marshal General. 

Colonel Robert Ould, Virginia, Chief of the Bureau of Exchange. 

Colonel Richard Morton, Chief of the Nitre and Mining Bureau. 

Colonel R. G. H. Kean, Chief of the Bureau of War. 

Lieutenant-Colonel I. H. Carrington, Virginia, Assistant Provost Marshal 
Genera'l, on duty at Richmond, Virginia. 

Colonel Thomas L. Bayne, Louisiana, Chief of the Bureau of Foreign 


Hon. Stephen R. Mallory, Florida, Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain French Forrest, Virginia, Chief of the Bureau of Orders and 

Commander John M. Brooke, Florida, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance 
and Hydrography. 


Hon. John H. Reagan, Texas, Postmaster-General; Delegate from Texas 
to the Provisional Congress. 
H. St. George Offutt, Virginia, Chief of Contract Bureau. 
B. N. Clements, Tennessee, Chief of Bureau of Appointment. 
J. L. Harrell, Alabama, Chief of Finance Bureau. 

Colonel Ruf us R. Rhodes, Mississippi, Commissioner of Patents. 




Samuel Cooper.... 
Albert S. Johnston. 

Robert E. Lee. 

Joseph E. Jolinston.... 

Gustav. T. Beauregard. 

Braxton Bragg. 


Virginia . 

Virginia , 

Virginia , 



To Whom to 


Aug. 31, 1861. 
Aug. 31, 1861. 

Aug. 31, 1861. 

Aug, 31, 1861. 

Aug. 31, 1861. 

Apl. 12,1862. 











June 14, 











General Provisional Armt 

1 Edmund B^rby Smith.. Florida.... Trans-Miss. Dept Feb. 19,1864. Feb. 19,1864. 

llJohn B.Hood ITexas., 

General with 

I July 18, 1864. [July 18,1864.1 

NOTK.— At the times of their resignations from the United States army in 1861, five of the 
above named officers held the following ranks respectively : 

General Joseph E. Johnston was Quartermaster-General U. S. A., with the rank of Brlgadl er 

General Samuel Cooper was Adjutant-General U. S. A., with the rank of ColoneL 



Aug. 31, 1861, 

Apl. 23, 1863. 
Aug. 31, 1861. 

Aug. 31, 1861, 

Apl. 23, 1863. 

Aug. 31, 1861, 

ApU 23,1863. 

Aug. 31, 1861, 

Apl. 23,1863. 

Apl. 12, 1862, 


Adjutant and Inspector-General. 

Killed at the Battle of Shiloh ; assigned by Special Order No» 
149, A. & .1 G. O., Sept. 10, 1861, to the command of Depart- 
ment Number 2, embracing Tennessee and Arkansas, that 
part of Mississippi west of the N. O. J. & G. N. R. R. and the 
G. N. & C. R. R., and the military operations in Kentucky, 
Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian country west of Missouri 
and Arkansas, &c., &c. 

Nominated and confirmed as "General-in-Chief of the Armies 
of the Confederate States of America" January 31, 1865; at 
first appointed Major-General of the military forces of Vir- 
ginia ; in command of the operations in the Trans-Alleghany 
region; in the winter of 1861 in command of the South Caro- 
lina and Georgia coast ; from the spring of 1862 to the close of 
the war In command of the Army of Northern Virginia, <tc., 

At first Major-General of Virginia State forces; assigned by 
President Davis to command at Harper's Ferry ; at Manassas ; 
in command, on the Peninsula, of the Department of Northern 
Virginia ; June 9, 1863, assigned to command of forces in Mis- 
sissippi ; December 18, 1863, assigned to command of the 
Army of Tennessee ; February 23, I860, again in command of 
the Army of Tennessee in North Carolina and of all troops In. 
the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, Ac, 

Assigned to command at Charleston, S. C; at Manassas ; in 
command of the District of the Potomac; March 5, 1862, as- 
sumed command of the Army of the Mississippi ; subsequently 
In command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida, of North Carolina and South Virginia, .fee, <tc. 

Assigned to duty at the Seat of Government, and, under the di- 
rection of the President, charged with the conduct of military 
operations in the armies of the Confederacy; see General 
Orders No. 23 ; A. & I. General's office, Richmond, Va., Feb- 
ruary 24, 1864 ; had previously commanded Department of tha 
West, Army of Tennessee, Second Corps, Army of the Mis- 
sissippi, &c., &c. 

Confederate States. 

Commanding District of Louisiana, occupied by Taylor's [after- 
wards Buckner's] corps, consisting of Walker's and Polignac's 
divisions and Green's cavalry brigade ; the District of Texas, 
defended by Magruder's corps, consisting of Forney's, Mc- 
culloch's and Wharton's divisions ; the District of Arkansas, 
held by Price's corps, consisting of the divisions of Price and 
Churchill and the brigades of Fagan, Shelby and Marmaduke, 
and the district of the Indian Territory — the whole constituting 
the Trans-Mississippi Department. 

Commanding Army of Tennessee. 

General Albert S. Johnston was Colonel of the Second cavairy U. S. A. with the rank ot 
Brevet Brigadier-General. 
General Robert B. Lee was Colonel of the First cavalry U. S. A. 
General G. T. Beauregard was Captain and Brevet Major Corps of Engineers U. S. A. 
See Official Army Register for September, 1S61, page 61 





James Longstreet 

E. Kirby Smith 

Leonidas Folk 

Theophllus H. Holmes. 
William J. Hardee 

Thomas J. Jackson 

JohnC. Pemberton.. . 

Richard S. Ewell , 

Ambrose P. Hill 

Daniel H.Hill 

John B. Hood 

Richard Taylor 

Stephen D. Lee 

Jubal A. Early 


Alabama. . . 

Florida . 


N. Carolina 

Virginia . . , 

Virginia . . , 
Virginia . . , 
Virginia . . 

N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. B. Bragg., 
Gen. R. E. Lee., 
Gen. R. E. Lee.. 

Louisiana. . 
S. Carolina. 

Virginia.. . . 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Texas Gen. J. E. Johnston . . 

Gen. E. K. Smith 

Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 11,1862, 

Oct. 11,1862, 

Oct. 13, 1862. 
Oct. 11,1562. 

Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 13, 1862. 
May 23,1868. 
May 23, 1863. 

JuV 11, 1863. 

Feb. 11,1864. 

May 16, 1864. 
June 23, 1864. 

May 31, 1864. 

Oct. 9, 1862, 

Oct. 9, 1862, 

Oct. 10,1862. 

Oct. 10,1862, 
Oct. 10,1862, 

Oct. 10,1862. 

Oct. 10,1862. 
May 23,1863. 
May 24,1863. 

July 11,1863. 

Sept. 20, 1863. 

April 8, 1864. 
June 23, 1864. 

May 31,1864. 




Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 11,1868. 

Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 13,1862. 
Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 13,1862. 
Feb. 2, 1864. 
Jan. 15,1864. 

Feb. 11, 1864. 
May 16, 1864. 

May 31,1864. 


In command of 1st corps, Army of Northern Virginia, &c., &c. 
At the Battle of Preaericksburg, in November, 1862, General 
Longstreet's corps was composed of the divisions of Anderson, 
Pickett, Ransom. Hood and McLaws, and the artillery 
battalions of Colonels Alexander and Walton; In October, 
1863, commanding corps In the Army of Tennessee, composed 
of the divisions of McLaws, Preston, Walker and Hood, and 
the artillery battalions of Alexander, Williams, Leyden and 
Robertson ; Pickett's division belonged to this corps. 

Promoted General P. A. C. S. February 19, 1864 ; commanded 
Department of East Tennessee and Kentucky, North Georgia 
and West North Carolina, with infantry division* of Steven- 
son, McCown and Heth, and the cavalry brigades of Forrest, 
Morgan, Scott and Ashby ; also in command of Trans-Missis- 
sippi Department. 

Killed, June 14, 1S64, on Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Georgia ; 
at the time of his death in command of the Array of Missis- 
sippi, co-operating with the Army of Tennessee, both under 
command of General Joseph E. Johnston ; commanded corps 
Army of Tennessee, composed of the divisions of Cheatham, 
Withers and McCown ; commanded Army of Tennessee at 
Chattanooga, August, 1863 ; also, in 1863 and 1864, commanded 
Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana; 
assigned to command of Trans-Mississippi Department. 

In command, August, 1863, of the parolled prisoners of Missis- 
sippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Texas and Louisiana, recently form- 
ing part of the garrisons of Vicksburg and Port Hudson. 

In command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and 
Florida ; his corps, in the Army of Tennessee, composed of 
the Divisions of Cheatham, Cleyburne, Stevenson and Walker ; 
subsequently Stevenson's division was exchanged for Bates' 
division ; in command of the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, 
Georgia. December 21, 1863. 

Died May 10, 1863 ; commanding Second corps Army of North- 
ern Virginia. At the Battle of Fredericksburg this corps was 
composed of the divisions of A. P. Hill, D. H. Hill, Early and 
Taliaferro. Colonel Brown's regiment of artillery and numerons 
light batteries. 

Resigned May 18, 1864 ; assigned to the command of the Depart- 
ment of Mississippi and East Louisiana. 

Commanding Second corps Army of Northern Virginia, the De- 
partment of Richmond, &c. 

Killed In front of Petersburg, Va.; commanding Third corps 
Army of Northern Virginia, &c., composed of the divisions of 
Anderson, Heth and Pender. 

In October, 1863, commanding corps, Array of Tennessee, 
composed of the divisions of Cleburne and Stewart; corps 
afterwards composed of the divisions of Cleburne and 

Promoted General with temporary rank July 18, 1864; com- 
manding corps in the Army of Tennessee, composed of the 
divisions of Hindmaa, Stevenson and Stewart. 

Commanding Department of Alabama, Mississippi and West 

Assigned to the command of the Department of Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, East Louisiana and West Tennessee ; subsequently 
in command of Hood's old corps. Army of Tennessee, com- 
posed of the divisions of Hill, Stevenson and Clayton. 

Commanded Second corps Army of Northern Virginia, composed 
of the divisions of Rodes, Gordon and Ramseur, and three 
battalions of light artillery under comraand of Brigadier- 
General Long. 




To Whom to 












Richard H. Anderson. . 

S. Carolina. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

June 1, ISW. 

May 31,1864. 


Ambrose P. Stewart. .. 

Tennessee . 

Gen. J. E.Johnston.. 

June 23, 1S64. 

June 23, 1864. 


Nathan B. Forrest 


Gen. Beauregard 

Feb. 28,1865. 

Feb. 28, 1865. 


Wade Hampton 

S. Carolina. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 


Simon B. Buckner 

Joseph Wheeler.. 



Georgia. , . . 

Gen. J. E. Johnston.. 

Feb. 28, 1865. 

Feb. 28, 1865. 


John B. Gordon 

Georgia. . . . 

Gen. R. E. Lee 





ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 











June 1, 1864. 

Commanded Longstreet's corps while lie was disabled by wounds 
encountered in the Battle of the Wilderness. 

Corps composed of the divisions of French, Loringand Walthall, 
Army of the West. 

Command composed of the cavalry divisions of Chalmers, Jack- 
son and Buford, McCulloch's Second Missouri cavalry regiment 
as a special scouting force, and the Mississippi militia ; Army 
of the West. 

Commanding cavalry in General Joseph E. Johnston's army 
during General Sherman's march through the Carolinas, and 
Butler's division of cavalry from the Army of Northern Vir- 

Commanding District of Louisiana. 

Commanding cavalry divisions of Allen, Humes and Dibbrell, 
composed of the brigades of Allen, Anderson, Breckinridge, 
Crews, Dibbrell, Ferguson, Harrison, Iverson and Lewis; 
again, commanding cavalry corps. Army of Tennessee, com- 
posed of the divisions of Martin, Kelley and Humes, and at 
another time a cavalry division In the Army of Tennessee, 
composed of the brigades of Hagan, Wharton and Morgan. 

Commanding Second Army Corps, Army of Northern Virgiala ; 
at the time of General Lee's surrender, General Longstreet was 
in command of one wing of the Army of Northern Virginia 
and General Gordon of the other. 

Marcli 2, 1865. 





David B. Twiggs. 
Leonldas Polk.. . . 

Braxton Bragg 

Earl Van Dorn 

Gustavua W. Smith. . . . 

Tlieopliilus H. Holmes, 

William J. Hardee. 
Benjamin Huger... 
James Longstreet.. 

J. Bankhead Magruder. 
Mansfield Lovell 

Thomas J. Jackson. . 

E. Kirby Smith. 

George B. Crittenden. 
John C. Pemberton. . 

Richards. Ewell.... 
William W. Loring. 

Sterling P^lce 





N. Carolina 

Georgia. . . . 
S. Carolina. 
Alabama. . . 

Virginia . . 

Virginia , 

Florida . 

Virginia . . 

Virginia . . 
Florida . . . 


To Whom to 

Gen. R. B. Lee.. . 

Maj. Gen. Huger. 

May 22,1861 
June 25, 1861. 

Sept. 12, 1861, 

Sept. 19, 1861, 
Sept. 19, 1861, 

Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 11, 1861. 

Nov. 9, 1861. 
Feb. 23,1862. 

Jan. 24,1862. 

Feb. 15, 1862. 

March 6, 1862. 

May 22,1861. 
June 25, 1861 

Sept. 12, 1861, 

Sept, 19, 1861, 
Sept. 19, 1861, 

Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct. 7, 1861. 
Oct. 7, 1861. 

Oct, 7, 1861. 

Oct. 11,1861. 

Nov. 9,1861. 
Jan. 14,1862. 

Jan. 24,1862. 

Feb. 16,1862. 

March 6, 1862. 




Ang. 29, 1861, 
Aug. 29, 1861. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13, 1861, 
Dec. 13, 1861, 

Dec. 13,1861, 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13.1861. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Dec. 13,1861, 

Jan. 13,1862. 

Jan. 24,1862. 

Feb. 15, 1862, 

Feb. 17,1864. 

Uarche, 1862. 


Died July 15th, 1862; in command, at New Orleans, of the- 

Military Department of Louisiana. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 10, 1862; commanding 
First corps, Army of the Mississippi, composed of the divisions 
of Clark and Cheatham, and Maxey's detached brigade ; origi- 
nally assigned to command of Department No. 2, comprising 
the defences of the Mississippi river ; also in command of the 
Armies of Mississippi and Kentucky on the retreat from. 

Promoted General C. 8. A. April 12, 1862 ; commanding Army 
of Tennessee, &c., &c. 

Commanding Army of the District of the Mississippi. 

Resigned February 17, 1863 ; assigned to the command of the- 
Second corps A»my of the Potomac ; afterwards in command 
of the First division in General J. E. Johnston's Army of Vir- 
ginia; subsequently relieved General Holmes of the command 
at Fredericksburg ; at Yorktown commanded division com- 
posed of the brigades of Whiting, Hood, Hampton, Pettigrew 
and Hatton, &c., &c. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 10, 1862; assigned tO' 
the command of Confederate forces in North Carolina ; sub- 
sequently in command of the District of Arkansas, &c., &c.; 
at one time in command of Daniel's, Walker's and Wise'a 
brigades, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 10, 1862 ; commanding 
Third corps, Army of the Mississippi, composed of the brigades 
of Leddell, Cleburne, Wood, Marmaduke and Hawthorne. 

In command at Norfolk, Virginia; division in the field near 
Richmond, Va., composed of the brigades of Mahone, Wright, 
Blanchard and Armistead. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 9, 1862; commanding 
First corps Army of Northern Virginia, <fec., &c.; division com- 
posed of the brigades of Kemper, Pickett, Wilcox, Anderson, 
Pryor and Featherston ; Army of Northern Virginia. 

On duty on the Peninsula; subsequently in command of the 
District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. 

In command of New Orleans, &c., &c.; afterwards In command 
of First division, Army of the District of .Mississippi, composed 
of the brigades of Rust, Villepique and Bowen. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 10, 1862; assigned to 
the command of the Army of the Monongahela ; later com- 
mand consisted of the divisions of A. P. Hill, Ewell, Rodes, 
and Jackson's old division. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 9, 1862; commanded 
reserve division. Army of the Potomac, consisting of Trim- 
ble's, Taylor's and Blzey's brigades. 

Resigned October 23, 1862; commanding military operations in 
East Tennessee and East Kentucky. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General October 10, 1862; assigned to 
the command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia 
and Florida. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General May 23, 1868 ; commanding De- 
partment of Richmond ; division composed of the brigades of 
Elzey, Trimble and Taylor. 

Commanding Department of Western Virgin.^a; subsequently 
commanded division in Jackson's corps, and afterwards a di- 
vision In the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East 

Major-General commanding Missouri State Guard, and received 
with that rank Into Confederate service ; commanding District 
of Arkansas, Trans-Mississippi Department ; in 1S62 in com- 
mand of the Army of the West ; in 1864 division composed of 
the brigades of Drayton, Churchill, Tappan and Parsons. 














Benjamin F. Cheatham 

Samuel Jones 

John P. McCown 

Daniel Harvey Hill.... 
Jones M. Withers 

T. C. Hindman 

John C. Breckinridge. . 

Lafayette ^cLaws 

Ambrose P. Hill 

Richard H. Anderson. . 

J. E. B. Stuart 

Richard Taylor 

Simon B. Buckner 



Virginia , 


N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Alabama... Gen. B. Bragg. 

Arkansas . , 

Kentucky. , 


Virginia . . . 
S. Carolina. 



Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 
Gen. B. Bragg.. 


Mch. 14, 1862. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 
Mch. 26, 1862. 
Aug. 16, 1862. 

ApL. 18, 1862. 
Apl. 18,1862. 

May 23,1862. 

May 26,1862. 
Julfr 14,1862. 

July 25,1862. 

July 28,1862. 
Aug. 16, 1862. 






Mch. 10, 


Mch. 10, 


Mch. 10, 


Mch. 26, 


AprU 6, 


ApL 14, 


ApL 14, 


May 23, 


May 26, 


July 14, 


July 25, 


July 28, 


Aug. 16, 




ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 

Date of 


Mch. 14, 1S62. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 
Mch. 26, 1862. 
Sept. 26, 1S62. 

Apl. 18, 1868. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 186z. 
Sept. 26, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 1862. 
Sept, 26, 1862. 


Division composed of the brigades of Maney, Smith, Wright and 
Strahl ; in January, 1864, in command of Hardee's corps; di- 
vision afterwards composed of the brigades of Maney, Wright, 
Strahl and Vaughan ; at anothpr time, of the brigades of Jack- 
son, Maney, Smith, Wright and Strahl ; Army of Tennessee. 

In 1864 in command of the Department of South Carolina, 
Georgia and Florida; in 1862 commanding Second corps, Army 
of the Mississippi, composed of the brigades of Anderson, 
Richard and Walker ; again in command of the Department 
of West Virginia and East Tennessee. 

Commanding Army of the West, composed of the divisions of 
Little, McCown and Maury ; again, in command of a division 
in Polk's corps. Army of Tennessee, composed of the brigades 
of Ector, Vance and McNair. 

Division composed of the brigades of Deas, Manigault, Shoup 
and Brantley ; also commanding division. Army of Northern 
Virginia, composed of the brigades of Doles, Iverson, Ramseur, 
Rodes and Colquitt. 

Commanding reserve corps. Army of the Mississippi, composed 
of the brigades of Gardner, Chalmers, Jackson and Manigault ; 
also commanded division in PoIk s corps. Army of Tennessee, 
composed of the brigades of Deas, Chalmers, Walthall and 

Division composed of the brigades of Deas. Walthall, Manigault 
and Anderson, Polk's corps. Army of Tennessee ; at one time 
in command of a corps in the Army of Tennessee, composed 
of the divisions of Hindman, Breckinridge and Stewart ; again, 
division composed of the brigades of Tucker, Deas, Manigault 
and Walthall. 

Afterwards Secretary of War; division composed of the brigades 
of Helm, Dan'l W. Adams and Stovall ; in 1862 commanding 
division, Van Dorns Army, District of Mississippi; in De- 
cember, 1862, commanding cavalry division, Polk's corps. Army 
of Tennessee, composed of the IJrigades of Hanson, Palmer 
and Walker; in 1863 division composed of the brigades of 
Helm, Preston, Brown and Adams. » 

Division composed of the brigades of Kershaw, Wofiford, Hum- 
phreys and Bryan; m 1864 in command of the District of 
Georgia; at the battle of ChancellorsviUe, division composed 
of the brigades of Wofford, Kershaw, Barksdale and Semmes. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General May 24, 1863; commanding di- 
vision in Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General shortly after the battle of Spotsyl- 
vania; division composed of Mahone's, Wright's, Armistead's 
and Martin's brigades ; Posey's, Wilcox's and Pryor's brigades 
"were subsequently added ; ail attached to the Army of North- 
ern Virginia ; at the battle of Fredericksburg his division was 
composed of the brigades of Perry, Featherston, Wright, 
Wilcox and Mahone. 

Died of wounds May 12, 1864 ; division composed of the brigades 
of Hampton, Fitzhugh Lee and W. H. F. Lee ; Chief of Cavalry 
Armyol Northern Virginia; succeeded Lieutenant-General A. 
P. Hill in command of the Second corps. Army of Northern 
Virginia, during battle of ChancellorsviUe. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General April 8, 1864 ; commanding De- 
partment of Louisiana ; also District of Western Louisiana. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General 1865 ; command composed of the 
division of Major-General A. 1". Stewart, consisting of the 
brigades of Johnson, Brown, Bate and Clayton, and the di- 
vision of Brigadier-General Wm. Preston, consisting of the 
brigades of Grade, Trigg and Kelly, and of three battalions 
of light artillery ; Army of Tennessee. 


S. G. French..... 
C. L. Stevenson. 

George B. Pickett., 

Jolin B. Hood. 


John H. Forney.. 


Dabney H. Maury., 

M.L. Smith , 

JohnG. Walker.... 
Arnold Elzey 

Isaac K. Trimble. 

D. S. DonelBon. 
Jubal A. Early. 

Joseph Wheeler... 
W. H. C. Whiting. 
Edward Johnson. 



Prank Gardner 

Patrick R. Cleburne.... 


Virginia . . . 

Virginia . . . 



Virginia . . 

Florida . . . 



Arkansas . 


Virginia . . . 

Georgia. . . . 
Virginia . . . 

To Whom to 

Ma]. Gen. G.W.Smith 
Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Lt. Gen. Pemberton.. 

Lt. Gen. Pemberton.. 

Lt. Gen. T. H. Holmes 

Maj. Gen. G.W.Smith 

Lt. Gen. Pemberton.. 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. J. B. Johnston.. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

fGen. Command'g"! 
X Army of Tenn. j 

Lt. Gen. Longstreet.. 
Gen. R. E.Lee 




Oct. 22,1862. 
Oct. 13,1862. 

Oct. 11,1362. 

Oct. 11,1862. 

Oct. 11,1862. 
Oct. 2T, 1862. 

Nov. 4,1862. 

Nov. 4,1862. 

Nov. 8, 1862. 

Dec. 4, 1862. 

Dec. 20, 1862. 
Dec. 20, 1862. 

Apl. 23,1863. 

Apl.^ 22, 1863. 
Apl. 23, 1863. 

Feb. 4,1864. 
ApL 22,1863. 
ApL 22,1863. 


Aug. 31, 1862. 
Oct. 10,1862. 

Oct. 10,1862. 

Oct. 10,1862. 

Oct. 11,1862. 
Oct. 2T, 1862. 

Nov. 4,1862. 

Nov. 4, 1862. 

Nov. 8, 1862. 

Dec. 4, 1862. 

Dec. 13,1862. 
Dec. 13,1862. 

Jan. 17, 1863. 

Jan. IT, 1863. 
Jan. 17,1863. 

Jan. 20,1863. 
Feb. 28, 1863. 
Feb. 28,1863. 



ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 



































ApU 23, 1863. 

















Commanding Department of North Carolina and Southern Vir- 
ginia, with defensive line from the mouth of the Appomattox 
to Cape Fear river. 

Division composed of the brigades of Brown, Cumming, Pettus 
and Reynolds, and the light batteries of Anderson, Rowan, 
Corput and Carne ; at another time, of the brigades of Pettus, 
Palmer and Cumming. 

Commanding Department of North Carolina in 1864 ; commanded 
division iu Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern Virginia, 
composed of the brigades of Garnett, Armlstead, Kemper and 
Jenkins, to which Corse's brigade was subsequently added. 

Promoted Lieuteuant-General September 20, 1863 ; General with 
temporary rank, July 18, 1864; division composed of the 
brigades of Robertson, Law, Benning and Jenkins; at the 
Battle of Fredericksburg, division composed of the brigades 
of Law, Toombs, Robertson and Anderson. 

Commanding division, Longstreet's corps, Army of Northern 
Virginia, composed of the brigades of Toombs, Anderson, 
Drayton, Kemper, Garnett and Jenkins. 

Division consisted at first of Hebert's and Moore's brigades, 
and, subsequently, of the brigades of King, Waterhouse, Waul 
and McLain; at another time General Forney commanded a 
division composed of the brigades of Cockrell and Green, 
Army of the Mississippi. 

Commanding Department of the Gulf; previously In command 
of tlie Third division. Army of the West. 

In command of the Second District, Department of Mississippi 
and East Louisiana. 

Division composed of Hawes', McCuIloch's and Randall's 

Commanding brigade, Army of Northern Virginia; also in com- 
mand of the Department of Richmond, Virginia. 

In command at Mobile, Alabama, &c., &c. 

Killed at the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee ; division composed 
of the brigades of Polk, Wood and Deshler, and the light 
batteries of Calvert, Semple and Douglass ; division after- 
wards composed of the brigades of Polk, Lowry, Govan and 
Granberry, and again of the brigades of Wood, Johnson, Lid- 
dell and Polk ; Army of Tennessee. 

Commanded Stonewall Jackson's old division, of the Second 
corps, Army of Northern Virginia ; at the Battle of Chancel- 
lorsville, division composed of the brigades of Colston, Paxton, 
Nicholls and Jones. 

Died April 17, 1863 ; in command of the First division of the 
right wing of the Army of the Mississippi, composed of the 
brigades of savage, Stewart and Mauey. 

Promoted Lieutenant- General May 31, 1864; division composed 
of Early's, Hays', Lawton's and Trimble's brigades; at the 
Battle of Chancellorsville, division composed of the brigades 
of Hays, Gordon, Hoke and Smith, Army of Northern Vir- 

Promoted Lleutenant-General February 28, 1365; commanding 
cavalry in Tennessee, consisting of the divisions of Wharton. 
Martin and Kelly, and the brigades of Roddy and Morgan. 

Commanding at Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1S64; division 
composed of the brigades of Hood and Law, and the light 
batteries of Reilly and Balthis. 

Commanding division in Eweil's corps. Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, composed of the brigades of Walker, Steuart and 
J. M, Jones, 






K. E. Eodes 

WllUam H. T. Walker. 

Henry Heth 

John S. Bowen 

Robert Ransom, Jr.... 

W. D. Pender 

A. P. Stewart 

Stephen D. Lee 

Cadmus M. Wilcox 

J. F. Gilmer 

Wade Hampton 

Fltzhugh Lee 

William Smith 

Howell Cobb 

John A. Wharton 

William T.Martin 

Nathan B. Forrest 

Charles W. Field 

J. Patton Anderson 

W. B. Bate 

Robert F. Hoke 


Alabama. . . 
Georgia. . . . 

Virginia . . . 

N. Carolina 

N. Carolina 

Tennessee . 

S. Carolina. 


N. Carolina 
S. Carolina. 


Virginia.. . . 

Texas . . 





N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Gen. E. E. Lee....... 

Gen. J. B, Johnston. 

Gen. R. B. Lee 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 

Lt. Gen. D.H.Hill.... 

Gen. R. B. Lee 

Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. J. E. Johnston.. 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. Beauregard. 
Gen. R. E. Lee.... 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 
Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Lt. Gen. Longstreet.. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 

May 7, 1863. 
May 2T, 1863. 

May 23, 1863. 
May 29, 1863. 

May 27, 1863. 

May 27,1863. 

June 5, 1863. 

Aug. 3, 1863. 
Aug. 13, 1863. 


16, 1863. 
3, 1863, 

Sept. 3, 1863. 

Aug. 13, 1863. 



19, 1863. 
12, 1S63. 

12, 1863. 
4, 1863. 

Feb. 12, 1864. 

Feb. 17, 1864. 
March 5, 1864. 

Apl. 23,1864. 

May 2, 1863, 
May 28, 1863, 

May 24, 1863, 
May 25, 1863, 

May 26, 1863. 

May 27,1863. 

June 2, 1863. 

Aug. 3, 1863. 

Aug. 3, 1863. 

Aug. 16, 1863. 
Aug. 3,1868, 

Aug. 3, 1863, 

Aug. 12, 1863, 

Sept, 9, 1863. 
Nov. 10, 1863, 

Nov. 10, 1863, 
Dec. 4, 1868, 

Feb. 12, 1864, 

Feb. 17,1864, 
Feb. 23, 1864. 

Apl. 20, 1864. 



ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 

^ o 

Jan. 25, 1S64. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 

Feb. IT, 1864. 

Feb. 17, 1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 

Feb. 17,1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 

Jan. 25,1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 

Jan. 26,1864. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 

Feb. 12, 1864. 

Feb. 17, 1864. 
May 11,1864. 

May 11, 1864. 


Killed at Winchester, Va., lOth Sept., 1864 ; division composed 
of tlie brigades of Doles, Battle, Daniel and Ramseur. 

Killed in the battle around Atlanta, Georgia; division composed 
of the brigades of Liddell, Walthall, Ector and Wilson ; di- 
vision afterwards composed of the brigades of Mercer, Jack- 
son, Gist and Stevens ; in October, 1863, division composed of 
the brigades of Gregg, Gist and Wilson. 

Division composed of Pettigrew's, Archer's. Davis', Cook's and 
Brockenborough's brigades, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Died July 16, 1863, from disease contracted during the siege of 
Vicksburg; commanded division known as tne Missouri di- 
vision, composed of the brigades of Cockrell and Green. 

Commanding Departmen*; of Richmond, in 1864 ; at the Battle 
of Fredericksburg, division composed of the brigades of 
Ransom and Cook. 

Died July 18, 1S63, from wounds received at Gettysburg ; division 
composed of his old brigade and the brigades of McQowan, 
Lane and Thomas, Armv of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General June 23, 1864; division composed 
of the brigades of Brown, Johnson, Strahl and Clayton ; after- 
wards, of the brigades of Brown, Bate, Clayton and Stovall; 
subsequently of the brigades of Stovall, Clayton, Gibson and 
Baker ; Army of the West. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General June 23, 1864; assigned to the 
command of all the cavalry in the Department of Alabama, 
Mississippi, East Louisiana and West Tennessee. 

Division composed of the brigades of Generals Lane, Scales, 
McGowan and Thomas. 

Chief of the Engineer Bureau. 

Promoted Lleutimant-General ; division composed of the cavalry 
brigades of Young, Butler, Rosser and Gordon, Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Division composed of Wickham's and Lomax's brigades; sub- 
sequently in command of the cavalry corps, Army of Northern 
Virginia, composed of the divisions of W. H. F. Lee, Rosser 
and Munford. 

Resigned December 31, 1863, because elected Governor of Vir- 
ginia ; consequently, did not assume command of a division 
or remain in the field. 

In 1864 in command of the reserve forces of Georgia. 

Commanding division In Wheeler's cavalry corps, Army of 

Commanding cavalry corps In East Tennessee, under General 
Longstreet; subsequently a division in Wheeler's cavalry 
corps, composed of the brigades of Morgan and Iverson. 

Promoted Lieutenant-General February 28, 1865; assigned to 
the command of all cavalry in West Tennessee and North 
Mississippi, consisting of those of his own brigade and those 
of Chalmers, McCuUoch, Richardson, Bell and Jeffrey Forrest ; 
Lyon's brigade was afterwards added ; the whole was organ- 
ized Into two divisions, commadned respectively by Chalmers 
and Buford. 

Division composed of Jenkins', Law's, BQnning's, Anderson's 
and Gregg's brigades. Army of Northern Virginia. 

In 1864 assigned to the command of the District of Florida. 

Division composed of the brigades of Tyler, Lewis and Pinley, 
and of the light batteries of Slocum, Cobb and Mebane ; Army 
of Tennessee. 

Commanding in North Carolina; division In General Beaure- 
gard's army composed, May, 1864, of the brigades of Martin, 
Hagood, Clingman and Colquitt ; Army Of Northern Virginia. 







W. H. F. Lee... 
John B. Gordon. 

Bushi'ocl R. Johnson. 

J. B. Kershaw., 
C. J. Pollgnac, 

J. F. Fagan 

William Mahone. 

8. D. Ramseur. 

B. C. Walthall. 

H. D. Clayton. 

John C. Brown. 
L. L. Lomax 

83 Henry W. Allen.. 

84 J. L. Kemper 

85 J. S. Marmaduke. 

86 A. R.Wright 

John Pegram 

Pierce M. B. Young. 

M. Calvin Butler 

T. L. Rosser 

G. W. Custls Lee. 
William Preston. 

WUllam B. Taliaferro. 
Bryan Grimes 


Virginia. . . . 


S. Carolina, 

Arkansas . . 
Virginia . . . 

N. Carolina 



Virginia . . . 

Virginia . . , 

Virginia . . . 


S. Carolina. 

Virginia . . . 
Kentucky. . 

Virginia . . . 
N. Caiollna 

To Whom to 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 
Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 
Gen. R. E. Lee , 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. B. Hood. 
Gen.R. E. Lee... 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. E. K. Smith. 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen, R. E. Lee 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. Wm. J. Hardee.. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Apl. 23, 1864. 
May 14, 1864. 

May 26, 1864. 

June 2, 1864. 

June 13, 1864. 

June IS, 1864. 
Aug. 8, 1864. 

June 1, 1864. 
June 10, 1864. 

July 8, 1864. 

Aug. 4, 1864. 
Aug. 10, 1864. 


1, 1864. 


Nov. 23, 1864. 


Dec. 12, 1864, 



Jan. 1, 1865. 

Jan. 1, 1865. 

Jan. 1, 1865. 

Feb. 23, 1865. 

Apl. 23, 1864. 
May 14, 1864. 

May 21, 1864. 

May 18, 1864. 

Apl. 8, 1864. 

Apl. 25, 1864. 
July 30, 1864. 

June 1, 1864. 
June 6, 1864. 

July 7, 1864. 

Aug. 4, 1864. 
Aug. 10, 1864. 


Mch. 1, 1864. 


Nov. 23, 1864. 


Dec. 12, 1864. 



Jan. 1, 1865. 
Jan. 1, 1865. 

Jan. 1, 1865. 
Feb. 23,1868. 



ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 

Jane 9, 1864 

May 14,1864, 

May 26,1864, 

June 2, 1864. 
June 13, 1864, 
June 13, 1864. 

June 1, 1864. 
June 10, 1864. 

Febr'y, 1865. 

Dec. 22, 1864, 

Oct, 13, 1862. 

Oct. 13, 1862 

Feb. 23,1865. 


Division composed of the cavalry brigades of Chambliss, Bar- 
ringer and Roberts, and of two batteries liorse artillery. Cap- 
tain McGreggor, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Lleutenant-General in the spring of 1865 by promotion at the 
hands of General R. E. Lee ; division composed of the brigades 
of Evans, Terry and York, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Division was composed of Ransom's, Johnson's, Wise's, Elliott's 
and Grade's brigades, and the Sixty-fourth Georgia regiment, 
Array of Northern Virginia. 

Division composed of the brigades of Conner, Wofford, Hum- 
phreys and Bryan, Army of Tennessee. 

Division composed of the Second Texas brigade and Mouton'g 

Commanding District of Arkansas. 

Assigned to command of Anderson's old division, composed of 
the brigades of Generals Wright, Weisiger, Saunders, Harris 
and Finnegan, Army of Northern Virgmia. 

Assigned to the command of General Early's old division, at 
that time composed of the brigades of Pegram, Johnston and 
Godwin, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Division composed of the brigades of Canty, Reynolds and 
Quaries, Army of Tennessee ; again, of the brigades of Quarles, 
Shelley and D. H. Reynolds, Stewart's corps. Army of Ten- 

Division composed of the brigades of Stovall, Baker and Henry 
R. Jackson ; at another time, of the brigades of M. A. Stovall, 
R. L. Gibson, A. Baker and J. T. Holtzclaw ; Army of Ten- 

Division composed of Govan's and Smith's brigades, Army of 

Division composed of the cavalry brigades of Johnson, Jackson, 
Imboden, Vaughn and McCausland, Army of Northern Vir- 

Commanding division in Trans-Mississippi Department. 

In command of the reserve forces of Virginia. 

Division composed of the brigades of Clarke and Harrison, 

Commanding division during the siege of Savannah in Decem- 
ber, 1864, composed of the brigades of Mercer and John K. 

Killed in action at Hatcher's Run ; commanding Early's old di- 
vision. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Division composed of the cavalry brigades of Lewis, Ferguson 
and Hannon, Wheeler's corps. 

Division composed of the cavalry brigades of Wright and Logan, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Division composed of the cavalry brigades of McCausland and 
Dearing, and subsequently of the brigades of Payne and Mum- 
ford, Army of Northern Virginia. 

In command of local brigade and reserves for the Immediate 
defence of Richmond, Virginia. 

Assigned to the command of the division of Major-General Po- 
lignac, after his return to France ; in October, 1863, in com- 
mand of a division, Longstreet's corps. Army of the Tennessee, 
composed of the brigades of Gracie, Twiggs and Kelly. 

Commanding division of mixed troops after the evacuation of 
Charleston ; previously in command of James Island, South 

Division composed of his old brigade and the brigades of Battle, 
Cook and Cox, Army of Northern Virginia. 






To Whom to 









Wiuiam W. AUen 

W. Y. C. Humes 

Harry T.Hays 

B. M. Law 



Alabama. . . 
S. Carolina. 

Gen. Jos. Wbeeler.... 

Gen. Jos. Wheeler.... 

Gen. E. K. Smith 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . . 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

March, 1865. 

March, 1865. 

April, 1865. 
April 9, 1S65. 

March, 1865. 

March, 1865. 

April, 1865. 
April, 1866. 


M, W. Gary 



ORDER OF RANK— Continued. 


Commanding cavalry division composed of the brigades of 

Crews and Hagan ; Brigadier-General Robert H. Anderson's 

cavalry brigade was subsequently added. 
Commanding division In Lieutenant-General Wheeler's cavalry 

corps, composed of the brigades of Ashby, Harrison and 

On special duty in Trans-Mlsslsslppl Department. i 

Commanding General Hampton's old cavalry division. 
Division assigned, but never concentrated, consisting of hlB 

old brigade and Robert's brigade of North Carolina cavalry. 





Adams, CharleB W. 
Adams, Daniel W.. 

Adams, John. 
Adams, Wirt. 

Alcorn, J. L 

Alexander, E. Porter. . 

Allen, Henry W 

AUen, William W... 

Anderson, CD 

Anderson, George B. . . 

Anderson, George T. . . 

Anderson, Joseph R. . . 
Anderson, J. Fatten. . . 

Anderson, R. H. 

Anderson, Robert H. .. 
Anderson, Samuel R... 
Archer, J.J 

Armlstead, L. A 

Armstrong, Frank C. 

Arkansas . . 


Georgia. . . . 
Alabama. . . 

N. Carolina 


Virginia . . . 

S. Carolina. 



Virginia . . . 


To Whom to 

Maj. Gen. Price.. 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston.. 
Gen. Wm. J. Hardee. 

Lt, Gen. Longstreet. 
Gen. E. K. Smith.... 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. Q. W. Smith. . 
Gen. R. E, Lee 



May 23, 1862, 

May 23, 186.S. 
Sept. 28, 1863. 

Gen. Longstreet. 

Gen. R. E. Lee... 
Gen. B. Bragg... 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. J. B. Hood. 
Gen. R. E. Lee.. . 
Gen. R. E. Lee... 

Gen. Huger 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Mch. 1, 1864. 
Aug. 19, 1863. 
Mch. 1, 1864. 

May, 1864. 
June 9, 1862. 


May 23, 1862, 

Dec. 29, 186!?, 
Sept. 25, 1863, 

Feb. 26, 1864, 
Aug. 19, 1863. 
Feb. 26, 1864. 

May, 1864, 
June 9, 1862. 

Nov. 1,1 862. Nov. 1,1862. 

Sept. 3, 1861. Sept. 3,1861. 
Feb. 10, 1862. Feb. 10, 1862. 

July 19, 1861. 

July 26, 1864, 
July 9, 1861, 
June 9, 1862, 

Apl. 1, 1862. 

Apl. 23, 1863. 

July 19,1861, 

July 26, 1864. 
July 9, 1861. 
June 3, 1862. 

Apl. 1, 1862. 

Jan. 20, 1863. 





Sept. 30, 1862. 

Feb. 17, 1864, 
Jan. 25, 1864. 

May 28, 1864. 
Jan. 25, 1864. 
June 9, 1864. 

May, 1864, 
Sept. 30, 1862, 

Apl. 22, 1863. 

Dec. 13, 1861, 
Feb. 10, 1862. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

Oct. 13, 1862. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 

Apl. 1, 1862. 

Apl. 23, 1863. 


Commanding brigade in Major-General Price's army. 
Commanding Mississippi brigade, General Breckinridge's di- 
vision, Army of Tennessee, composed of the 13th, 20th, 16th, 
25th and 19th Louisiana and 32d Alabama regiments, Austin's 
battalion of sharp-shooters and Slocomb's light battery. 
Killed at Battle of Franklin ; commanded brigade in Lorlng'a 
division, Stewart's corps. Army of Tennessee, composed ot 
the 6th, ]4th, 15th, 20th, 28d and 43d Mississippi regiments. 

Brigade composed of Colonel Wood's regiment, the 11th and 
17th Arkansas regiments consolidated, the 14th Confederate- 
regiment, the 9th Tennessee battalion and King's light 

Commanding a brigade of Mississippi State troops at Columbus, 

In command of the artillery attached to the 1st corps (Long- 
street's), Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General; resigned January 10, 1864; elected 
Governor of Louisiana. 

Promoted Major-General in the spring of 1865; brigade at first 
composed of the 1st, 3d, 8th and 10th Confederate regiments, 
and subsequently of the 1st, 3d. 4th, 9th, 12th and 51st regi- 
ments Alabama cavalry. Army of the West. 

Held commission in Georgia State forces ; commanding the 3d 
Georgia brigade, composed of the Tth, Sth and 9th regiments. 

Died October 16, 1862, from the effect of wounds received at 
Sharpsburg; brigade composed of the 2d, 4th, 14th and 30tli 
North Carolina regiments, D. H. Hill's division, Jackson's 
corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the Tth, Sth, 9th and 11th Georgia regiments 
and the 1st Kentucky regiment ; the 59th Georgia regiment was 
afterwards substituted for the 1st Kentucky, whose term of 
service had expired ; all of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 14th, 35th, 45th and 49th Georgia regi- 
ments and the 3d Louisiana battalion, Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia; resigned July 19, 1862. 

Promoted Major-General February 17, 1864 ; brigade composed 
of the 1st Florida, 17th Alabama and the 5th and Sth Mississippi 
regiments ; subsequently in command of Major-General Hind- 
man's division, Polk's corps. Army of Tennessee. 

Promoted Major-General July 14, 1862; brigade composed of 
Colonel Gladden's 1st Louisiana Regular Infantry, Colonel 
Anderson's 1st Florida regiment, Colonel Jackson's 5th Georgia 
regiment, the Tth and Sth Mississippi regiments, and Colonel 
Tyler's battalion of marines; Ijrigade afterwards composed of 
the 4th, 5th and 6th South Carolina Volunteers and the 2d 
South Carolina Rifles, Longstreet's corps, Army of Northern 

Brigade composed of the 5th Georgia and the 1st, 3d Sth and 10th 
Confederate regiments cavalry. Army of Tennessee. 

Resigned May 10, 1862; brigade was composed of the 1st, Tth 
and 14tU Tennessee regiments and one company of cavalry. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 14th and 7th Tennessee regiments, 
the 13th Alabama regiment and the 5th Alabama Imttalion, 
Heth's division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed in action at Gettysburg; brigade composed of the 9th, 
14th, 38th, 53d and 5Tth Virginia regiments, Army of Northern 

Commanding brigade In Chalmer's division, Forrest's cavalrj 
corps. Army of the West. 





Ashby, Turner. 

Bagby, Arthur P. 

BaSer, Alpheua 

Baker, Lawrence S.... 
Baldwin, Wm. B 

Barksdsle, William. 

Barnes, James W. 
Barringer, Eufus. 

Barry, ■William S. 
Barton, Seth M... 

Bartow, Francis S., 
Bate, William B.... 

Battle, C. A 

Baylor, John R 

Beale, Richard L. T. 

Beau, W.N. R 

Beauregard, G. T.. 
Bee, Barnard E.... 

Bee, Hamilton P. 
Bell, Tyree H.... 

Bennlng, Henry L., 
Benton, Samuel.... 


Virginia . . . 

Texas , 

Alabama. . . 
N. Carolina 



N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Gen. T. J. Jackson., 

Lt. Gen. Buckner. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. Van Dorn 

Gen. R.,E. Lee., 

Gen. R. B. Lee., 

Virginia . . . 




Virginia . . . 

Arkansas . . 
Louisiana. . 
S. Carolina. 

Texas , 


Georgia. . . 

Gen. E. K. Smith. 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. Van Dorn 

Commanding ^ 
Charleston i 
Harbor. ) 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. P. O. Hebert. 
Maj. Gen. Forrest. 

Gen. R. B. Lee.. . 
Gen. J. B. Hood. 


May 23, 1862. 

March, 1864. 

March 7, 1864. 
July 30,1863. 
Oct. 8, 1862. 

Aug. 12, 1862. 

Mch. 5, 1864. 
July 23,1863. 
Sept. 19, 1862. 

Aug. 12, 1862, 

June 1, 1864. 

Mch. 18, 1862. 
July, 1861. 

Oct. 3, 1862, 
Aug. 25, 1863, 

Febr'y, 1865. 

Apl. IT, 1862, 
Mch. 1,1861, 
June 17, 1861, 

March 6, 1862, 
Nov., 1863, 

Apl. 23,1863 
July 26, 1864. 

May 23, 1862. 

June 1, 1864. 

Mch. 11, 1862. 
July, 1861. 

Oct. 3, 1862. 
Aug. 20, 1863. 

Febr'y, 1865. 

ApL 11,1862. 
Mch. 1,1861. 
June 17, 1861. 

March 4, 1862, 
Nov., 1863, 

Jan. 17, 1863, 
July 26,1864, 



— Continued. 

Vh ° 



11, 1864. 

16, 1864. 

8, 1862. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

June 1, 1864. 

Mch. 18, 1862. 



3, 1862. 
17, 1864. 


17, 1862. 
1, 1861. 
29, 1861. 

Mch. 6, 1862. 

Apl. 23,1863. 


Killed June 6th, 1862, near Harrisonburg, Virginia ; command 
composed of twenty-six companies ; subsequently constituting 
Robertson's brigade, and organized into the 6th, 7th and lltS 
Virginia regiments, and the 16th Virginia battalion. Colonel 

Brigade composed of Texas cavalry ; in autumn of 1864 com- 
manded a division composed of his old brigade and the 
brigades of DeBray and Brent. 

Brigade composed of the 37th, 40th, 42d and 54th Alabama 

Commanding Second Military District, Department of North 
Carolina and South Virginia. 

Died February 19, 1864 ; commanding brigade. District of Mobile ; 
brigade, at the capture of P^ort Donelson, consisted of the 
20th and 26th Mississippi and the 26th Tennessee regiments. 

Killed in action at Gettysburg; brigade composed of the 21st, 
13th, 17th and 18th Mississippi regiments, McLaw's division, 
Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 2d, 3d and 5th North Carolina 
cavalry regiments, Major-General W. H. F. Lee's division. 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding brigade. Army of the Mississippi. 

Commanded brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, composed of 
the 9th, 14th. 38th, 53d and 57th Virginia regiments. 

Killed at the Battle of First Manassas July 21, 1861 ; command- 
ing brigade. Army of the Potomac, composed of the 7th and 
8th Georgia regiments. 

Promoted Major-General February 23, 1864; brigade composed 
of the 2d, 10th, 1.5th, 20th, 30th and 37th Tennessee and the 
37th Georgia regiments, and the 4th battalion Georgia sharp- 
shooters ; Army of Tennessee. 

Brigade [formerly Rodes'] composed of the 3d, 5th, 6th, 12th, 
26th and 61st Alabama regiments, infantry. 

Commanding brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department; also la 
command of Confederate forces in Arizona. 

Commanding brigade in Major-General W. H. F. Lee's cavalry 
division, Army of Northern Virginia, composed of the 9th, 10th 
and 13th Virginia cavalry regiments ; the 14th Virginia cavalry 
regiment was subsequently added ; General Beale succeeded 
General Chambliss in command of his brigade. 

Commanding Second Sub-District, District of Mississippi, 

Promoted General Confederate States Army July 21, 1S61 ; com- 
manding at Charleston, South Carolina, and afterwards at 

Killed at Manassas July 21, 1861 ; commanding brigade. Army 
the Potomac, composed of the 2d and llth Mississippi, the 6th 
North Carolina and the 4th Alabama regiments. 

Brigade composed of DeBray's, Buchell's, Wood's, Terrell's, 
Gould's aud Llkin's Texas regiments. 

Commanding 12th Tennessee regiment and acting Brigadier- 
General; brigade composed of the regiments of Colonels 
Russell, Greer, Newsom, Wilson and Barteau ; afterwards 
promoted Brigadier-General, and assigned to command of a 
brigade in -Jackson's division. B'orrest's cavalry corps. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, l.'5th, ITth and 20th Georgia regi- 
ments, Hood's division, Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern 

Died of wounds, received in action at Atlanta, Georgia, July 28, 
1864 ; commanded a brigade composed of the 2Tth, 29th, 30tb 
and 34th Mississippi regiments. 





Blanchard, A. G. 



Boggs, William R. 
Bonham, M. L 

Bowen, John S. 

Branch, L. O. B. 

Brandon, Wm. L. 
Brantly, W. P. . . . 

BrattOB John. 

BrecKlnridge, John C. 
Brent, Joseph L 

Brown, John C. 

Browne, Wm. M. . . 

Bryan, Goode 

Buckner, Simon B. 


To Whom to 

Louisiana.. Gen. Huger. 

Bowles, Pinckney D. . . 
Bragg, Braxton 


S, Carolina 




N. Carolina 


S. Carolina. 

Kentucky. . 



Lt. Gen. B. K. Smith. 
Gen. Beauregard 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Brig. Gen. Walker. 

Commanding a1 
Pensacola, Fla. 

Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill. 

Maj. Gen. I). H. Hill. 
Gen. J. B. Hood 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. A. S. Johnston 
Lt. Gen. S. B. Buckner 

Gen. B. Bragg. 



Gen. A. R. Wright... 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. A. S. Johnston. 

Sept. 21, 1861, 

Nov. 4,1862. 
ApL 23, 1861, 

Mch. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 2, 1865. 
Mch. 7, 1861 

Nov. 16, 1861 

June 18, 1864, 
July 26, 1864. 

June 9, 1864. 

Nov. 2, 1861. 
October, 1864. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

Dec'r, 1864. 
Aug. 31, 1863. 
Sept. 14, 1861. 

Sept. 21, 1864, 

Nov. 4,1862, 
Apl. 23,1861, 

Mcb. 14, 1862. 

April 2,1865. 
Mch. T, 18«. 

Nov. 16, 1861. 

June 18, 1864. 
July 26, 1864. 

May 6, 1864. 

Nov. 2,1861, 
October, 1864, 

Aug. 30, 1862. 

Dec'r, 1864. 
Aug. 29, 1863. 
Sept. 14, 1861. 




Dec. 13, 1861 

Apl. 22,1863, 
Aug. 29, 1861. 

Mcb. 18, 1862. 

Mch. T, 1861. 
Deo. 13,1861. 

Jane 9, 1864. 

Deo. 13,1861. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

Feb. IT, 1864. 
Deo. IS, 1861. 

Oct. 13, 1862, 


Brigade composed of the 3d, 4tli and 22d Georgia regiments, the 
3d Alabama regiment, 3d Louisiana battalion and Colonel 
Williams' North Carolina battalion, Girardey's Louisiana 
Guard artillery, Grimes' Portsmouth artillery, and the Sussex 

Chief of Staff to General E. Kirby Smith, commanding Trans- 
Mississippi Department. 

Resigned ; reappointed October 21, 1861 ; brigade at first com- 
posed of the 7th, 2d, 3d and 8th South Carolina Volunteers, in- 
fantry, constituting First brigade, First corps, Army of the 
Potomac ; upon reappointment, ordered to the command of 
the 1st, 2d and 3d regiments South Carolina cavalry and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ti-enholm's battalion South Carolina 

Promoted Major-General May 25, 1863; commanding 14th, 16th, 
IVth and 18th Arkansas regiments, Adams' Arkansas infantry 
regiment, and Jones' Arkansas infantry battalion ; assigned, 
in 1861, to the command of the 4th division. Western Depart- 
ment, embracing the brigades of Martin and Bonham ; agam 
In command of the 3d brigade, 1st division, Army of the 
District of Mississippi. 

Brigade composed of the 21st Virginia battalion, the 2d and 6th 
Virginia reserves, and the 1st and 2d Confederate [mixed] 
regiments. Walker's division. 

Promoted Major-General September 12, 1861 ; assigned to com- 
mand at Peusacola, Florida, of the troops there assembled, 
consisting of the brigades of Colonels Chalmers, Clayton and 
Gladden, and the troops under Major Bradford. 

Killed at Sharpsburg ; brigade composed of the 7th, 18th, 2Sth, 
33d and 37th North Carolina regiments, A. P. Hill's division. 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Assigned to the command of a brigade of cavalry In Mississippi. 

Brigade composed of the 24th, 27th, 29th, 30th and 34th Missla- 
sippi regiments. 

Brigade composed of the 1st regiment South Carolina Volun- 
teers [Hagood's], the 2d regiment South Carolina Rifles, the 
5th and 6th regiments South Carolina Volunteers, and the 
Palmetto Sharpshooters, Longstreet's corps, Ai'my of Northern 

Promoted Major-General April 14, 1862; afterwards Secretary 
of War. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 5th, 7th and 8th regiments Louis- 
iana cavalry, Bagby's division, Army of West Louisiana, 
Lleutenant-General Buckner commandmg. 

Promoted Major-General August 4, 18G4; brigade composed of 
the 18th, 26th, 32d and 45th regiments Tennessee Infantry and 
Nemman's battalion Tennessee infantry, Stewart's division, 
Army of Tennessee ; to these the 3d regiment Tennessee in- 
fantry was subsequently added. 

Commanding brigade under General H. W. Mercer at the siege 
of Savannah, In December, 1864 ; served previously as A. D. 
C. to President Davis, with rank of Colonel. 

Brigade composed of the 53d, 55th, 50th and 10th Georgia 
regiments Infantry, McLaw's division, Longstreet's corps. 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General August 16, 1862; commanding division 
at Bowling Green, Kentucky, and subsequently at Fori 









Buford, A.. 

Butler, M. CalYln. 
Cabell, Wm.L.... 

Campbell, Alex'r W., 
Canty, James....,.., 

Capers, E. 

Carroll, Wm. H 

Carter, Jolin O 

Chalmers, James R. 

Chambllss, John R., Jr, 
Cheatham, B. F 

Chestnut, James, Jr. . . 
Chilton, RH 

Churchill, T. J. 

Clanton, James H.. 



S. Carolina. 

Virginia.. . . 

Alabama. . . 

S. Carolina. 


Virginia . , . 

S. Carolina, 

Arkansas . . 

To Whom to 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. L. Polk 

MaJ. Gen. Buckner.. 

Gen. Hood. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . 
Gen. A. S. Jolmston. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 
Gen. B. Bragg., 

MaJ. Gen. Sam. Jones 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. Van Dorn 

Gen. D. H. Maury.. 

Nov. 29, 1862, 

Sept. 2, 1863. 
Apl. 23,1863 


Jan. 8, 1863. 

Nov. 30, 1864. 

Oct. 26,1861. 
July 8, 1864. 
Feb. 13,1862. 

Jan. 27,1864. 
July 9 1861. 

Apl. 23,1864. 
Oct. 20,1862. 

Mch. 6,1862. 
Nov. 18, 1863. 






3, 1862. 


I, 1863. 


20, 1863. 

.. ..1864. 


8, 1863. 


30, 1864. 


26, 1861. 


T, 1864. 


13, 1862. 


19, 1863. 


9, 1861. 


23, 1864. 


20, 1862. 


4, 1862. 


16, 1863. 


























13i 1862, 
IT, 1864. 

asm. 27,1864. 
Aug. 29, 1861. 

Jane 9, 1864. 

Hell. 6,1862. 

Feb. 17, 1864. 

Oct. 13,1862. 


Assigned to the command of the 2d division of Forrest's cavalry, 
composed of the brigades of Colonels Thompson and Bell ; 
Lyon's brigade subsequently constituted a part of this com- 
mand ; in 186.5 command consisted of the brigades of Roddy, 
Clanton and Armistead. 

Promoted Major-General 1864; brigade composed of the 4th, 5th 
and 6th regiments South Carolina cavalry and " Keitt Squad- 
ron" South Carolina cavalry; also of the 1st and 2d SoutA 
Carolina cavalry ; Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding lirigade composed of four regiments Arkansas 
cavalry and one battery of Light artillery ; at one time in com- 
mand of the ISth, 19th, 20th and 21st regiments Arkansas in- 
fantry ; in 1S62 commanding 1st brigade, 2d division, Army of 
the West. 

Commanding brigade in Jackson's division, Forrest's cavalry 

In command of Mobile and its vicinity, the garrison then con- 
sisting of the ITth, 21st and 29th Alabama regiments, the 4tb 
and 19th Louisiana regiments, the 30th Louisiana battalion, 
and various artillery companies, heavy and light. 

Succeeded Brigadier-General Gist in command of his brigade, 
composed of the 24th South Carolina, the 16th South Carolina, 
the 46th and 65th Georgia regiments, the 8th Georgia battalion 
of infantry, and the 1st battalion Georgia Sharpshooters. 

Resigned Feliruary 1, 1863; commanding brigade in General 
Polk's Department, Mississippi river defences. 

Commanding brigade, Brown's division, Cheatham's corps, 
Armv of Tennessee. 

First command, at Pensacola, Florida, consisted of the 1st and 
2d Mississippi regiments, the Quitman artillery company, the 
Vicksburg artillery company and the Judson artillery com- 
pany; assigned in January, 1864, to tlie command of the 
cavalry brigades of Forrest and McCulloch, constituting the 
1st division of Forrest's cavalry; Rucker's brigade subse- 
quently constituted a part of this command; in 1862 com- 
manded 2a lirigade, Reserve corps, Army of the Mississippi, 
composed of the 5th, 7th, 9th, 10th, 29th and Blythe's Missis- 
sippi regiments, and Ketchum's Light battery. 

Killed in action, below Richmond, August 16, 1864; commanded 
cavalry brigade in General W. H. F. Lee's division. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General March 14, 1862 ; brigade was composed 
of the 154th, 6th and 9th regiments Tennessee Volunteers and 
Blythe's Mississippi battalion; assigned in 1861 to command 
of 2d division of the Western Department, embracing the 
brigades of Smith and Stevens. 

A. D. C. to President Davis, with rank of Colonel ; In 1864 la 
command of a brigade on the coast of South Carolina. 

Chief of Staff, Army of Northern Virginia ; Senate refused to 
confirm nomination as Brigadier-General April 11, 1863 ; re- 
appointed February 16, 1864; confirmed same day, to take 
rank from December 21, 1863 ; resigned April 1, 1864. 

Commanding 2d cavalry brigade, General Van Dorn's army ; in 
1862 commanding 2d brigade, 2d division, Army of the West, 
composed of the 4t.h Arkansas infantry regiment, the 1st and 
2d Arkansas Kiflemt^n, dismounted, the 4th Arkansas infantry 
battalion, Turnbull's Arkansas battalion, Humphrey's Light 
battery, and Reve's Missouri Scouts. 

Commanding cavalry brigade in the Department of Alabama, 
Mississippi and East Louisiana. 








Clark, Charles., 

Clarke, John B., Jr.... 

Clayton, H.D. 

76 Cleburne, P. K. 

Cllngman, Thos. L. 
Cobb, Howell 

79 Cobb. Thos. R. R 

Cocke, Philip St. Geo. 
Cockrell, Francis M... 

Colquitt, Alfred H.... 
Colston, R. B 

Conner, James 

Cook, PhU 

Cooke, John R 

Cooper, Douglas H . 


To Whom to 

Missouri . . . 
Alabama. . . 

Ai'kansas . . 

N. Carolina 
Georgia. . . . 


Virginia . . . 


Georgia. . . . 
Virginia . . . 

8. Carolina. 


N. Carolina 

/ Depai-tment of ) 
( Mississippi. / 

Gen. E. K. Smith... 
Gen. S. B. Buckner. 

Gen. Van Dom. 

Gen. T. H. Holmes. . 
Maj. Gen. Magruder. 

Gen. Longstreet. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. Pemberton. 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Ma]. Gen. Huger., 

Gen. R. E. Lee...., 
Gen. R. E. Lee...., 
Gen. Longstreet.. 
Gen. E. K. Smith. 




^ p. 

May 22,1861. 
Moh. 12, 1864. 
Apl. 25, 1863. 

March 6, 1862. 

May 17,1862. 
Feb. 13,1862. 

Nov. 1,1862. 

Oct. 21, 1861. 

July 23,1863. 

Sept. 30, 1862, 
Dec. 24, 1861. 

June 1, 1864. 
Aug. 8,1864, 
Nov. 1,1862. 

May 22,1861. 
Moh. 8,1864. 
Apl. 22,1863. 

March 4, 1862. 

May 17,1862. 
Feb. 13,1862. 

Nov. 1,1862. 

Oct. 21,1861. 

July 18,1863. 

Sept. 1,1862. 
Dec. 24,1861. 

June 1, 1864. 
Aug. 6,1864. 
Nov., 1,1862, 

June 23, 1863. May 2, 1863. 





Aug. 29, 1861. 
May 11,1864. 
Apl. 25, 1863, 

Mch. 6,1862. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 
Feb. 13,1862. 

Dec. 13, 186t. 
Feb. IT, 1864. 

fiept. 30, 1862. 

Dec. 24, 1861, 

Feb. 17, 1864. 

Jane 1, 1864. 

Oct. 13, 1862. 

Apl. 22,1863. 
Feb. 17, 1864. 

Resigned October 21, 1863 ; succeeded Brigadier- General Long- 
street in command temporarily of Ms brigade, composed of 
the 1st, 7th, lltn and 17th Virginia regiments. 

Commanding brigade in Marmaduke's cavalry division ; previ- 
ously in command of the Third District, Missouri State 

First command, at Pensacola, Florida, composed of the 1st Ala- 
bama and the 1st Georgia regiments, and the 2d Alabama bat- 
talion ; subsequently his brigade composed of the 18th, 36th, 
38th, 32d and 58th Alabama regiments; promoted Major- 
General July 8, 1864. 

Promoted Major-General December 13, 1862; brigade composed 
of the 2d, 5th, 24th and 48th Tennessee ami the 15th Arljansas 
regiments and Calvert's Light Battery, constituting Second 
brigade. Third corps, Army of the Mississippi. 

Brigade composed of the 8th, 31st, 51st and 61st North Carolina 

Promoted Major-General September 9, 1863 ; brigade composed 
of the 15th North Carolina, the 2d Louisiana and the 16th and 
24th Georgia regiments and Cobb's Legion, Army of Northern 

Killed at Fredericksburg ; brigade composed of the 18th, 24tli 
and 16th Georgia regiments, the Legions of Cobb and Phillipa 
and the od battalion Georgia Sharpshooters, McLaw's division, 
Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 11th, 18th, 19th and 28th Virginia re- 
giments ; as at first constituted, his brigade was composed of 
the 18th, 19th, 2Sth and 49th Virginia regiments, and formed 
the Fifth brigade. First corps, Army of the Potomac. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th regiments 
Missouri infantry and the 1st regiment and the Sd battalion 
Missouri cavalry, dismounted, Bowen's division, Army of the 

Brigade composed of the 6th, 19th, 23d, 27th and 2Sth Georgia 
regiments, D. H. Hill's division, Jackson's corps. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Assigned to the command of the First brigade. Department of 
.■• orfolk, consisting of the 3d Virginia, the 13th and 14th North 
Carolina regiments, and several unattached artillery and 
cavalry companies ; brigade at one time in 1862 composed of 
the 13th and 14th North Carolina regiments and Manley's 
Light Batt ry ; at the Battle of Chancellorsville, brigade coni- 
posed of the 10th, 23d and 37th Virginia regiments and the 1st 
and 3d North Carolina regiments, Trimble's division. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 3d, 7th, 8th, 1,5th and 20th regiments 
South Carolina infantry and James' battalion, Longstreet's 
corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Succeeded General Doles in command of his brigade, composed 
of the 4th, 12th, 21st and 44th Georgia regiments, infantry, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 15th, 27th, 46th and 48th North Carolina 
regiments, Heth's division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of North- 
ern Virginia. 

Commanding Indian brigade, composed of the 1st Choctaw and 
Chickasas regiment, 2d Choctaw regiment, Choctaw battalion, 
1st and 2d Cherokee and 1st and 2d Creek regiments, Seminole 
battalion, Osage battalion, and Howell's Texas Light Battery; 
Subsequently assigned to command of District "Indian Ter- 









Cooper, Samuel. 
Corse, M. D 

Cosby, George B. 
Cox, WilUamR.. 

Cox, John Z. , 

Crewa, C. C 

Crittenden, George B . . 

Gumming, Alfred.. 
Dahlgren, Chas. G. 
Daniel, Junius 

Davidson, H. B.. 
Davis, Joseph R.. 

Davis, Reuben.. 
Davis, W. G. M. 

Dearing, James. 
Deas, Zach. C. . . 

DeBray, X. B... 
Deshler, James. 

Dibrell, George G. 

Dickison, J. J 

Dobbins, Aroh. J.. 

109 Dockery, T. P. 


Virginia . . . 
Virginia . . . 


N. Carolina 


Kentucky. . 


N. Carolina 

Tennessee . 

Florida .... 

Virginia.. . . 
Alabama. . . 

To Whom to 

President Davis . 
Gen. Longstreet. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen, Wheeler . 

Gen. Forney 

Gen. Beauregard. 
Gen. G.W. Smith. 

Gen. S. B. Buckner. 
Gen. G. W. Smith. 



Tennessee . 

Arkansas . . 
Arkansas . . 

Gen. A. S. Johnston. 
Gen. E. K. Smith.... 

MaJ. Gen. Pickett... 
Gen. J. E. Johnston, 

Gen. E. K. Smith. 
Gen. B. Bragg. . . . 

Gen. Jos. Wheeler., 
Gen. Beauregard. . . 

Vlaj. Gen. Fagan. 
3en. E. K. Smith. 

Mch. 14, 1861. 
Nov. 1, 1862, 

Apl. 23, 1863, 

June 2, 1864. 


Aug. 15, 1861. 

Oct. 29, 1862. 

Sept. 30, 1862, 

Aug. 18, 1863. 
Oct. 8, 1862. 

Nov. 4,1862. 


Dec. 20,1862. 

Apl. 13,1864. 
July 28,1863. 

July 26, 1864. 


Aug. 10, 1863. 

Mch. 14, 1861, 
Nov. 1,1862, 

Jan. 20, 1863, 

May 31,1864, 


Aug. 16, 1861, 

Oct. 29, 1862, 

Sept. 1, 1862. 

Aug. 18, 1863. 
Sept. 15, 1862. 

Nov. 4,1862, 


Dec. 13,1862. 

Apl. 8, 1864. 
July 28,1863. 

July 26,1864. 


Aug. 10, 1863. 




Mch. 14, 
Apl. 22, 

Apl. 23, 

June 2, 




Aug. 15, 
Apl. 22, 



Sept. 30, 1862. 

Feb. IT, 
Oct. 8. 


Apl. 22, 1863. 


Apl. 22, 1863. 

i . 

rfune 10, 1864, 


Adjutant and Inspector-General; promoted General August 31, 
1861, to take rank from May 16, 1861. 

Brigade composed of the 15th, 17th, 29th, 30th and 32d Virginia 
regiments infantry, Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern 

Commanding cavalry brigade in General Stephen D. Lee's di- 
vision. Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louis- 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 4th, 14th and 30th North Carolina 
regiments and such portions of the 1st and 3d North Carolina 
regiments as escaped capture on the 12th May, 1864. 

Colonel Commanding 12th Confederate cavalry ; acting Brigadier 

Commanding brigade composed of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th and 6tli 
Georgia cavalry. 

Promoted Major-General November 9, 1861; brigade composed 
of the 16th Mississippi, 21st Georgia, 21st North Carolina and 
l.'Srh Alabama regiments and Captain Courtney's Light Battery, 
Longstreet's corps, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 34th, 39th, 36th and 56th Georgia regi- 
ments, Stevenson's division, Army of the West. 

Brigadier-General State forces of Mississippi ; never mustered 
into the Confederate service, except temporarily. 

Killed in action May 12, 1S64; brigade composed of the 32d, 43d, 
45th and 53d North Carolina regiments infantry and the 2d 
North Carolina battalion, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding cavalry brigade, Wheeler's corps. Army of the 

Brigade composed of 1st Confederate battalion, the 2d, 11th, 26th 
and 42d Mississippi regiment, the 55th North Carolina regi- 
ment and the Madison Light Artillery ; A. D. C. to President 
Davis, Ac, with rank of Colonel. 

In command of sixty-day troops from Mississippi, at Bowling 
Green, Kentucky. 

Brigade composed of 1st regiment Florida cavalry and 6th and 
7th regiments of Florida infantry, and Martin's [afterwards 
McCant's] Light Battery; in spring of 1863 commanded the De- 
partment of East Tennessee ; resigned the latter part of 1863. 

In command of a cavalry brigade. Army of Northern Virginia ; 
Killed at High Bridge. 

Brigade composed of the 19th, 22d, 25th, 26th, 39th and 50th 
Alabama regiments and Dent's Light Battery; Withers' di- 
vision, Polk's corps, Army of Tennessee. 

Brigade composed of the 23d, 26th and 32d regiments Texas 

Killed at Chickamauga September 20th, 1863 ; brigade composed 
of the Texas regiments of Colonels Wilkes' and Mills, the 
Arkansas regiment of Lieutenant-Colonel Hutchinson, and 
Douglas' Texas Light Battery ; brigade at one time composed 
of the 17th, 18th, 24th and 25th Texas regiments, consolidated ; 
the 6th, 10th and 15th Texas regiments, consoUdateu, and the 
19th and 24th Arkansas. 

Brigade composed of the 4th, 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th Tennessee 
regiments cavalry and Shaw's battalion, Army of the West. 

In command of East and South Florida; acting Brigadier- 

Commanding brigade In Fagan's division. 

Commanding middle Sub-District of Arkansas; in 1862 in com- 
mand of the 1st brigade, 3d division, Army of the West, com- 
posed of the ISth, 19th and 20th Arkansas regiments and the 
Arkansas battalions of McCairns and Jones. 
















Doles, Qeorge 

Donelson, Daniel S. 

Drayton, Thomas F. 

DuBose, Dudley M. . 

Duke, Basil W. 
Duncan, J. E.. 

Dunnovant, John. 
Early, Jubal A. , . 

Echols, John. 
Ector, M.D.., 

Elliott, Stephen, Jr. 
Elzey, Arlold 

Evans, C, A.. 
Evans, N. G.. 

Ewell, Richard S. 

Fagan, J. F. 


Georgia. . . . 

S. Carolina. 

Georgia. . . . 


S. Carolina. 
Virginia . . . 

Virginia , 

S. Carolina. 


S. Carolina. 

Virginia . . . 

Arkansas . . 

To Whom to 

Gen. Longstreet. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. Heth , 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. T. H. Holmes. 


Nov. 1,1862. 
July 9, 1861. 

Sept. 25, 1861. 

Nov., 1864. 

Jan. T, 1862. 

July, 1864. 
Aug. 28, 1861. 

Apl. 18,1862. 
Sept. 27, 1862. 

May 28,1864. 
Aug. 28, 1861. 

May 20,1864. 
Oct. 21, 1861. 

June 17, 1861. 

Oct. 3, 1862. 

Nov. 1, 1862, 
July 9, 1861. 

Sept. 25, 1861. 

Nov., 1864. 

Jan. 7, 1862, 

July, 1864. 
July 21,1861, 

Apl. 16, 1862. 
Aug. 23, 1862. 

May 28,1964. 
July 21,1861. 

May 19, 1864. 
Oct. 21,1861. 

June 17, 1861. 

Sept. 12, 1862. 

— Continued. 


Apl. 22,1863, 

Aug. 29, 1861, 

Dec. 13, 1861. 

Jan. 14,1862 
Aug! '29,"l8'61 

Apl. 18,1862. 
Sept. 27, 1862. 

May 28, 1864. 
Aug. 29, 1861. 

May 20,1864. 
Dec. 19,1861. 

Aug. 29,1861, 

Oct. 8, 1862. 

Oct. 13,1864, 


Brigade composed of the 4th, 12th, 21st and 44th Georgia regi- 
ments Infantry, D. H. Hill's division, Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia ; killed in action at Bethesda Church. 

Promoted Major-General January 17, 1863; commanded 1st 
brigade, 2d division, 1st corps, Army of Mississippi, composed 
of the 8th, 15th, 16th, 21st and 51st Tennessee regiments and 
Games' Light Battery. 

At first in command of a military district, Coast of South Caro- 
lina ; subsequently transferred to the Trans-Mississippi De- 
partment, where brigade was composed of the 8th and 9tll 
Missouri Infantry and Ruffner's Missouri Light Battery. 

Brigade composed of the 18th, 24th and 16th Georgia regiments, 
the Georgia legions of Cobb and Phillips and the 3d battalion 
Georgia Sharpshooters, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Succeeded General John H. Morgan in command of his cavalry 
forces, Department of Southwest Virginia. 

In command of River Defences below New Orleans ; died De- 
cember 18, 1862, at Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Killed at Vaughn Road October 1, 1864. 

Promoted Major-General January 17, 1863; brigade composed 
of the 5th and 23d North Carolina regiments, the 24th Virginia 
and the 20th Georgia regiments ; as at first constituted, hla 
brigade was composed of the 5th, 13th and 24th North Caro- 
lina regiments, and formed the 6th brigade, 1st corps. Army 
of the Potomac ; at the Battle of Fredericksburg Early's 
brigade was composed of the 13th, 25th, 31st, 44th, 49th, 52d 
and 58th Virginia regiments, Ewell's division, Jackson's corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 50th, 60th and 63d Virginia regiments 
and Edgar's and Derrick's battalions, the 22d Virginia regi- 
ment being subsequently added. 

Brigade composed of the 10th, 11th, 14th and 82d Texas dis- 
mounted cavalry regiments and the 15th Arkansas infantry 
regiment ; afterwards commanding brigade in McCown's di- 
vision, Polk's army corps. Army of Tennessee. 

Died of wounds received in front of Petersburg, Virginia; 
brigade composed of the 17th, 18th, 22d, 23d and 26th regi- 
ments South Carolina Volunteers and the Holcombe Legion. 

Promoted Major-General December 4,1862; commanding bri- 
gade in Ewell's division ; brigade at one time composed of 
the 12th Georgia and the 13th, 25th, 31st, 44th, 52d and 5Sth 
Virginia regiments, Jackson's corps, Army of Northern Vir- 

Brigade composed of the 13th, 26th, 31st, 38th, 60th and 61st 
Georgia regiments infantry. Army of Northern Virginia ; the 
12th Georgia battalion was subsequently added. 

Brigade composed of the 17th, 18th, 22d, 23d and 26th regiments 
South Carolina Volunteers and the Holcombe Legion ; as at 
first constituted, his brigade was composed of the 13th, 17th 
and 18th Mississippi regiments, and formed the 7th brigade, 
Ist corps. Army of the Potomac ; at the Battle of Leesburg his 
brigade consisted of the 13th, 17th and 18th Mississippi regi^ 
ments and the 8th Virginia regiments ; in June, 1862, In com- 
mand on James Island, south Carolina. 

Promoted Major-General January 24, 1862 ; brigade composed 
of the 5th, 0th and 13th Alabama and the 12th Mississippi regi- 
ments, constituting 2d brigade, 1st corps, Army of the 
Potomac ; afterwards in command of brigade composed of 
the 1st, 7th, 11th and 17lh Virginia regiments. 

Promoted Major-General April 25, 1864 ; commanding division 
in General Price's army. 












Fauntleroy, T. T 

Featherston, Wm. S. 
Ferguson, Sam'l W.. 

Field, Charles W. 

Fincgan, Joseph. 
Flnley, J. J 

Fizer, John C. . 
Floyd, John B., 

Forney, John H., 

Forney, W. H 

Forrest, Nathan B. 

Fraser, John W. 

Frazier, C. W. 
French, S. G.. 

Frost, D. M 

Fry, B. D 

Gano, Richard M. 

143 Gantt, E. W 

144 Gardner, Frank. 

145 Gardner, Wm. M.. 

146 Garland, Sam'l, Jr. 



Kentucky. . 


Florida .... 

Virginia. . . . 

Alabama. . . 

Tennessee . 

Alabama. . . 


Alabama. . 

To Whom to 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Maj. Gen. McLaws. 
Army of Kanawha.. 

Gen. Sam. Jones., 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. B. F. Cheatham, 

Gen. Buckner.. 
Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. T. H. Holmes., 

Gen. R. E.Lee 

Gen. J. H. Morgan., 


May 18,1861. 
Mch. 6,1862. 
July 28,1863. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 

Apl. 5, 1862. 
Nov. 18, .1863. 


May 23,1861. 

Mch. 14, 1862. 

Nov. 9, 1864. 
July 21,1862. 

May 3, 1863. 

May 19, 1863. 
Oct. 23, 1861. 

Oct. 10, 1862. 
May 24, 1864. 
April, 1865. 

May 18,1861. 
March 4, 1862. 
July 23,1868. 

Mch. 9,1862, 

April 6,1862, 
Nov. 16, 1863, 


May 23,1861, 

Mch. 10, 1862. 

Nov. 9,1864, 
July 21,1862, 

May 3, 1863, 

May 19, 1863, 
Oct. 23,1861, 

Mch. 3,1862 
May 24, 1864, 

Missouri. . . Gen. Polk 

Louisiana.. Gen. Beauregard Apl. 19, 1862. 1 Apl. 11,1862, 


Virginia . . . 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 
Gen. J. E. Johnston . . 

Nov. 14, 1861. Nov. 14, 1861 
May 23, 1862. May 23,1862 




Mch. 6, 1862. 
Feb. 17, 1SB4. 

Mcll. 14, 1862. 

Apl. 5, 1862. 
Feb. 17, 1864. 

Aag. 29, 1861. 
Mch. 14, 1862. 

Jan'y, 1865. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 

Dec. 13,1861. 

Oct. 10, 1862. 
May 24,1864. 

Apl. 19, 1S62. 

Dec. 13.1861. 
Sept. 50, 1862. 

Oct. 13, 1864. 


Rank of Brigadier-General conferred by tlie State of Virffinla • 
resigned October 8th, 1861. ■' 

Brigade composed of the 12th, 16th, 19th and 48th MisslssiDni 
regiments and Smith's Light Battery. 

Brigade consisted of the 2d Tennessee regiment of cavalry the 
56th and 2d regiments Alabama cavalry, the ITth battalion 
Tennessee cavalry, the 12th Mississippi battalion of cavalry 
and W atie's South Carolina Light Battery. 

Promoted Major-General February 12, 1S64 ; brigade was com- 
posed of the 40th, 47th, 55th and 60th Virginia regiments the 
22d Virginia battalion and Captain Pegram's Light Battery 
Heth's division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of Northern Viro-lnia 

Commanding East and Middle Florida ; afterwards In command 
^:„'^J?'^Saile, Army of Northern Virginia, composed of the 2d. 
5th, 9th, 10th and 11th Florida regiments. • ' 

Bngade composed of the 1st, 3d, 4th, Gth and 7th regiments 
Florida Infantry and the lat regiment Florida cavalry, dis- 
mounted. •" 

Commanding mixed brigade in Lieutenant-General Hardee's- 
corps, on the retreat through the Carolinas. 

Relieved; commanding forces in Kanawha Valley: brigade 
t^}'!^ '", 1S62. composed of the QOth Mississippi and the'sGth! 
50th and slat Virginia regiments. ' 

Promoted Major-General October 27, 1862; commanding De- 
partment of Alabama and West Florida; headquaiters at 
Mobile, Alabama ; brigade at first cor;posed of the 9th, 10th 
and 11th Alabama, the 19th Mississippi and the 3Sth Virffinia 
regiments, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 8th, 9th, loth, 11th, 13th and 14th, 
Alabama regiments. 

Promoted Major-General December 4, 1863 ; assigned by General 
Bragg to command of a cavalry brigade composed of the 4tli. 
8th and 9th Tennessee regiments, Russell's 4th Alabama regi- 
ment and Freeman's Light Battery. 

Brigade composed of the 55th Georgia, the 62d and 64th North 
Carolina regiments and Kain's Light Battery. 

Senate refused to confirm. 

Promoted Major-General August 31, 1862; In command at 
Evansport, Virginia, blocKading the Potomac river- after- 
wards in command of the District of Cape Fear, North Caro- 

Dropped December 9, 1863; S,- O. 109; also Brigadier-General 
Missouri State Guard. 

Commanding Walker's and Archer's brigades ; at one time in 
command of the District of Augusta, Georgia. 

Commanding 2d brigade, Morgan's cavalry division ; afterwards 
in command of a brigade of Texas cavalry operating in Indian 
Territory and Arkansas, composed of the regiments of Colonels 
DcJlorse, Martin, Gurley, Duff and Hardeman. Lieutenant- 
Colonel fchowalter's battalion, the light batteries of Captains 
Howell and Krumbhar, and Captain Welch's company known 
as the "Gano Guards." 

Commanding Fort Thompson, Missouri. 

Promoted Major-General December 13, 1863; commanding 1st 
bngade, reserve division, Army of the Mississippi, composed 
of the 19'h, 22d, 25th, 26th and 29th Alabama regiments and 
Robertson's Light Battery ; afterwards in command at Mobile 

Commanded pes'; at Richmond, Virginia, &c.; at one time In 
command of a military district in Florida, Ac, &c 

Killed at South Mountain September Uth, 1S62; brigade com- 
posed of the 5th, I2tli, 13th, 20th and 23d North Carolina 















Qarnett, E. B. 

Qarnett, Robt. S. . , 
Garrott, IshamW.. 

Gartrell, Lucius J., 
Gary, M. W 

Gatlln, R. C. 

Gholson, S. J.... 
Qibbs, George C. 
Gi]»on,R. L 

Glrardey, Victor J. B. . 
Gist, 3. R 

Gladden^ A. H. 

Godwin, A. 0. 

Gordon, G. W.. .. 
Gordon, James B, 

Gordoa John B. 

Gorgas, Josiah. 


Virginia , 

Virginia . . . 

S. Carolina. 

N. Carolina 

Missouri . . . 
N. Carolina 


S. Carolina. 


N. Carolina 

N. Carolina 


To Whom to 

Adj't and Insp. Gen. 

Gen. J. B. Johnston., 

Gen. Howell Cobb. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. J. E. Johnston.. 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. Pemberton... 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. R E. Lee., 

Gen. J. B. Hood. 
Gen. R. E. Lee... 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. S. Cooper. 


Nov. 14, 1861 

June 6, 1861. 
May 29,1863 


June 14, 1864, 

Aug. 15, 1861. 

June 1, 1884. 


Feb. 1, 1864. 

Aug. 3,1864. 
Mch. 20, 1862. 

Sept. 30, 1861. 

Aug. 9,1864. 

Aug. 16, 1864. 
Sept. 28, 1863. 

May 11,1863. 

Nov. 14, 1861, 

June 6, 1861, 
May 26,1863, 


May 19, 1864, 

July 8, 1861. 

May 6, 1864. 


Jan. 11,1864. 

July 80,1864. 
Mch. 20, 1862. 

Sept. 30, 1861. 

Aug. 6, 1864. 

Aug. 16, 1864. 
Sept. 28, 1863. 

May T, 1863. 



— Continued. 

Dec. 13, 1861. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

June 14, 1864. 
Aug. 29, 1861. 

Jane 1, 1864. 

Feb. 1,1864, 

Meh. 20, 1862. 

Deo. 13,1861, 

reb. 17, 1864, 
Jan. 25,1864. 


Oct. 13, 1862, 

Oct. 13,1862, 


Killed at Gettysburg; succeeded General T. J. Jackson in com- 
mand of the "Stonewall Brigade," composed of the 2d, 4th, 
5th, 27th and 33d Virginia regiments; brigade at one time 
composed of the 8th, 18th, 19th, 28th and 56th Virginia regi- 
ments, D. R. Jones' division, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed at Craddock's Ford, Virginia, July*13, 1861. 

Killed at Vicksburg June 17, tS63 ; at the lime of his death lie 
was in command of the 20th Alal)ama regiment, of S. D. Lee's 
brigade, and fell before his commission as Brigadier-General 
was received ; commanded Tracy's brigade, after his death, 
for a few days, until Brigadier-General S. D. Lee was assigned 
to its command by order of General Pemberton. 

Commanded 2d brigade Georgia Reserves, composed of 1st, 2d, 
3d and 4th regiments. 

Promoted Major-General of cavalry shortly after the Battle of 
Darbytown; brigade composed of the "Hampton Legion," 
the 7th South Carolina cavalry, the 7th Georgia cavalry, the 
24th Virginia cavalry and Captain Harkerson's Virginia battery 
of Light artillery, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Resigned Septernber 8, 1862; commanding Southern Depart- 
ment, Coast Defense of North Carolina ; Adjutant-General of 
North Carolina, with the rank of Major-General. 

Commanding brigade of cavalry, Department of Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi and East Louisiana. 

Acting Brigadier-General; commanding post, &c., at Macon, 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 4th, 11th, 18th, 16th, 19th, 20th, 25th 
and 30th Louisiana regiments, the 4th Louisiana battalion and 
Austin's battalion of Sharpshooters; afterwards in command 
of a division at Spanish Fort, near Mobile, consisting of the 
brigades of Campbell, Holtzclaw, Ecktor and Thomas, and 
Ration's regiment of artillery. 

Killed in action in front of Petersburg, Virginia, at the tima 
being in command of A. R. Wright's old brigade. 

Killed inaction, at the Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864; 
in command of a brigade composed of the 16th and 24th Soutli 
Carolina, the 46th and 65th Georgia regiments infantry, the 
8th Georgia infantry battalion and the 1st battalion Georgia 

Killed at Shiloh ; brigade at Pensacola composed of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Adam's Louisiana battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Cop- 
pen's battalion of Zouaves, Major Lary's Georgia battalion, 
Colonel Anderson's 1st Florida regiment and Captain Lee's 
artillery company. 

First Provost-Marshal of Richmond; afterwards in command 
of Hoke's brigade, composed of the 6th, 51th and 57th North 
Carolina regiments, Early's division, Army of Northern Vir- 

Brigade composed of the 11th and 29th, 12th and 47th, 13th and 
154th Tennessee regiments. 

Killed in action at Yellow Tavern, Virginia ; brigade composed 
of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th North Carolina regiments, 

Promoted Major-General May 14, 1864; brigade composed of 
the 13th, 26th, 31st, SSth, 60th and 61st Georgia regiments 
[originally Lawton's brigade], the 6th Georgia, and the 12th 
Georgia battalion, Early's division, Army of Northern Vir- 

Chief of Ordnance. 

















Qovan, D. C... 
Grade, A., Jr. 

Granberry, H. B. 

Grayson, .Talin B. 
Gregg, Jobn 

Gregg, Maxcy.... 
Green, Martin E. 

Green, Thomas . 

Greene, Colton. 

Greer, E 

Grifflth, Richard. 

Grigsby, J. Warren. 
Grimes, Bryan 

Hagan, James 

Hagood, Johnson. 
Hampton, Wade.. 

Hannon, M. W. 
Hanson, R. H.. 


Arl^ansas . 
Alabama. . 



S. Carolina, 


Texas , 



Kentucky. . 
N. Carolina 

Alabama. . . 
S. Carolina. 
S. Carolina. 


To Whom to 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. S. Price. 

Gren. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. T. H. Holmes.. 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. R. B. Lee. 

Gen. Wheeler 

Gen. Pemherton 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. Wheeler 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 


Feb. 6, 1864, 
Nov. 4, 1862, 

Mch. 6, 1864, 

Aug. 15, 1861, 
Sept. 27, 1862, 

Dec. 14, 1864, 
July 23,1862, 

May 23,1863. 

Oct. 8, 1862, 
Nov. 2, 1861, 

June 1, 1864. 

Febr'y, 1865. 
July 21,1862. 
May 23, 1862. 


Dec. 20, 1862. 

Dec. 29,1863, 
Nov. 4,1862, 

Feb. 29,1864, 

Aug. 15, 1861, 
Aug. 29, 1862, 

Dec. 14, 1861, 
July 21,1862, 

May 20,1863, 

Oct. 8, 1862. 
Nov., 2,1861. 

May 19,1864. 

Febr'y, 1865. 
July 21,1862. 
May 23,1862. 


Dec. 13, JB(» 



— Continued. 


Feb. e, 1864. 
Apl. 22,1863. 

May 11,1864. 

Aug. 15, 1861. 
Sept. 27, 1862. 

Dec. 24,1861. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 

June 25, 1864. 

Oct. 8, 1862. 
Deo. 13,1861. 

June 1, 1864, 

Sept. 80, 1862, 
Sept. 30, 1862 

Oct. 13, 1862. 

ApU 22,1863. 


Brigade composecl of the 1st, 2d, 5tli, 6tli, 7th and 8th Arkansas 
regiments, commanded in turn by Generals Hardee, Hindmau 
and Liddell. 

Killed in the trenches in front of Petersburg December 2, 1864 ; 
brigade composed of the 63d Tennessee and the 43d Alabama 
regiments, and the Ist, 2d, 3d and 4th battalions of the Ala- 
bama Legion, Longstreet's corps. 

Brigade composed of the 7th, 10th, 6th and 15th, 17th and 19tli 
24th and 25th Texas regiments. 

Died at Tallahassee, Florida, October 21, 1861. 

Brigade composed of the 7th Texas, the 3d, 10th, 34th, 41st and 
50th Tennessee regiments and Bledsoe's Light Battery; bri- 
gade at one time composed of the 1st, 4th and 5th Texas and 
the 3d Arkansas regiments, Longstreet's corps, Army ot 
Northern Virginia. 

Killed at Fredericksburg ; brigade composed of the 1st, 12th, 
13th and 14th South Carolina infantry regiments and " Orr'8 
Rifles " (1st South Carolina Rifles), A. P. Hill's division, Jack- 
son's corps, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed in action during the siege of Vicksburg ; commanded 3d 
brigade, 1st division. Army of the West, composed of the 4tli 
Missouri regiment, battalion Missouri infantry, battalion 
Missouri cavalry, dismounted. Confederate Rangers, and 
King's Light Battery ; during the siege of Vicksburg, General 
Green commanded a brigade in Bowen's division, composed 
of the remnants of the 2d and 6th Missouri infantry regiments, 
the 1st and 3d Missouri cavalry regiments, dismounted, and 
the Light Batteries of Landis and King. 

Killed in action at the Battle of Mansfield, April 12, 1864; com- 
manding Texas cavalry brigade under General Marmaduke, 
in the Trans-Mississippi Department; in the assault upon 
Donaldsville, June 28, 1863, his command consisted of the 4th, 
5th and 7th Texas cavalry regiments and the regiments of 
Phillips and Stone. 

Commanding cavalry brigade, Marmaduke's division, Trans- 
Mississippi Department. 

Chief of Bureau of Conscription, Trans-Mississippi Department. 

Mortally wounded at Savage Station ; brigade was composed of 
the 13th, ITth, ISth and 21st Mississippi regiments. 

Commanding cavalry brigade. Army of Tennessee. 

Promoted Majoi'-General February 23, 1865 ; brigade composed 
of the 32d, 43d, 45th and 53d North Carolina regiments infantry 
and the 2d North Carolina battalion; General Daniel formerly 
commanded this brigade. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 3d, 4th, 12th and 51st Alabama 
cavalry regiments, Wheeler's cavalry corps. Army of the 

Brigade composed of the 11th, 21st, 25th and 27th South Carolina 
regiments and Lieutenant-Colonel Rion's South Carolina 

Promoted Major-General September 3d, 1863 ; brigade composed 
of the 1st, 2d, 4th, 5th and 6th regiments South Carolina 
cavalry, Ji'ff. Davis Legion and Cobb Legion, Georgia cavalry 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding l)rigade in Wheeler's cavalry corps, Martin's di- 
vision, composed of the 53d Alabama and the 24th Alabama 

Killed at Murfreesboro"; commanded brigade composed of the 
2d, 4th, 6th and 9th Kentucky regiments and the 41st Alabama 
regiment, BrecldQridge's division, Polk's corps. Army of 

















Hardee, Wm. J 

Hardeman, Wm. P. 

Harris, D. B.. 

Harris, N. H 

Harris, Tlios. A 

Harrison, Geo. P., Jr. 

Harrison, Jas. E 

Harrison, Richard.* . . . 

Harrison, Thomas. 

Hatton, R 

Hawes, J. M...., 
Hawthorn, A. T. 

Hays, Harry T. 
Hebert, Louis.. 

Hebert, Paul O. 
Helm, Benj. H.. 

Heth, Henry. 

Higglns, Edward., 
Hill, A. P 

Hill, B.J 

Hill, D. Harvey. 
Uindman, T. C. . 





Georgia. . . . 




Arkansas . , 




Virginia . . . 



N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Maj. Gen. Magruder. 
Gen. Beauregard .... 

Gen. R. E.Lee 

Gen. Price 

Gen. Hardee 

Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 
Maj. Gen, Loring 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. Beauregard . . . . 
Gen. T. H. Holmes.. 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. D. H. Maury... 
Gen. J. E. Johnston . 

Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 


June IT, 1861, 

Feb. IT, 1864. 

Febr'y, 1865. 
Dec'r, 186-1. 

Jan'y, 1865. 

May 23, 1862. 
Mch. 14, 1862. 
Feb. 23, 1864. 

July 25, 1862. 

May 26, 1862. 

Aug. 17, 1861. 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Jan. 6, 1862. 

Nov. 2,1803. 
Feb. 26, 1862. 

Oct. 15. 1864. 

July 10, 1861. 
Sept. 23, 1S61. 

Jane IT, 1861. 

Jan. 20, 1864. 

Febr'y, 1865. 
Dec'r, 1864. 

Jan'y, 1865. 

May 23, 1862. 
Mch. 5,1862. 
Feb. 18, 1864. 

July 25, 1862. 

May 26,1862. 

Aug. IT, 1861. 
Mch. 14, 1862. 

Jan. 6, 1862. 

Oct. 29, 1863. 
Feb. 26,1862. 

Oct. 15,1864. 

July 10, 1851. 
Sept. 28, 1861. 



— Continued. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

Feb. 17,1864. 

Mch, 14, 1862. 
May 11, 1864. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

May 30,1862, 

Aug. 17, 1861. 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Jan. 14, 1862. 

Feb. IT, >864. 
Feb, 26, 1862. 

Aug. 29, 1S61. 
Dec. 18, 1861. 


Promoter] Major-General October 7, 1861 ; brigaile composed of 
the 1st, 2tl, .^th, 6th, Tth and 8th Arkansas refiunents. 

Commanfiing brigade. District of Texas, under MaJor-General 

Chief Engineer m charge of Confederate defences during the 
siege of Charleston, &c. 

Brigade composed of the 12th, ICth, 19th and 48th regimenCs 
Mississippi Volunteers. 

Commissioned Brigadier-General in Missouri State Guard Jun.i 
10, 1861; resigned In September, 1861, to occupy a seat In thr 
Confederate Congress. 

Brigade composed of the 1st Georgia Regulars, the 32d, 4Ttl 
and 5th regiments Georgia Volunteers, and the 5th regiment 
Georgia Reserves. 

Brigade composed of the 15th, 17th and 31st Texas regiments, 
and Stephen's Texas regiment, Polignac's division, Trans- 
Mississippi Department, 

Was Colonel of Terry's Texas cavalry regiment and succeeded 
General J. A. Wharton in command of his brigade of Texas 
cavalry; afterwards in command of brigade in Stewart's 

Brigade composed of the 8th and lith Texas, the 4th Tennessee, 
the 3d Arkansas and the 1st Kentucky regiments cavalry, 
Wharton's command. 

Killed at Edwards' Farm .June 1, 1862; commanded 5th brigade, 
1st division, 1st, corps, Army of Virginia. 

Assigned to the command of the cavalrv of General A. S. John- 
ston's army just prior to the Battle of Shiloh. 

Brigade composed of the ITth, 21st «nd 23d Tennessee and the 
33d Alabama regiments and Ao«">tin's Light Battery, consti- 
tuting the 5th brigade, 3d corps, Army of the Mississippi. 

Brigade cotn|)osed of the 5th. 6th, Ttli, Sth and 9tli Louisiana 
regiments, Early's division, Jackson's corps. Army of Northern 
Virginia; promoted Major-General April, 1865. 

Comifianding brigade in Maury's division. Army of the West; 
also C;hief Engineer, Department of North Carolina; In 1862, 

. cjmmandlng 2d brigade, 1st division. Army of the West, com- 
posed of the 3d Louisiana, the 14th and Uth Arkansas regi- 
ments, Whitflold's Texas Legion, Greer's regiment dismounted 
cavalry, and McDonald's Light Battery. 

in command of the Department of Texas, New Mexico and 
. Arizona. 

Killed at Chickamauga September 20, 1S63 ; brigade composed 
of the 2d, 4th, 6th and 9th Kentucky and 41st Alabama regi- 
ments and Cobb's Light Battery, Breckini-idgci's division. Army 
of the Tennessee. 

Promoted Major-General May 24, 1863; brigade composed of the 
40th, 4Tth and 55th Virginia regiments and the 22d Virginia 
battalion, A. P. Hill's division. Array of Northern Virginia. 

Assigned to the command of the forts and batteries for the de- 
fence of Mobile. Alabama. 

Promoted Majo."-General May 26, 1862; brigade composed of 
th; 1st, Tth, 11th and ITth Virginia regiments and Roger's 
Lght Battery, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding brigade. Smith's division, Cieatham's corps, Army 
iof Tennessee. 

Promoted Major-General March 26, 1S62. '. 

Promoted Major-General April 14, 1862; brigade composed of 
the Ibi, 2d, 5th, 6th, Tth and Sth Ai-kausas regiments. Arms of 
the West. 
















Hodge, George B. 
Hogg, JTosepb L... 

Hoke, Robert P. 

Hoke, W.I 

Holmes, Theop. H. 
Holtzclaw, J. T.... 

Hood, John B. 

Hager, Benjamin. 
Humes, W. Y. C. . 

Hampbrles, B. Q. 

Hnnton, Eppa.. 
Imboden, J. D., 



To Whom to 


N. Carolina 

N. Carolina 
N. Carolina 

Iveraon, Alfred, Jr. . . 

Jackman, Sidney D. .. 
Jackson, Alfred K..... 
Jackson, Henry E.. . . . 


S. Carolina. 


Virginia . . . 
Virginia . . . 

N. Carolina 


Maj. Gen. S.Price.... 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . 

Gen. T. H.Holmes... 

Gen. B.Bragg. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 
Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. T. J. Jackson 

Gen. G. O. Shelby.... 

Gen. E. K. Smith 

Adjt. and Inspt. Gen. 

Nov. 21, 1863, 

Feb. 14,1862, 

Apl. 23, 1863, 

June 6,1861, 
July 8, 1861. 

March 6, 1662, 

June 17, 1861. 
Nov. 17, 1863. 

Aug. 14, 1863. 

Aug. 12, 1863. 
Apl. 13, 1863. 

Nov. 1, 1862. 

Febr'y, 1865. 
Apl. 22,1863. 
Jane 4, 1861. 

Nov. 20, 1863, 

Feb. 14,1862. 

Jan. 17,1863, 

June 6, 1861. 
July 7, 1864. 

March 3, 1862. 

June 17, 1861. 
Nov, 16, 1863. 

Aug. 12, 1863. 

Aug. 9,1863. 
Jan. 88,1863. 

Nor. 1,1862. 

Feb. 9, 1866. 
Febr'y, 1863. 
June 4, 1861. 



— Continued. 

Feb. 14,1862. 
ApL 23,1863. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

Mcb. t, 1862. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 
May 26,1864. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 

Feb. 17,1864. 
Apl. 13,1863. 

June 10, 1864. 

Apl. 22, 1S63. 
Aag. 29, 1861. 


Brigade composed of the 1st, 2d and 3d battalions Kentucky 
cavalry, the 27th Virginia Partisan Rangers and Lieutenant 
Logan's section of Light artillery ; at one time In command of 
the District of "South Mississippi and East Louisiana.'^ 

Died May 16, 1862; brigade composed of 10th, 11th and Major 
Crump's regiments Texas riismounted cavalry. Major Mc- 
Cray's battalion Arkansas Infantry, and Captain Goode's Light 
Battery, constituting 1st brigade, 2d division, Army of the 

Promoted Major-General April 20, 1864 ; commanded District of 
North Carolina; at one time in command of brigade com- 
posed of the 6th, 21st, 24th and 57th North Carolina regiments 
and the 1st North Carolina battalion, Early's division, Long- 
street's corps, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Acting Brigadier-General and in command of post at Charlotte, 
North Carolina. 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1861 ; commanding brigade. 
Army of the Potomac. 

Brigade composed of the 18th, 36th and 38th, and the 32d and 
58th (consolidated) Alabama regiments; subsequently the 21st 
Alabama regiment and Major Williams' battalion (the Pelham 
Cadets) were added. 

Promoted Major-General October 10, 1862; commanding Texas 
brigade, Longstreet's division, Army of JSorth(.Tn Virginia, 
composed of the 1st, 4th and 5th Texas and the 18th Georgia 
regiments and the Hampton Legion. 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1S61 ; assigned to command 
at Norfolk, Virginia, and of the forces concentrated in that 

Promoted Major-General 1865; commanding brigade in General 
Wheeler's cavalry; subsequently in cornmauil of a division in 
\\ heeler's cavalry corps, composed of the brigades of Ashby, 
Harrison and VViiliams. 

Brigade composed of the 21st, 13th, 17th and ISth Mississippi 
regiments, McLaws' division, Longstreet's corps, Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 8th, 18th, 19th, 2Sth and 56th Virginia 
regiments, Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

In command of the "Valley District," Virginia; brigade com- 
l)0S8d of the 18th, 23d and 25th Virginia cavan\v, the 62d Vir- 
ginia infantry, mounted, and McClauahau's Battery of Horse 

Brigade composed of the 6th, 12th, 20th and 23d North Carolina 
regiments, D. H. Hill's division, Jackson's cor|)s, Army of 
Northern Virginia; in 1864, brigade coiuijosed of the Ist, 2d, 
3d, 4th and 6th Georgia cavalry regiments, Martin's division, 
Wheeler's corps. 

Brigade composed of his own regiment and those of Colonels 
Beiij. P. Elliott and D. A. Williams— all Missouri troops. 

Assigned to the command of the 4th Military District of Bast 

At first on duty in Western Virginia; resigned December 2, 
1861, and sut)sequently reappointed Septemi)er2l, 1863; brigade 
com()osed of the 1st Confederate, the 66th, 29th, 30th and 26th 
Georgia regiments and Major Shaaf's battalion; brigade in 
May, 1862, composed of the 3d Arkansas, 31st Virginia and Ist 
and 12th Georgia regiments and Hansborough's battalion. 
















Jackson, John E. 

Jackson, Thomas J.. 
Jackson, William H.. 
Jackson, William L. . 

Jenkins, Albert G. 
Jenkins, M 

Johnson, Ed wan) 

Johnston, George D., 



Johnson, A. R 

Johnson, BraUley T.. . . 

Johnson, Bushrod R. . . 

Johnston, Albert S.. 

Johnston, G'^orge H. 
Johnston, Joseph E.. 

Johnston, Robert D.. 

Jones, A. C 

Jones, D. K Georgia 




Virginia.. . . 

Virginia . . . 
S. Carolina. 


Maryland . 

Virginia . . . 

N. Carolina 

To Whom to 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Lt. Gen. Pemberton. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. W. W. Loring 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. Morgan.. . , 
Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Brig. Gen. Loring. 
Gen. J. B. Hood... 

Jones, John M . 
Jones, John R.. 

Virginia , 
Virginia , 

839 Jones, Samuel Virginia 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Feb. 13, 1862. 

June IT, 1861. 
Jan. 9, 1863. 
Sept'r, 1864 

Ang. 5. 1862. 
July 22, 1S62. 

Aug. 4, 1864. 
June 23, 1864. 

Jan. 24, 1862, 

Dec. 13, 1861. 
July 26, 1864 

Gen. R. E. Lee.. 
Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Sept. 2, 1863, 
June IT, ise'l. 

Feb. 14, 1864. 

June IT, 1861. 
Dec. 29, 1862. 
Sept'r, 1864. 

Aug. 6, 1862. 
July 22, 1862. 

Aug. 4, 1864, 
June 28, 1864. 

Jan. 24,1862, 

Dec. 13, 186*, 
July 26, 1864, 

Sept. 1, 186.^), 

June IT, 1861, 

May 16, 1863. May 15, 1863. 

June 25, 1862.' June 23, 1862, 


Aug. 28,1861. July 21,1861.1 



— Continued. 

Feb. 14, 1862, 

Feb. IT, 1864. 

Aug. 29, 1861 
Apl. 22, 1863, 

Sept. 30, 1862. 
Sept. 30, 1862. 

Jan. 24,-1862. 
Dec. 24, 1861. 

Feb. 16, 1864. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

Feb. 17,1864. 

Aug. 29, 1861, 


Brigade composed of the 5th and 8th Mississippi and the sth 
Georgia regiments, the 1st Confederate regiment, 2d Georgia 
battalion of Sharpshooters, and Scogins' Light Battery; in 
1862 in command of the 3d brigade, Reserve corps, Ariny of 
the Mississippi, composed of the 17th, 18th, 21st and 24th Ala- 
bama and the Sth Georgia regiments, and Bortwell's Light 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1861 ; commanded 1st bri- 
gade. Army of the Shenandoah, composed of the 2d, 4th, 5th, 
27th and Sod Virginia regiments and Pendleton's Light Battery. 

Commanding cavalry brigade, Forrest's command ; subsequent- 
ly commanded cavalry division. Department of Alabama, 
Mississippi and East Louisiana. 

Brigade composed of the 19th, 2i)th and 46th regiments Virginia 
cavalry, the 37th battalion Virginia cavalry and the 1st Mary- 
land cavalry. 

Commanding cavalry brigade. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed at the Battle of the Wilderness May 6, 1864; brigade com- 
posed of the 1st, 4th, 5th and 6th regiments South Carolina 
Volunteers, the 2d regiment South Carolina Rifles and the 
Palmetto Sharpshooters, Hood's division, Longstreet's corps.. 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding 2d brigade, General Morgan's cavalry; subse- 
quently in command of Tennessee and Kentuckv, after those 
States passed into the hands of the United States forces. 

Commanded Maryland Line, Army of Northern Virginia; la 
August, 1862, command composed of the 2d brigade, Talia- 
ferro's division, Array of the Valley, comprising the 21st, 42<1 
and 48th Virginia regiments, the 1st Virginia battalion and 
two light batteries. 

Promoted Major-General May 21, 1864; brigade composed of 
the 17th, 23d, 25th, 37th and 44th Tennessee regiments and 
Captain Darden's Light Battery; in 1862 commanding 3d 
brigade, 3d liivision. Army of the Mississippi. 

Promoted Major-General February 28, 1S63 ; commanded "Stone- 
wall " Jackson's old division. 

Brigade composed Of the 19th, 22d, 25th, 39th and 60th Alabama. 
regiments, formerly of Hindman's (afterwards Brown's) di- 
vision, Array of Tennessee. 

Promoted General August 31, 1861, to take rank from May 30.. 
1861. ■' ' 

Commanded brigade In Major-Gen'eral Edw'd Johnson's division^ 

Promoted General August 3l8t, 1861, to take rank from July 4- 
1861 ; assigned to command at Harper's Ferry. 

Brigade compo.sed of the 5th, 12th, 20th and 23d North Carolina: 
regiments infantry and the 2d North Carolina battalion. 

Promoted Major-General October 11, 1862; brigade composed 
of the 4th. 5ch, 6th and 9th South Carolina regiments, consti- 
tuting the 3<l brigade, 1st corps. Army of the Potomac ; brigade- 
afterwards composed of the 17th and 18th Mississippi and the 
5th South Carolina regiments. 

Killed at battle of Wilderness May '64 ; commanded a brigade In 
Johnson's division, Kwell's corps, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 44th, 42d, 21st, 25th and 60th Virginia 
regiments and the 1st battalion Virginia Regulars, Trimble's 
division, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General March 14,1862; brigade composed of 
the 7th, Sth, 9th and 11th Georgia regiments, the 1st Kentucky 
regiment and Album's Virginia Light Battery, 


















Jonea, Thomas M. 
Jones, W. E 

Jordon, Thomas. 
Kelley, J. H 

Kemper, J. L. 

Kennedy, J. D. 
Kershaw, J. B. 

King, Wm. H 

Klrkland, Wm. W. 

Lagnel, J. A. de.... 
Lane, James H.... 

Lane, Walter P. 
Law, E. M 

Lawton, Alex'r R. 

Leadbetter, D. 

Lee, Edwin G.. 
Lee, Fltzhugh,. 

Lee, Q. W. C... 
Lee, Robert E. . 


Virginia . 

Virginia . 

Virginia . . . 

S. Carolina. 
S. Carolina. 

N. Carolina 


N. Carolina 





Virginia . 
Virginia . 

Virginia , 
Virginia . 

To Whom to 

Comd'g at Winchester 

Gen. Beauregard. 
Gen. B. Bragg". . . . 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. Huger 

Gen. T. J. Jackson., 

MaJ. Gen, Wharton, 
Gen. R. E.Lee 

(■Commanding De-"} 
< partment ; 
( of Georgia. ) 

Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 


Oct, 3, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 1SG2. 
Nov, 17, 1863. 

June 3, 1862. 

Dec. 22, 1864. 
Feb. 18,1862. 

July 15, 1864. 
Aug. 31, 1863. 

Apl. 18, 1962. 
Nov. 1, 1862. 

Mch. 18, 1865. 
Oct. S, 1862. 

Apl, 13, 1861. 

Mch, 6,1862. 

Sept. 23, 1864. 
July 25, 1862. 

June 25, 1863. 

Sept, 19, 1862, 

April 14, 1862. 
Nov. 16, 1863, 

June S, 1862. 

Dec, 22, 1864, 
Feb, 13, 1862. 

Apl, 8, 1864. 
Aug. 29, 1863. 

Apl. 15, 1862. 
Nov, 1, 1862. 

Mch, 18, 1865, 
Oct, 3, 1862, 

Apl, 13, 1861. 

Feb, 27, 1862, 

Sept. 23, 1864. 
July 24, 1862, 

June 25, 1863. 



— Continued. 

Oct. 8, 1S62. 

Sept. 26, 1862. 
Peb IT, 1864. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

Feb. 13, 1862. 

Feb. 16, 1864. 

Apl. 18,1862. 
Apl. 23, 1863. 

Oct. 8. 1862. 

Aag. 29, 1861. 

March 6, 1862. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 


Commanding brigade in the Department of Alabama and 
Western Florida. 

Killed In action ; commanding cavalry brigade, Army of North- 
ern Virginia; also in command of Valley District, Virginia. 

Chief of Staff to General Beauregard. 

Commanding brigade iu Wheeler's cavalry ; brigade composed 
of the 63d Virginia, the 58th North Carolina, the 5th Kentucky 
and the 6!5th Georgia regiments ; subsequently in command 
of a division in Wheeler's corps, composed of the brigades of 
Allen, Dibrell and Hannon. 

Promoted Major-General March 1,1864; brigade composed of 
the 1st, 3d, 7th, 11th and 17th Virginia regiments, Pickett's 
division, Longstreer's corps. Army of Northern Virginia ; for 
a time the 24th Virginia regiment was attached to this ijrigade. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 3d, Tth, 8th, l.'^th, and 20th South 
Carolina regiments and James' 3d South Carolina battalion, 
Longstreet's corns. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General May 18,1864; brigade composed of 
the 2d, 3d, 7th, 8th, 15th and 20th South Carolina regiments, 
McLaws' division, Longstreet's corps. Army of Northern Vir- 

Assigned to the command of "Walker's division of infantry," 
Trans-Mississippi Department ; afterwards in command of a 
Texas brigade in General Poligiiac's division. 

Brigade com|)osed of the 26th, 44th, 47th, 52d and 11th North 
Carolina Infantry regiments, and subsequently of the ITth, 
66th, .50th and 42d regiments North Carolina infantry. Army 
of Northern Virginia. 

On dutv in the Ordnance Bureau at Richmond. 

Brigadi' composed of the 7th, 18th, 2Sth, 33d and 37th North 
Carolina regiments, Pender's division, A. P. Hill's corps. 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding brigade of Texas cavalry in Major-General John 
A. Wharton's division, Trans-Mississippi Department. 

Promoted Major-General April 9. 1865; brigade composed of the 
1.5th, 44th, 47th and 48th and 4th Alabama regiments. Hood's 
division, Longstreet's corps, Array of Northern Virginia; at 
the Battle of Fredericksburg, his h;igade composed of the 6th, 
64th and 57th North Carolina and the 4th and 44th Alabama 

Subsequently Quartermaster-General of the Confederacy; bri- 
gade consisted of the 13th, 26th, 3l8t, 38th, 60th and 61at 
Georgia regiments, Ewell's division, Jackson's corps. Army of 
Northern Virginia; at one time in command of Ewell's di- 

Commanding in Knoxville, Tennessee, in February, 1812; after- 
wards in command of a brigade composed of the 20th and 23d 
Alabama regiments and Colonel Vaughn's Tennessee regi- 

In command at Staunton, Virginia; subsequently detailed on 
secret service of the Confederacy. 

Promoted Major-General September 3, 18^3; brigade composed 
of the 1st, 3 ), 4th, .5th and 9th Virginia cavalry regiments, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding brigade of local troops for the defence of T?lch- 
mond ; previously 'was an aid-de-camp to President Davis, 
with the rank of Colonel; promoted Majoi-General early In 

Promoted General August 31, 1861, to take rank from Jane 1^ 
















Lee, Stephen D. 

Lee, Wm. H. F. 

Leventhorpe, C. 
Lewis, Joseph H. 

Lewis, W. Q 

Uddell, St. John R. 

LUley, R. D. 

Little, Henry. 
Logan, T. M.. 

Lomax, L. L. 

Long, A. L 

Longstreet, James. 

Loring, W. W 

Lovell, Mansfield. 
Lowry, M. P 

Lowry, Robert. 

Lyon, H. B 

Mabry, H. P 

Miickall, W. W... 

MacLay, R. P 

MacHae, William. 

Magruder, J. B . . . 
Mahone, WiUiam. 


To Whom to 

S. Carolina. 

Virginia.. . . 

N. Carolina 
Kentucky. . 

N. Carolina 

Virginia . . . 

Missouri . . . 
S. Carolina. 

Virginia . . . 

Virginia . . . 







Maj. Gen. M. L. Smith 

Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. R. E*. Lee.. 
Gen. B. Bragg. . 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. Van Dorn. 
Gen. R. E. Lee.. 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. R. E. Lee.... 
Gen. Beauregard. 

Army of the N. West. 

Gen. B. Bragg. 

Gen. Beauregard. 

N. Carolina Gen. R. E. Lee., 
Virginia , 

Virginia ... Maj. Gen. Huger., 


Nov. 6, 1862. 

Oct. 3, 1862, 


Oct. 1, 1863, 

June 2, 1864. 
July 17, 1862. 

June 2, 1S64. 

Apl. 16, 1862. 
Feb. 23,1865. 

July 20, 1863. 

Sept. 21, 1863. 
June 17, 1861. 

May 20, 1861. 
Oct. 6, 1863. 


June 14, 1864. 

March 6, 1862. Feb. 28, 1862, 

Nov. 6, 1862, 

Sept. 15, 1862, 


Sept. 30, 1863, 

May 31, 1864. 
July 12, 1862, 

May 31, 1864, 

Apl. 16,1862. 
Feb. 15, 1865. 

July 23, 1863. 

Sept. 21, 1863. 
June 17, 1881. 

May 20, 1861. 

Oct. 4, 1863, 


June 14, 1864. 

June 23, 1864. June 23, 1864. 
June 17, 1861, 

June 17, 1861. 
Nov. 16, 1861. 

Nov. 16, 1861, 





Apl. 22, 1863, 

Oct. 3, 1862. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 

Jane 2, 
Sept. 30, 

Jsne 2, : 
Apl. 16, 


Feb. IT, 1864. 

Feb. 17, 
Aug. 29, 

Aug. 29, 
Feb. IT, 


June 14, 1864, 

Mch. 6, 1862. 

Aug. 29, 1861. 

Dec. 13, 1861, 

an<i !- 

Feb. 17, 1864. ) 


Promoted Major-General August 3, 1863; brigade composed of 
th'^ ITth, 19th, 22d and 2Tth Louisiana regiments, the 20 and 
46th .\llssissii)pi regiments, the 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery 
and the 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery, the last two regiments - 
garrisoning the fixed batteries at Vicksburg. 

Promoted Major-General April 23, 1864; brigade composed of 
the 13th and 19th regiments Virginia cavalry, the id regiment 
North Carolina cavalry and McGreggor'a Battery of Horse- 
Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 4th, .'Jth, 6th and 9th Kentucky and 
41st Alabama regiments, Army of Tennessee; succeeded 
General Helm in the command of this brigade. 

Commanding brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, composed of 
the 6th, 21st, 54th and 5Tth North Carolina regnnents. 

Brigade composed of the 2d and 15th. 5th and 13th, 6th, Tth and 
8th Arkansas regiments, a Pioneer company and Roberts' 
Light Battery, constituting 1st brigade, 3d corps. Army of the 

Brigade composed of the 13th, 31st, 49th, 52d and 5Sth Virginia - 
regiments infantry [formerly Pegram's brigade], Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Killed in action; Commanded 1st division. Army of the West,. 
composed of the brigades of Gates, Hebert and Green. 

Brigade composed of the 4th, 5th and 6th regiments South Care- • 
lina cavalry, the Keitt South Carolina Squadron and the 1st 
regiment [Colonel Black] South Carolina cavalry, Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General August 10. 1864; brigade composed of 
the 5th, 6th and 15th Virginia cavalry regiments and the Ist- 
Maryland cavalry. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigadier-General of Artillery and Chief of Artillery of General^ 
Ewell's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1861; brigade composed of 
the 1st, 7th, llth and 17th Virginia regiments, and constituted 
the 4th brigade, 1st corps, Army of the Potoma(5. 

Promoted Major-General February 15, 1862; in command iu- 
Western Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1861, and assigned to com- 
mand at ew Orleans. 

Brigade composed of the 32d and 45th Mississippi regiments, 
the 16th, 33d and 45th Alaiiama regiments, the 18th Alabama 
battalion and Semples' Light Battery, Cleburne's division. 
Army of Tennessee; the 5th and Sth Mississippi regiments 
Were subsequently added. 

Brigade coiiipo.sed of the 6th, 14th, 15th, 20th, 23d and 43d Mis- 
sissippi regiments infantry ; succeeded General John Adams 
in the command of this brigade. 

In command of a brigade composed of the 3d, Tth, 8th and 12th 
regiments Kentucky cavalry, Forrest's division ; subsequently 
in command of the Department of Kentucky. 

Chief of Staff to General Bragg, 

Brigade composed of the llth, 26th, 42d, 47th and 52d North 
Carolina infantry regiments. 

Promoted Major-General October 7, 1861; on duty on the Pe- 
ninsula; afterwards In command of t^he District of Texas, 
New Mexico and Arizona. 

Promoted Major-General July 30, 1S64; brigade composed of 
the 3d Alabama, the 6th, T2th, inth and 4lst Virginia and the 
2d (afterwards 12th) North Carolina regiments, Anderson's 
division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 








Major, J. P 

Mauey, George. 


Maniganlt, A. M.. 
Marmaduke, J. S. 

286 Marshall, Humphrey... 











Marshall, .Tohn .. 
Martin, Johu D.. 
Martlu, James G. 

Martlu, Win. T.... 
Maury, Dabney H., 

Maxey, S. B., 

McCausland, John. 

McComb, Wax 

McCown, John P.. 

VtcCray, T. H 

McCuUoch, Benj 

McCuUoch, Henry E. 

McGowan, Samuel... 

Mcintosh, James "M.. 
McLaws, Lafayette.. 

McMurry, J. A 


S. Carolina, 




N. Carolina 


Virgiuia . . . 

Texas , 

Virginia . . . 

Arkansas . . 



S. Carolina. 

To Whom to 

Gen. R. Taylor... 
Gen. Beauregard. 


July 25, 1863. July 21, 1863. 
Apl. 18, 1862. Apl. 16, 1862. 

Gen. J, E. Johnston. 

Gen, T, H. Holmes... 

Gen. T. H. Holmes. . 
Lt. Gen. Pemberton. 
Gen. Van Dorn 

Gen. A. S. Johnston. 

Gen. Breckinridge... 

Gen. A. S.Johnston.. 

Gen. L. Polk. 

Florida ., 
Georgia. , 


Gen. Van Dorn. 
Gen. R. E. Lee.. 

Gen. Magruder. 

Apl. 30, 1863. 

May 25, 1863, 

Oct. 30, 1861 

May IT, 1862, 
Dec. 2, 1862, 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Mch. 7, 1862. 

May 24, 1864. 

Oct. 12, 1861. 


May 1, 1861. 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 23,1863. 

Jan. 24, 1862. 
Sept. 25, 1861. 

Apl. 26, 1863 

Nov. 15, 1862, 

Oct. 30, 1861 

May 15, 1862, 
Dec. 2, 1862, 
Mch. 12, 1862. 

Moh. 4, 1862. 

May 18, 1864. 

Oct. 12, 1861, 


May 1, 1861, 
Mch. 14, 1862, 

Jan. 17,1863. 

Jan. 24,1862. 
Sept. 25, 1861. 



— Continued. 

Peb. 17, 1864. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 30, 1863. 
Feb. 17, 1864, 

Dec. 13, 1861. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 
Apl. 22, 1863. 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Hch. 0, 1862. 

May 24,1864. 

Dec. 13,1861. 


May 14,1861. 
Mch. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 23,1863, 

Jan. 24, 1863. 
Dec, 13, 1861. 


Commanded 2d cavalry brigade. District of Western Louisiana. 

Brigade composed of the 1st and 27th Tennessee, the 4th, 6tli 
and 9th Tennessee Confederate regiments, Maney's battalion 
and Smith's Light Battery, constituting 2d brigade, 2d division, 
1st corps, Army of the Mississippi ; the 14th and 50th Ten- 
nessee regiments were subsequently added. 

Brigade composed of the 10th and 19th South Carolina, the 24th,^ 
28th and 34th Alabama regiments and Waters' Light Battery; 
in 1862 brigade known as 4th brigade. Reserve corps, Army of 
the Mississippi. 

Promoted Major-General , 1864; in command of all the 

cavalry in North Arkansas ; brigade corapo'^ed of the 3d Con- 
federate, the 25th, 29th and 37th Tennessee regiments and 
Sweet's Light Battery, constituting the 4th brigade, 3d corps, 
Army of the Missistiippl. 

Resigned June 17, 1863; at the affair at Princeton, Virginia, 
in May, 1862, command consisted of the 54th and 29th Virginia 
regiments, the 5th Kentucky regiment, Dunn's battalion, 
Bradley's Mounted Kentucky Rifles and Jeffree'3 Light 

Killed June 27, 1862, in charge at Games' Mill. 

Brigade consisted of the 17th, 42d, 50th and 66th North Corolina 

Promoted Major-General November 10, 1863 ; assigned to tho 
command of the cavalry brigades of Roddy and Crosby. 

Promoted Major-General November 4, iS62 ; commanding 
Moore's, Ross' and Cabell's brigades ; in 1862 commanding 3d 
division, Army of th3 West, composed of the brigades of 
Dockery, Moore and Phifer. 

Superintendent of affairs in the Indian Territory; commanded 
brigade in the Army of the Mississippi composed of the 4l8t 
Georgia, 24th Mississippi and »th Texas regiments and Eld- 
ridge's Light Battery. 

Brigade composed of the 14th, 16th, 17th, 21st and 22d regiments 
Virginia cavalry and Jackson's Battery of Horse Artillery. 

Commanding Tennessee brigade. Heath's division, 3d corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-General March 10, 1862; commanding brigades 
of Cabell and Churcliill, Army of the West; assigned in 1861 
to the command of the 3d division. Western Department, em- 
bracing the brigades of Marks aud Neely. 

Commanding 3d brigade, McCown's division. Army of Ten- 

Died from wounds received at Pea Ridge; commanding dlvisioa 
in Van Dorn's army. 

In command of Texas ; also at one time of a bilgade composed 
of the regiments of Colonels Waterhouse, Flournoy, Fitzhuglj 
and Allen. 

Brigade composed of the Ist, 12th, 13th and 14th South Carolina 
regiments and "Orr's Rifles" [succeeded General Maxy 
Gregg in the command], Pender's division, A. P. Hill's corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed March 7, 1862, at Pea Ridge; commanding Missouri 
brigade. Price's division, Van Dorn's army. 

Promoted Major-General May 23, 1862; brigade composed of 
the 15th and 32d Virginia, the 5th and 10th Louisiana and tho 
10th, 50th, 53d and 57th Georgia regiments and Manlr's Light 
Battery, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding Maney's brigade, 2d division, Ist corps. Army of 
the Mississippi. 










McNair, E.. 

McRae, D 

Mercer, Hugh W. 

Miles, W. R 

Miller, William. 

Moody, T. M 

Moore. John C. . 


Moore, P. T...... 

Morgan, John H. 

O'Neal, E. A. 
Page, R. L... 

Palmer, J. B. 

Palmer, S. B... 
Parsons, M. M . 


Arkansas . . 

Arkansas . . 



Alabama. . . 

To Whom to 

Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. T. H. Holmes... 
Brig. Gen. Lawton.... 

Nov. 4, 18t)2. 

Nov. 5, 13152. 
Oct. 29, 1861. 

Maj. Gen. Gardner, 
To com'd Fla. reserves 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Morgan, John T 

Moulton, Alfred 

Munford, Thomas T. . . 

Nelson, Allison 

Nichols, Francis T 



Alabama. . . 
Louisiana. . 
Virginia . . . 



Maj. Gen. Kemper... 
Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Alabama. . . 
Virginia . . . 


Arkansas , 

Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. Beauregard. . . 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. T. H. Holmes. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 


Aug. 5, 1861. 

Nov. 4, 1862. 

Nov. 5, 1862. j 
Oct. 29,1861.1 


2, 1864. 

May 26, 1862. 1 May 26, 1862. 

May, 1S64. May, 1864, 
Dec. 11, 1862. Dec. 11, 1862, 

Nov. 17, 1863. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 
Nov., 18G4. 
Sept. 26, 1862. 
Oct. 14, 1862, 

Gen. D. H. Maury.. 

Gen. J. B. Hood. 

Gen. T. S. Holmes... 

Mch. 7, 1864, 


Nov. 5, 1862. 

Nov. 16, 1863, 
Apl. 16, 1862, 
Nov., 1864. 
Sept. 12, 1862. 
Oct. 14, 1862. 

Mch. 1, 1864. 

Sept'r, 1864. 

Nov. 6, 1862. 




Apl. 22, 1S63. 

Apl. 22, 1863. 
Dec. 20, 1S61. 

Apl. 11, 1S63. 

Apl. 22, 1863. 

Feb. 17, 1864. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 

Sept. 26, 1S62. 
Apl. 22, 1863. 

Jane 9, 1864. 

Apl. 30, 1863. 


Brigafle composed of the 1st, 2(1, 4tti, 31st and 25th Arkansas 

and the .B9th North Carolina reffim'Mits and Culpeper's Li<,'ht 

Battery; his brigade at one time formed part of McCown'a 

division, Pollv's corps. Army of Tennessee. 
Brii>adH composed of the regiin 'nts of Colonels Glenn, Ganse 

and Hart, and the Light Battery of Cai)tain Marshall. 
In command at Savannah, Georgia; when in the field, brigade 

consisted of the 1st, .54th, 57th and 63d Georgia regiments, 

Army of Tennessee. 
Assigned to the command of Northeast Mississippi; afterwards 

with General D. H. Maury, at .Mobile, Alabama. 
Assigned to the command of the District of Florida. 

Resigned February 3, 1864; brigade composed of the 2d Texas, 
the 35th Mississippi and the 37th, 40th and 42d Alabama regi- 
ments ; in 1862 in command of the 2d brigade, 3d division, 
Army of the West. 

Commanding and organizing reserve forces in and around 
Hichrnond, Virginia. 

Commanding 3d cavalry brigade, Wheeler's division. Army of 
Tennessee, composed of the 2d. 3d, 4th, 5th, 10th, Breckin- 
ridgs's anil Ward's Kentucky regiments, Hamilton's battalion, 
Quirk's company of scouts, escort under Murphy and Bryne's 
Light Battery. 

Commanding cavalry brigade composed of the 1st, 3d, 4th, 7th 
and 51st Alabama regiments, JMartin's division, Wheeler's 
cavalry corps. 

Killed at the Battle of Mansfield ; brigade composed of the 18th 
and 28th Louisiana regiments, the Cresent Louisiana regi- 
ment and the Sth Louisiana battalion. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th Virginia regi- 
ments cavalry and the Maryland battalion of cavalry, Array of 
Northern Virginia. 

Diefl at camp near Austin, Texas, October 7, 1862; brigade 
compos'^d of the 10th regiment Texas infantry and the 15th, 
17th and ISth regiments Texas cavalry. 

Comman ling District of Lynchlinrg, Virginia; brigade, at the 
Battle of Chancellorsville, cotnpost^I of the 1st, 2d, 10th, 14th 
and 15th Louisiana regiments, Trimble's division. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Commaiiiliiig Kud -s' brigade, composed of the 3d, Sth, 6th, 12th 
and 20th Alabama regiments, D. H. Hill's division, Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Assigned to command of Fort Morgan and the Outer Defences 
of Mobile Bay; brigade composed of the 21st regiment Ala- 
bama infantry, 1st battalion Alabama artillery, 1st battalion 
Teimessee Heavy Artillery, 5 companies of the 7th regiment 
Alai)ama cavalry and a portion of the 1st Alabama Confederate 

Brigade composed of the 3d, 18th, 26th, 32d and 45th Tennessee 
regimetits. the 23d Tennessee l)attali()a, the 54th and 63d Vir- 
ginia regiments and the 58th and 60th iNorth Carolina regi- 
ments; i!i December, 1862, Colonel commanding brigade in 
Breckinridge's division, Polk's corps. Army of Tennessee. 

Brigade composed of the regiments of Colonels Pickett, Hunter, 
Pouller and Caldwell, Lieutenant-Colonel Pindall's battalion 
aiid Captain Tildeu's Light Battery ; commanded 4tn brigade, 
Price's division. 
















Pegram, John.... 
Pemberton, J. C. 


Parsons, W. H. 

Payne, Wm. H. 
Paxton, E. P..., 
Pearce, N. B,.., 

Pender, W.D. 

Pendleton, Wm. N. 
Perrin, A 

Perry, E, A. 

Perry, W.F 

Pettlgrew, J. J. 

Pettus, Edmund W. 
Phifer, Charles W... 

Pickett, George E. 

Pite, Albert 

Pillow, Gideon J., 
Polignac, C. J.... 
Polk, Lucius E... 

Posey, Camot. 



Virginia . . . 
Tirginia . . . 
Arkansas . . 

Virginia , 

N. Carolina 

Virginia . . . 
S. Carolina. 

Florida . 

N. Carolina 

Alabama. . . 


Arkansas . . 


Arkansas . . 


To Whom to 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. T. J. Jackson., 

Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. R. E. Lee., 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. R. E.Lee 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. Longstreet 

Gen. T. H. Holmes.. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. E. K. Smith.... 
Gen. J. E. Johnston . 

Gen. Longstreet 

Nov. 4,1864. 
Nov. 1, 1862. 

Nov. 10, 1862. 
June IT, 1861. 

July 22,1862. 

Mch. 26, 1862. 
Sept. IT, 1863. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

Apl. 9, 1865. 
Feb. 26, 1862. 

Sept. 19, 1863. 
Spring 1802. 

Feb. 13, 1862. 

Aug. 15, 1861. 
July 9, 1861. 
Jan. 10, 1863. 
Dec. 20, 1862. 

Nov. 1,1862. 

Nov. 1, 1864. 
Nov. 1,1862. 

Nov. 7, 1862. 
June 17, 1861. 

June 3, 1862. 

Mch. 26, 1862. 
Sei)t. 10, 1863. 

Aug. 28, 1862. 

Apl. 9, 1865. 
Feb. 26, 1862. 

Sept. 18, 1863. 
Spring 1862. 

Jan. 14, 1862. 

Aug. 15, 1861. 
July 9, 1861. 
Jan. 10, 1863. 
Dec. 13, 1862. 

Nov. 1,1862. 



— Continued. 

Apl. 22,1863. 

Apl. 25, 1863. 
Lug. 29, 1861. 

Sept. 30, 1862. 

Mch. 26, 1862. 
Feb. 17, 1864. 

Sept. 30, 1S62. 

Feb. 26, 1862, 

Feb. IT, 1864. 

Jan. 14,1862. 

Aug. 15, 1S61. 
Aug. 29, 1861, 

Feb. IT, 1864. 
Apl. 23, 1863. 

Apl. 22, 1863. 

Apl. 22,1863. 

Oct. 13, 1862. 


Acting Brigadier-General In command of a brigade composed 
of the 12th, 19th and 21st Texas cavalry, Major Morgan'3 
battalion of Texas cavalry and Pratt's Battery of Light 

Brigade composed of 5th, 6th, 8th and 15th regiments Virginia 
cavalry and the 36th battalion Virginia cavalry. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Killed at Cliancellorsville; brigade composed of the 2d, 4th, 
5th, 2Tth and 33d Virginia regiments, Trimble's division, Jack- 
son's corps, Army of Northern Virtcinia. 

Commissioned Brigadier-Geueral May, 1S61, by the Secession 
Convention of Arkansas; command composed of Carrol's 
cavalry , regiment, the 3d and 5th, regiments Arkansas 
infantry. Woodruff's infantry battalion and Reid's Light 

Promoted Major-General , 1864 ; Killed at Hatcher's Run ; 

Brigade composed of the 13th, 31st, 49th, 52a and 58th Vir- 
ginia regiments Infautry, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Promoted Major-GeneralJanuary 14, 1863; as Brigadier-General, 
commanded Confederate forces north of the Nansemond, on 
the east Ijank of James river; brigade at one time in 1861 
composed of the 13th and 14ih North Carolina regiments and 
Mauley's North Carolina Light Battery. 

Promoted Major-General May 2f, 1863 ; brigade composed of the 
13th, 16th, 22d, 34th and 3'sth North Carolina regiments iu- 
fantry, Anderson's division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of 
Northern Virginia. 

Chief of Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Killed at Spottsylvania May 12, 1S64; in command of Wilcox's 
old brigade. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 5':h and Sth Florida regiments, 
Anderson's division, A. P. Hill's corps. Army of Northern 

Brigade composed of the 15th, 44th, 4Tth and 48t.h Alabama 
regiments, Longstreet's corps. Array of Northern Virginia. 

Died July IT, 1S73, of wounds rtcuived July 14th, 1863, at bridge 
near Falling Waters; brigade composed of the 26th, 44th, 
4Tth, ITth, 52d, 42d and llth North Carolina regiments, Heth's 
division, A. P. Hill's corps, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 20th, 23d, 3uth, 31st and 46th Alabama 
regiments, Stevenson's division, Army of Tennessee. 

Brigade composed of the 6th and 9th Texas cavalry, the 3(1 
Arkansas cavalry and the battalions of Stevenson and 

Promoted Major-General October 11, 1862; brigade composed 
of the 8th, ISth, 19th, 2Sth and 56th Virginia regiments, Army 
of Northern Virginia. 

In command of the Indian Territories and forces there raised ; 
resigned November 11, 1862. 

Assigned to command of 1st division. Army of the Western 
Department, composed of Walker's and Hussell's brigades. 

Promoted Major-General April Sth, 1S64 ; commanding 2d Texas 

Brigade composed of the 3d and 5th Confederate, the 1st Ar- 
kansas, the 2d, 48th and 35th Tennessee regiments and 
Calvert's Light Battery, Cleburne's division, Army of Ten- 

Killed in action; brigade composed of the 12th, 16th, 19th and 
48th Mississippi regiments, Auderson's division, A. P. Hill'a 
corps. Army of Northern Virginia. 

















Preston, John S.. . 
Preston, William. 

Price, Sterling.. 
Pryor, Koger A. 

Quarles, Wm. A., 

Raines, Gabriel J. 
Raines, James E.. 

Ramseur, Stephen D.. 

Randall, Horace 

Randolph, George W. 
Ransom, Matt. W 

Ransom, Robert, Jr... 

Reid, John C 

Reynolds, A. E 

Reynolds, A. W. 
Reynolds, D. H. 

Richardson, R. V. 
Ripley, RoswellS. 

Roane, J. Selden. . 


To Whom to 

S. Carolina, 

Missouri . 
Virginia . 

Tennessee . 

N. Carolina 

N. Carolina 

Virginia . . . 
N. Carolina 

N. Carolina 


Virginia . . . 
Arkansas . . 

S. Carolina. 

Arkansas . . 

Gen. Beauregard. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . 

Lt. Gen. E. K. Smith. 

Gen. T. J. Jackson... , 

Maj. Gen. Magruder. 
Gen. K. E. Lee 

Maj. Gen. Huger., 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 
Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. J. E. Johnston . 
Gen. L. Polk 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. Van Dorn. 


June 10, 1864. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 16, 1S62. 

Sept. 5, 1863. 

Sept. 28, 1861. 

June 10, 1864. 
Apl. 14, 1862. 

Apl. 16, 1862. 

Aug. 25, 1863. 

Sept. 23, 1861. 

Nov. 4, 1862. Nov. 4, 1862. 

Nov. 1, 1S62. 

Feb. 13, 1862, 
June 15, 1SC3. 

Mch. 6, 1862. 


March, 1865, 

Sept. 17, 1863. 
Mch. 12, 1864. 

Dec. 3, 1863. 
Aug. 15, 1861. 

Mch. 20, 1862. 

Nov. 1, 1862. 

Feb. 13, 1862. 
June 13, 1863. 

Mcb. 1, 1862. 


March, 1865. 

Sept. 14, 1863. 
Mch. 5,1864. 

Dec. 1, 18S3. 
Aug. 15, 1861. 

Mch. 20, .1862. 



— Continued. 

June 10, 1864. 
Apl. 18, 1862. 

Apl. 16,1862. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 
Dec. 13, 1861. 

Apl. 22,1863. 

Feb. 13,1862. 
Feb. 16, 1864. 

March 6, 1862. 

Feb IT, 1864. 
May 16,1864. 

Ang. 15, 1861 
Mob. 20, 1862. 

Oct. 13. 1862. 

Oct. 13, 1862. 


In charge of the Bureau of Conscription. 

Promoted Major-General 1865; commandecl the 3d brigade In 
Major-General Jolin C. Breckinridge's division, composed of 
the 20th Tennessee, the 60th Nortli Carolina, the 1st, 3d and 
4th Florida regiments and Mebane's Light Battery. 

In command of the Missouri State Guard, and received into 
Confederate service with the rank of Major-General. 

Resigned July 19th, 1862; brigade composed of the 14th Louis- 
iana, the 14th Alabama, the 2d Florida and the 3d Virginia 
regiments and Coppeu's Light Battery; brigade at onetime 
composed of the 3d Virginia, 14th Alabama and the 2d, 5th and 
Sth Florida regiments, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanding brigade in Walthall's division, Stewart's coi'ps. 
Army of Tennessee, composed of the 42d, 4Sth, 48th and 55th 
consolidated, the 53d and 49th Tennessee regiments, the Ist 
Alabama and the 4th and 30th Louisiana regiments. 

In charge of the Bureau of Conscription; again, Chief of the 
Torpedo and Sub-terra Shell Department. 

Killed at the Battle of Stone's River I) 'cemljer 31, 1S62; brigade 
composed of the 11th Tennessee, 29th North Carolina and the 
41st Georgia regiments, the 3d Georgia battalion and Captain 
McTyere's Light Battery. 

Promoted Major-General June 1, 1864; brigade composed of 
the 2d, 4th, 14th and 30th North Carol, na regiments, D. H. 
Hill's division. Army of Northern Virgin a. 

Commanding brigade in Walker's division; killed in action at 
Jenkins' Ferry. 

Resigned Deceriiber 13, 1862; at one time Secretary of War. 

Brigade composed of the 24th, 25tti, 35t!i, 4i)th and 56th North 
Carolina regiments, Longstreet's corps, Ai'my of Northern 

Promoted Major-General May 26, 1863; assigned to command of 
the 1st brigade, camp near Kingston, North Carolina, number- 
ing some 4,000 men. 

Acting as Brigadier-General in recruiting, mustering Into 
service and brigading cavali'y in Northern Alabama. 

Colonel commanding Tilghnuui's i)nga'ie afier he was killed at 
Battle of Baker's Creek ; afterwards Si;nior Colonel command- 
ing brigade of General Jos. H. Davis, during his absence, 
composed of the 26th, 2d, 11th and 42d Mississippi regiments, 
the 1st Alabama regiment and the 55th Nortli Carolina regi- 

Brigade composed of the 54th and 63d Vi;ginia regiments and 
the 5Sth and 60th North Carolina regiments, Major-General 
Stevenson's division. 

Brigade composed of the 1st and 2d Arkansas cavalry regiments, 
dismounted, the 4th, 25th and 31^t Arkansas iufanti'y regi- 
ments and the 4th Arkansas infantry battalion ; the 39l;h regi- 
ment North Carolina infantry was subsequently added, and 
was afterwards exchanged for the 9th Arkansas infantry 

Biigade composed of the 12th, 14th and 15tli regiments Tennessee 
cavalry, McDonald's battalion, and the 7th Tennessee regi- 
ment was subsequently added. 

In command at Charleston, South Carolina; brigade, at the 
Battle of Fredericksburg, com lo-ed wf the, 4th and 44th Georgia 
and the Isi and 3d Noith Carolina r 'giuunts, D. H. Hili's di- 
vision, Jackson's corps, Army of Nonhrrn Virginia. 

Assigned to duty at Little Bock, reorganizing the scattered 
forces, after the withdrawal d! I^rice uutl Van Dora; com- 
manded a brigade attached to Majur-Gsneral Sam. Jones' 
division, Army of the West. i 


















Roberts, ,Wm. P N. Carolina 

Robertson, B. H Virginia . 

Robertson, E. S. C. 
Robertson, F. H... 
Robertson, J. B 

Roddy, P. D. 
Rodes, R. E., 

Rucker, E. W. 

Ruggles, Dan'l. 

Russell, W. W. 
Rust, Albert..., 

Scurry, W. R. 
Sears, C. W... 

Semines, Paul J. 
Sharp, J. H 

Shelby, J. O 

Shelley, Charles M... 



Alabama. . . 

Ross, L. S Texas , 

Ross, Keuljen R 

Rosser, Thos. L 

Saunders, J. C. C 

Scales, Alfred M 

Scott, Thomas M 

Virginia . 

Alabama. . . 
N. Carolina 





Missouri. ., 

Shingler, Wm. P \S. Carolina. 

To Whom to 

Gen. R. E. Lee 

Gen. T. J.Jackson. 

Gen. J. B.Hood.... 
Gen. T. J. Jackson., 

Gen. B. Bragg 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. . 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. R. E. Lee. 

Gen. Van Dorn. 

Gen. R. E. Lee... 
Gen. R. E. Lee... 
Lt. Gen. L. Polk. 

Gen. T. H.Holmes..., 
Lt. Gen. L. Polk 

Gen. J. E. Johnston. 

Gen. J. B. Hood 

Gen. E. K. Smith. . . . 


Feb. 21, 1S65. 
June 9,1862. 

July 26, 1SG4. 

Feb. 21, 1865. 
June 9, 1862. 

July 26, 1864. 

Nov. 1,1862. Nov. 1,1862. 

Aug. 3, 1S63. Aug. 3, 1863. 
Oct. 21, 1861. Oct. 21, 1861. 

Feb. 5, 1864, 

Oct. 10, 1SC3, 

Aug. 9, 1861. 

Mch. 6, 1862. 

June 7, 1S64. 
Juue 15, 1803. 
May 24, 1864. 

S"pt. 20, 1S62. 
.Mch. 7, 1S64. 

Mch. IS, 1862. 
July 26, 1S64. 
Feb. 5, 1864. 

Dec. 21, 1863. 

Sept. 28, 1863. 

Aug. 9, 1861, 

Mch. 4, 1862, 

May 31, 1864. 
Juue 13, 1863. 
May 10, 1864. 

Sept. 12, 1862. 
Mch. 1, 1864. 

Mch. 11, 1862. 
July 26, 1864. 
Dec. 15, 1863. 





Sept. 30, 1862. 

Apl. 22,1863. 

Jan. 25, 1864. 
Dec. 13, 1S61. 

Feb. 5, 1864, 

Aug. 9, 1861, 

Feb. IT, 1864. 

Mch. 6, 1362. 

June T, 1864. 
Feb. 16,1864. 
May 24,1864. 

Sept. 27, 1S62. 
May 11, 1864. 

Men. 18, 1862. 

Feb. 5, 1864. 


Assigned to command of Dearing'a old brigade, Anny ol 
■ ortliern Virginia. 

Brigade composed of the 2d, 6th, 7th and 11th Virginia regi- 
ments and the 16th Virginia battalion, Colonel Funsten. 

Brlgadier-Gensral of Texas State forces; commanding the 27tb 
brigade ; on staff duty with General II. E. McCulloch. 

Assigned to command of a brigade composed of the 8th and 11th 
Texas and the 4th Tennessee regiments cavalry. 

Brigade composed of the 1st, 4th and 5th Texas and the 3d Ar- 
kansas regiments, Hood's division, Longstreet's corps. Army 
of Northern Virginia. 

Commanded brigade in Forrest's cavalry. 

Promoted Major-General May 2, 1863; brigade composed of the 
3d, nth, 6th*, 12th, 26th and 61st Alabama regiments infantry, 
D. H. Hill's division, Jacicson's corps. Army of Northern Vir- 

Commanded Hume's cavalry brigade, Wheeler's corps. 

Promoted Major-General 1864; brigade composed of the 7tb, 
11th and 12th regiments Virginia cavalry and the 25th battalion 
Virginia cavalry, Army of Northern Virginia. 

Commanded brigade in General Forrest's cavalry, composed of 
the 7th, 12th, 14th and 15th Tennessee regiments, Forrest's 
old regiment and the 7th Alabama and 5th Mississippi regi- 

Brigade consisted of the 9th Mississippi, 10th Mississippi, 1st 
Alabama and 7th Alabama regiments. Villipigue's battalion, 
the Quitman Artillery and the Vicksbnrg Artillery; subse- 
quently in command of other brigades. 

Commanding 2d brigade. General W. T. Martin's cavalry 

Brigade composed of the Arkansas Infantry regiments oJ 
Colonels Carrol, King and Snead, the Arkansas infantry bat- 
talions of Colonels McCarver, Lemoyne and -Tones, and a 
Light Battery; attached to Major-General Samuel Jones' 
division, Army of the West. 

Killed in action below Petersburg, Virginia, August 21, 1864 ; 
brigade composed of the Sth, 9th, lOth, 11th and 14th Alabama 

Brigade composed of the 13th, 16th, 22d, 32d and 38th regiments 
North Carolina i